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The Pakistan Journal of Biotechnology (PJBt), a broad-based journal, is introduced to publish the most exciting research in all areas of basic and applied biotechnology and related fields. The Journal welcomes the submission of manuscripts that meet the general criteria of significance and scientific excellence. Read More

Current Issue 2019

  • Pages: 55-57 Vol-16 No-1

    EFFECT OF BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC FACTORS ON CULEX QUINQUE FASCIATUS AND CULEX MOLESTUS IN IRAQ

    Corresponding Author

    M. H. Abed-Ali

    marwa.maki@duc.edu.iq
  • Abstract

    Authors: M. H. Abed-Ali

    A study was conducted, between Juley and April 2013, to investigate the environmental factors (biotic and abiotic) affecting the relative abundance and distribution of mosquito in College of Agriculture/ Baghdad University. The sampling unit comprised different aquatic habitat types including basins, ponds and trocar. Morphological identification revealed two mosquito species, Culex quinquefasciatus and C. molestus. Statistical analysis indicated that C. quinquefasciatus individuals were significantly higher than C. molestus in all habitats. The relative abundance of both species was 80.3 and 16.6 respectively in trocars. Results showed the presence of other aquatic habitats including five insect families belonging to three orders (Odonata, Diptera and Coleoptera), frogs and snails.

    Keywords: words: mosquito, biotic and abiotic factors, relative abundance, distribution

  • Pages: 51-54 Vol-16 No-1

    EFFECTS OF AMINOETHOXYVINYGLYCINE AND POSTHARVEST TREATMENT PACKAGE OF PLASTIC WRAPPING, FUNGICIDE PROCHLORAZ, AND LOW TEMPERATURE ON THE FRUIT SHELF-LIFE AND QUALITIES OF CALLINA PAPAYA

    Corresponding Author

    Soesiladi E. Widodo

    sestiwidodo@gmail.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Soesiladi E. Widodo, Muhammad Kamal, Suskandini R. Dirmawati, Zulferiyenni, Rachmansyah A. Wardhana, Luthfah Q. Aini

    Callina' papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit is a recently released papaya fruit cultivar that dominates domestic markets in Indonesia. Its fruit has a very short shelf-life due to high respiration and transpiration rates. In our previous research, a postharvest treatment package consisting of one-layer plastic wrapping, fungicide Prochloraz 0.67 mL/L, and low temperature of 16-18 C was able to prolong its shelf-life and maintain its high fruit qualities. By adding an anti-ethylene of aminoethoxyvinyglycine (AVG) to the postharvest package, longer fruit shelf-life can be expected. The purpose of this research was to study the combined effect of the fruit postharvest treatment package and AVG to the shelf-life and qualities of 'Callina' fruit. The study was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design of a 2 x 2 factorial. The first factor was the fruit postharvest treatment package (without and with the package consisting of a single layer plastic wrapping + Prochloraz fungicide 0.67 mL/L + low temperature 16-18 C) and the second factor was the anti-ethylene AVG (without and with 5 mg/L AVG). The results showed that (1) the fruit postharvest treatment package had a significant effect on the fruit shelf-life of 'Callina' papaya by prolonging the shelf-life of 14 days longer than without the fruit postharvest treatment package, without affecting its fruit qualities, (2) the AVG had no effect on the shelf-life and fruit qualities, and (3) the combination of fruit postharvest treatment package and AVG gave the best result that prolonged its fruit shelf-life up to 16 days longer than the control.

    Keywords: AVG, Carica papaya, postharvest, Prochloraz, wrapping

  • Pages: 43-50 Vol-16 No-1

    PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF COLD-ACTIVE METALLOPROTEASE BY BACILLUS SP. AP1 FROM APHARWAT PEAK, KASHMIR

    Corresponding Author

    Junaid Furhan

    junaidfurhan86@gmail.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Junaid Furhan, Neha Salaria, Misbah Jabeen and Jasia Qadri

