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    EDITORIAL BOARD


    Pak. J. Biotechnol. Vol. 14 (special issue-II) 2017

    Published Paper of

    DESIGN OF 4-BIT MULTIPLEXER USING SUB-THRESHOLD ADIABATIC LOGIC (STAL)

    By Yuvaraj P.1, Rajendran T.1, Kamalraj Subramaniam2

    Abstract

    Objective: This paper presents the low power consumption for Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) design. The dynamic power consumption of CMOS circuits is continuously becoming a major concern in VLSI technique. Tool: All the simulations in this work are done using Tanner EDA Tools V14.11. Contribution & Results: In this paper the 4-Bit STAL multiplexer design have been analyzed and low power multiplexer is designed using the positive feedback logic. The STAL multiplexer is a Positive Feedback-STAL consumes less power than the CMOS multiplexer is identified from this study. Applications: In mere future the system can be enhanced to perform higher order bits.


    DESIGN OF CMOS 8-BIT PARALLEL ADDER ENERGY EFFICIENT STRUCTURE USING SRCPL LOGIC STYLE

    By Felix Muthu, Aravinth.T.S, Rajendran.T

    Abstract

    Objectives: We present high speed and low power 8-Bit parallel adder cells designed with modified SR-CPL logic styles that had a reduced power delay product (PDP) as compared to the previous logics DPL and pass transistor logic. Tool Used: All the parallel adders were designed with a 0.18µm CMOS technology virtuoso cadence environment. Results: Simulations of the circuit show that the proposed parallel adders have reduced the power from 0.33mW to 0.24mW. Applications: In mere future the system can be implemented in high speed processors for achieving low power

    A SMART TRAFFIC SIGNAL TRAPPING SYSTEM

    By Sandhiya M1, Mathivijay M2

    Abstract

    A Smart traffic control system is presented to pass emergency vehicles smoothly. Each individual vehicle is connected with a special radio frequency identification (RFID) tag (placed in a strategic location), which makes nobody can remove or destroy the unit placed. Here RFID reader, NSK EDK-125–TTL, and PIC16F877A system-on-chip to read the RFID tags which is attached to the movable unit. The RFID is used to count the number of vehicles that passes on a particular path during a specified duration. It determines the network congestion and hence the green light duration for that path is enabled or disabled. If the RFID-tag-read belongs to the stolen vehicle, then intimation is sent using GSM SIM300 to the police control room. In addition to that an ambulance arriving towards to the junction, it will communicate with the traffic controller in the junction to turn ON the blue light. This module uses ZigBee modules on CC2500 and PIC16F877A system-on-chip for wireless communications between the ambulance and traffic controller.

    FFICIENT POWER MANAGEMENT USING WSN

    By 1Jerome Christhudass . A., 2T. Karthik,

    Abstract

    The WSNs are increasingly being used in the home for energy controlling services. Regular household appliances are monitored and controlled by WSNs installed in the home. Modern technologies include cutting-edge advancements in Information technology, sensors, metering, transmission, distribution, and electricity storage technology, as well as providing new information and flexibility to both consumers and providers of electricity. The prototype has been extensively developed and tested in real time scenarios also the results are appreciable.

    APPLICATION OF CLASSICAL STEP RESPONSE METHOD TO DETERMINE THE PID CONTROLLER PARAMETERS FOR A 500 MW STEAM GENERATOR IN A THERMAL POWER PLANT

    By P. Subha Hency Jims1, J. Jayakumar2 and S. Dharmalingam3

    Abstract

    PID controller is the most widely used controller in industries. There are many important functions for PID controller. Feedback is provided; offsets are eliminated by integrator; future anticipated through derivative action. PID control loops are employed in more than 95% of the control loops. Generally, the PID controller parameters are calculated based on trial and error method. In different disciplines of engineering, attempts have been made to propose many new methods for controlling process parameters. Whenever PID control is chosen, iterative heuristic optimization algorithms (soft computing techniques) have been proposed to optimally determine the PID parameters. In this work, the authors have successfully applied the classical tuning methods such as Ziegler Nichols and CHR tuning methods to calculate the PID parameters. The step response method is employed to calculate the ‘a’ and ‘L’ which is used to determine the PID parameters. This is applied to calculate the PID controller parameters for a 500 MW steam generator in a thermal power plant.