    A gram-positive, rod shaped psychrotrophic and alkalotolerant bacterium, producing extracellular proteolytic enzyme was isolated from the peak of Apharwat, Kashmir. The strain was identified as Bacillus sp via 16S rDNA sequencing and was designated as Bacillus sp. AP1. Highest quantity of enzyme was secreted when strain was grown for 30 hours at 20C and pH 9.0. Glucose and skim milk were the best source of carbon and substrate respectively. The optimal activity of partially purified protease was recorded at pH 9.0, classifying the enzyme as alkaline protease. Similarly, the protease was found to be low temperature active with maximum enzyme activity at 20C. Strong inhibition of activity by EGTA and EDTA defines the enzyme as metalloprotease; among metal ions, Mn2+ enhanced enzyme activity. Finally, the washing test proved that enzyme could possibly be effective as an additive for cold washing purposes.

    Keywords: Bacillus sp. AP1, Cold-active protease, Psychrotrophic, Alkalotolerant, Metallo protease.

  • Pages: 37-42 Vol-16 No-1

    EXTRACTION, PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTRACELLULAR PULLULANASE BY KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE ISOLATED FROM SOIL

    Corresponding Author

    Aswan H. Al-Bayyar

    aswan@coagri.uobaghdad.edu.iq
  • Abstract

    Authors: Shimal Y. Abdul-Hadi and Aswan H. Al-Bayyar

    Many soil samples collected from different locations in Mosul city in Iraq showed existence of bacterial isolates produce pullulanases, seven isolates were obtained and the most prominent one was denoted No5 in terms of the decomposition halo diameter, which reached 8.46 mm, and when the isolates subjected to primary screening by cultured on pullulan-supported medium it was identified as Klebsiella pneumonia after a number of diagnostic and biochemical tests. A number of sequenced steps for enzyme purification included precipitation with 75% saturation of ammonium sulphate which record enzyme activity 93.05 U/ml, followed by dialysis step for 24 hours. The purification step by using Sephadex-G100 gave 19.013% as enzymatic yield with 74.581 folds. It is cleared by using electrophoresis, that the molecular weight of the enzyme was 94 KD. By studying some enzyme characteristics, the results showed that optimum pH for activity was 6 while the optimum pH for stability was 6-7, and the optimum temperature was 60?C, while 95% of enzyme activity was retained at 50-60?C.

    Keywords: characterization, Extraction, Klebsiella pneumoniae, pullulanase, purification.

  • Pages: 31-35 Vol-16 No-1

    RISK ASSESSMENT OF DIARRHOEAL DISEASE USING A GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) AT THE DISTRICT LEVEL OF SAMUT SONGKHRAM PROVINCE, THAILAND

    Corresponding Author

    Tanawat Chaiphongpachara

    tanawat.ch@ssru.ac.th
  • Abstract

    Authors: Tanawat Chaiphongpachara and Prapawan Suacum

    This study aims to investigate factors related to diarrheal disease occurrence in Samut Songkhram Province and create a spatial model to assess the level of diarrhoea risk at the district level of Samut Songkhram Province, including Muang Samut Songkhram, Amphawa and Bang Khonthi. Ten factors, including land use, population density, number of food establishments, standardized markets, hygienic toilets, volume of waste, water quality, temperature, relative humidity and rainfall were used to study their relationship with cases of diarrhoea. The results of the analysis determined four factors associated with diarrhoea, including land use, standardized markets, volume of waste and water quality (p ? 0.05). Meanwhile, assessment of diarrhoea risk levels employing GIS established that Muang Samut Songkhram had the highest risk followed by Amphawa and Bang Khonthi, respectively. This information is important for planning and controlling diarrhoeal disease in Samut Songkhram Province, Thailand.

    Keywords: Risk assessment, Geographic Information System, diarrhoeal disease.