    DEVELOPMENT OF FEED FORWARD BACK PROPAGATION NEURAL NETWORK WITH BEST FITTING MODELS TO PREDICT SEASONAL RICE PRODUCTION IN TAMILNADU

    By S. Arun Balaji and P. Manimegalai

    Abstract

    The study reported the development of FFBPNN architecture and its corresponding software to predict the rice production data for three seasons in 31 districts of Tamilnadu. It was found that the training and testing data were exactly matching with the predicted data. It was also found that the Absolute Relative Error (ARE) was found to be zero at the 9th iteration itself. The FFBPNN system was improved by integrating it with the best fitting models using the curve expert software. The improved FFBPNN with best fitting model was used to predict the area of rice and its production. The predicted data was compared with the observed data. The paired t-test was conducted between the observed and predicted data. It was found that there is 67% of fittings are showing insignificant difference between the observed area of rice and predicted area of rice cultivation. Similar test was also conducted for the rice production data; it was found that there is 73.3% of fittings showing insignificant difference between the observed and predicted data.

    NETWORK SECURITY IN CLOUD COMPUTING

    By V. Shrividhya, P. Manimegalai

    Abstract

    Cloud Computing Security architecture using Rijndael as the standard symmetric key encryption algorithm. Data security has become the vital issue of cloud computing security. From the consumers’ perspective, cloud computing security concerns, especially data security and privacy protection issues, remain the primary inhibitor for adoption of cloud computing services. So in this we focused on client side security In our proposed system, only the authorized user can access the data. Even if some intruder (Unauthorized user) gets access of the data accidentally or intentionally, he will not be able to decrypt it. Also it is proposed that encryption must be done by the user to provide better security. Henceforth, security is provided using Rijndael.

    DISTRIBUTED MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL OF A WIND FARM WITH CLUSTERING

    By *Mallika. S., M. Dharani Kumar, P. Manimegalai

    Abstract

    This work gives a concise overview of the role that distributed model predictive control has el the development of the advanced wind turbine control algorithms. The benefits of the model predictive control compared to conventional controllers convoluted in wind turbine control are defined. Wind turbine model predictive active power controller based on identified piecewise affine discrete-time state space wind turbine model is designed. The designed D-MPC controller showed better performance. A wind farm with ten wind turbines was used as the test system. Research were attend and evaluated, which include the operation of the wind farm with the D-MPC under low and high wind conditions, and the dynamic achieved with a wind turbine out of service. With the fast gradient method, the convergence rate of the D-MPC has been significantly improved, which decrease the iteration numbers. Appropriately, the communication burden is reduced.

    ANALYSIS OF AREA DELAY OPTIMIZATION OF IMPROVED SPARSE CHANNEL ADDER

    By Prajoona Valsalan1,2 and P. Manimegalai2

    Abstract

    With the revolution in integrated circuits, great emphasis was given on performance and miniaturization. Speed, area and power became the main criterion upon which a VLSI system is measured in terms of its efficiency. In any VLSI system, a full adder is widely component, which decides the performance of the system. The design and analysis of a modified Carry Select Adder (CSLA) is proposed in a cadence 45nm CMOS. It reduces the gate count, thereby area is reduced. Based on modification in CSLA, the process is performed in an efficient way in terms of its gate count and thereby on power and speed.

    DESIGN OF LOW INTRICATE 10-BIT CURRENT STEERING DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTER CIRCUITRY USING FULL SWING GDI

    By Keerthivasan S., Mahendra Babu G.R., Rajendran T.

    Abstract

    Aim / Objective: A low-vigor, low-voltage, small- area DAC for prime pace applications is introduced on this paper, for top velocity purposes, the present steering DAC is also used because the entire currents taken from the supply is utilized for the output signal. Scope: This paper it deals with the design and evaluation of a 10-bit FS-GDI DAC which was once applied making use of full Swing (FS) GDI logic in CMOS system. Results: The lively subject of this proposed DAC was decreased to four times in a normal 0.18 µm with a varying voltage variety from 2.5 – 3.3V CMOS approach, each the INL and DNL have been decreased for the proposed scheme of 10-bit FS-GDI DAC, although it’s a procedure of excessive order utilizing FS-GDI DAC. Applications: Utilized for high speed processing circuitries.

    EFFICIENT IMPLEMENTATION OF DECODER USING MODIFIED SOFT DECODING ALGORITHM IN GOLAY (24,12) CODE

    By Vijayakumar.P1* Rajendran.T1# Mahendra Babu.G.R2

    Abstract

    Aim / Objective: The (24, 12) binary Golay code was a well-established rate-1/2 short block-length linear error detecting and correcting code with High performance. Algorithm / Simulation: This paper investigates the design of an efficient low-complexity soft-decision decoding architecture for this Golay code. A new algorithm is introduced that takes a huge advantage of the code’s properties to reduce and simplify the decoding process. Findings & Results: The Simulation result shows that the proposed algorithm of Modified soft decision decoding achieves high performance rates with low processing cost. Here the decoder architecture is mentioned, and VLSI synthesis results are presented. Applications: can be used in high speed cryptography systems

    INVESTIGATION ON WSN ROUTING PROTOCOL IN IEEE802.15.4 BASED WSN UNDER WORMHOLE ATTACK

    By T. Karthikeya, P. Manimegalai

    Abstract

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is one of the most challenging technologies with many application ranging from health care to military applications. In many important military and commercial applications, it is critical to protect a sensor network from malicious attacks. One of these attacks which is hard to detect and mitigate is wormhole attack which presents a demand for strengthen the security mechanisms in the network. In this paper, the performance of zigbee based wireless sensor networks using routing protocols with wormhole attacks has been investigated. This Paper illustrates how wormhole attacks can affects the performance of Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol, Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) and Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) in zigbee based WSN by using Qualnet Simulator 5.0. The metrics used to analyse the performance of routing protocol of WSNs are throughput, Average end-to-end delay and total energy consumption of sensor network.

    ANALYSIS OF HYBRID FULL ADDER TOPOLOGIES BASED ON IMPROVED DRPTL

    By Shibi O. and P. Manimegalai

    Abstract

    Recently adder circuit is becoming a major part in many applications and the arithmetic circuit is included in it as a fundamental operation. Basically the adder circuit is designed to achieve low power and less delay and by logic gate of the circuit improves the performances. In this paper, for significant process of power saving and efficient performances Hybrid Full Adder Topologies is proposed dynamically based on dual rails pass transistor logic (DRPTL) with the clock signal. For speed process high logic circuit is implemented and also to have less propagation. In hybrid CMOS design style various adder cells and transistor is used, but in proposed circuit DRPTL is implemented with the load condition and the clock signal to manage the power flow in the circuit. Also enhance the device performances and reduce the chip level power consumption. The proposed circuit is simulated for the analysis of performances by the implementation in Cadence Virtuoso Schematics on 45nm CMOS process models and illustrated the results performances delay, power, and transistor count reduction.

    AN INTELLIGENT SYSTEM TO DETECT POTHOLES, HUMPS AND AVOIDS COLLISION OF VEHICLES ON ROADS

    By S. Saranya, M. Arun

    Abstract

    One of the major issues faced by developing countries is the maintenance of roads. Well maintained roads contribute a major portion to the country development. Identification of potholes and humps on roads not only helps the drivers to avoid accidents or vehicle damages, but also helps the respective authorities to look after the quality of roads. This paper deliberate foregoing pothole detection techniques that are being used and proposes an economic solution to identify the potholes and humps and its corresponding height and depth measures. The proposed system uses Global Positioning System (GPS) which captures the geographical coordinates of the potholes and hump. The sensed data includes pothole depth, height of the hump and geographic location, which is sent through Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) transmitter. The values are received by GSM receiver and it is stored in a computer which acts as a database. This serves as a valuable source of information to the vehicle drivers and government authorities so that precautionary measures can be taken to evade accidents. Signal warning of danger is given in the form of flash messages with an audio beep to the vehicle drivers to avoid the accidents or vehicular damages.

    AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF RETINAL HEMORRHAGE BASED ON GABOR WAVELET AND HYBRID KNNSVM ALGORITHM FOR FUNDUS IMAGES

    By Karunya Karo ShanthiY.1 and Jerome Christhu Dass A.2

    Abstract

    Retinal haemorrhage is the abnormal bleeding of the blood vessels in the retina, the membrane in the back of the eye. In retinal image, automated detection of haemorrhage is a major challenging factor. For automated detection of haemorrhage, a generalized framework is needed to train classifiers with optimal features learned from available dataset. Because of the variability in appearance of these lesions (i.e., haemorrhages), different techniques had been designed to detect each type of these lesions (i.e., haemorrhages) separately in detection system. We need a generalized framework to detect these types of lesions in fundus (i.e., retinal) image. A robust and computationally efficient approach for haemorrhage detection in a fundus retinal image is presented in this paper. Splat feature classification method is proposed with application to retinal haemorrhage detection in fundus images. Automated screening system is very much important to detect a retinal haemorrhages. Based on the supervised approach, fundus images are partitioned into non-overlapping segments covering the entire image. Each splat contains a similar colour and spatial location. A set of features is extracted from each splat using the GLCM & Gabor Wavelet. These features describe a characteristic relative to each pixel in a splat. Supervised classification predicts the likelihood of splats being haemorrhages with the optimal features subset selected in a two-step feature selection process. Preliminary feature selection is done by filter approach followed by a wrapper approach. Hybrid KNNSVM classifier is trained with expert annotation. From the resulting haemorrhages map, a haemorrhage index is assigned. A classifier could evaluate on the publically available dataset. This work will provide a greater AUC in splat level and image level. Our approaches can potential to be applied to other detection tasks.