  • Pages: 23-29 Vol-16 No-1

    A STUDY ON THE POTENTIAL OF MORINGA SEEDS IN ADSORPTION OF ORGANIC CONTENT FROM WATER COLLECTED FROM OILFIELD REFINERY

    Corresponding Author

    Ali Saleh Jafer

    alkhafajia31@gmail.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Ali Saleh Jafer, Ali A. Hassan, Zahraa Tawfiq Naeem

    The purpose of this education is to explore uses of moringa seeds (M. oleifera) in the adsorption of organic contents from wastewater of oilfield refinery, Iraq. Adsorption treatment conditions were optimized to assess the relations between working condition, such by means of moringa amount, contact time and pH, to classify the best working circumstances. Organic removal rates were 89.65% under the optimum conditions comprise a contact time of 1.5 h, 1.5 g moringa dose and pH 3. The aptitude of moringa seeds to eliminate organic contents was augmented subsequently addition of different dosage at regular mixing time between 0.5 and 1 h. The equilibrium data of adsorption were investigated by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm replicas. We noted that supreme adsorption capacity of organic intended from Langmuir isotherm stood about 23.97 mg/g. The devised adsorption can be explored as a well-organized green treatment for removal of organic matter from refinery waste water in acidic conditions pH < 7.

    Keywords: Environmental, Refinery waste water, organic treatment and adsorption.

  • Pages: 17-21 Vol-16 No-1

    ASSESSMENT OF ARSENIC, LEAD, MERCURY AND COLIFORM COUNT IN SERDANG LAKE, SELANGOR MALAYSIA

    Corresponding Author

    Abdullah Y. Al-Mahdi

    dr.microbiology2017@gmail.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Abdullah Y. Al-Mahdi, Mohamed A. Ahmida, Alabed Ali A. Alabed, Rasheed Abdsalam

    Environmental impacts from domestic and industrial wastes on aquatic ecosystems have received increasing attention in recent years. Furthermore, water-associated diseases have become one of the ten topmost diseases due to poor drinking water quality. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the concentration of three heavy metals (arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg)) and coliform count in Sri Serdang Mines Lake. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP- MS) was employed for the analysis of heavy metals. Both of fecal coliform (FC) and total coliform (TC) methods were carried out using the membrane filter technique as described by APHA (1995) standard. Results were recorded as colony forming units (CFU)/100 mL of sample. The As, Pb and Hg concentration values were ranged from 0.0287 to 0.0334; 0.0357 to 0.0508 and 0.00058 to 0.00161 mg/L, respectively. The TC and FC of Escherichia coli in Sri Serdang Mines Lake were in the range of 102 to 105 CFU/100 mL. Pb was the most abundant heavy metal present in all the water samples as compared to As and Hg. There were also significant differences (p<0.05) in both TC and FC concentrations in the water samples from all the five stations. Therefore, efficient heavy metal removal and disinfection are essential to prevent possible human exposure.

    Keywords: Assessment, Arsenic, Lead, Mercury, Coliform.

  • Pages: 9-16 Vol-16 No-1

    INFLUENCE OF SKIM MILK AND SUCROSE ON THE VIABILITY OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA AND QUALITY OF PROBIOTIC COCOGHURT PRODUCED USING STARTERS
    Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei R-68 AND Streptococcus ther

    Corresponding Author

    Usman Pato

    usmanpato@yahoo.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Usman Pato, Yusmarini Yusuf, Ivan Pratama Panggabean, Nurul Putri Handayani, Nadia Adawiyah and Arif Nanda Kusuma

    is made from the main raw material of coconut milk. In this study, the effect of skim milk and sucrose on the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was examined together with the impact on the quality of cocoghurt produced. Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei R-68 and Streptococcus thermophilus were used as starter cultures. The study was carried out experimentally using a Completely Randomized Design with the variations of both skim milk and sucrose concentrations. The data found were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and then continued with DNMRT at 5% level. Parameters observed were total LAB, pH, total lactic acid, total solid, protein, moisture and ash contents as well as total fat and fatty acid profile. The results showed that the addition of skim milk (2.5%) and sucrose (5.0%) produced cocoghurt which met the quality standard. Cocoghurt produced using skim milk 5.0% and sucrose 7.5% had the characteristic of being slightly white, tasting sour and sweet, with an aroma of coconut milk; the texture was rather thick and preferred by the panelists. Probiotic cocoghurt showed that fatty acid profiles were dominated by medium-chain saturated fatty acid 72.90% followed by long-chain saturated fatty acid 13.11% and unsaturated fatty acid 7.28%.

    Keywords: Cocoghurt, skim milk, Lactobacillus casei, coconut milk, viability