    A SURVEY OF NETWORK PARTITION-BASED ON QOS IMPROVEMENT IN MANETS

    By K. Somu and S. Bhavani

    Abstract

    The present study aims to examine the use of QoS improvements in mobile ad hoc networks. Mobile ad hoc networks do not require any previous infrastructure and rely on dynamic multi-hop topologies for traffic forwarding. The deficiency of a centralized management makes these networks smart for several distributed requests, such as sensing, internet access to destitute groups, and disaster recovering. A crucial and frequently unaddressed topic of ad hoc networks is the frequent networks partitions. As additional wireless networks, ad hoc nodes also need a unique network to enable multi-hop routing and filled connectivity. Address project in ad hoc networks, however, is even more stimulating due to the self-organized nature of these environments. The centralized mechanism, such as the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) or the Networks Address Translation (NAT), Conflict through the disseminated nature of ad hoc networks and do not address network partitioning and merging. A crucial then usually unaddressed question of ad hoc networks is the frequent networks dividers. Network partitions, caused by node mobility, fading channels, and nodes joining and leaving the network, can disrupt the distributed network control. Network initialization is another challenging issue because of the lack of servers in the network. A lightweight protocol is proposed that constructs mobile ad hoc nodes founded on a dispersed address record stored in filters that decreases the regulator load and makes the proposal robust to packet losses and networks partitions. It can be evaluated that the performance of our protocol, considering joining nodes, partition merging events, and initialization.

    DESIGN AND TESTABILITY OF Z-TERNARY CONTENT ADDRESSABLE MEMORY LOGIC

    By Keerthiga Devi S.1, Bhavani, S.2

    Abstract

    The emerging technology using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA’s) is the leading architectures with look-up tables (LUT’s) based design plays the major role in the chip design. The memory unit and controller are the basic units and it performs the operation based on the lookup table methods. The logic circuit is designed based on requirements. The Ternary content addressable memories (TCAMs) are hardware-based parallel lookup table design with masking capability in bit level. So it is attractive for applications such as network routing and packet forwarding. The high power consumption is one of the major limitations faced by TCAM designers. This proposed design is based on the circuit techniques aiming to reduce Ternary Content Addressable Memory power consume. The Traditional TCAM table and its hybrid partitions are implemented based on the testing and verification of memory unit. The method is implemented using the normal architecture analysis. The ternary logics are implemented in shift registers, Input output

    ESTIMATION OF MAXIMUM POWER EFFICIENCY USING REACTIVE ROUTING IN WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS

    By V. Brindha 1 and P. Manimegalai2

    Abstract

    Background/Objectives: In recent years, several energy-efficient routing protocols are projected. However, little efforts are taken in finding out the energy consumption of individual node, overhead and route maintaining problems. Whereas not considering the look of energy economical routing protocol, it is going to perform terribly worst than the conventional routing protocol. Methodology: Here, we have projected On Demand primarily based Energy economical Routing Protocol (ODBEERP). The most aim of projected protocol is to find the minimum powerlimitation route. The facility limitation of a route is set by the node that has the minimum energy therein route. Therefore, compared with the minimum node energy in the other route, the minimum node energy within the minimum power-limitation route has a lot of energy. we have conjointly projected a a lot of correct analysis to trace the energy consumptions as a result of varied factors, and improve the performance throughout path discovery and in quality situations. Result: The projected protocol is evaluated with object bound distinct event machine setting. Simulation results shows that the ODBEERP achieves smart outturn, less delay, high packet delivery magnitude relation and smart energy potency than the present protocol Peer.

    A HIGH-PERFORMANCE FIR FILTER ARCHITECTURE FOR FIXED AND RECONFIGURABLE APPLICATIONS

    By E. Mary Priyadarshini, P. Manimegalai, S. Chellaganeshavalli

    Abstract

    The efficient distributed arithmetic (DA)-based approaches for high-throughput reconfigurable implementation of finite impulse response (FIR) filters whose filter coefficients change during runtime. Conventionally, for reconfigurable DA-based implementation of FIR filter, the lookup tables (LUTs) are required to be implemented in RAM; and the RAM-based LUT is found to be costly for ASIC implementation. Therefore, a shared-LUT design is proposed to realize the DA computation. Instead of using separate registers to store the possible results of partial inner products for DA processing of different bit positions, registers are shared by the DA units for bit slices of different weightage.The Proposed presents high speed digital Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter relying on Booth multiplier and Carry Select Adder (CSLA) Using Parallel Pipelining Architecture. Adder has three architectures such as basic CSLA using RCA (Ripple Carry Adder), CSLA using BEC (Binary to Excess-1 Converter) and CSLA using D-latch. In this paper we propose 4-tap FIR Filter architecture using 16-bit CSLA using D-latch and 8-bit Booth tree multiplier. These multipliers and adders are used for high speed operation of digital FIR filter.

    A REVIEW ON OBJECT IDENTIFICATION

    By Giby Jose*, P. Manimegalai

    Abstract

    Object identification is an active research area with numerous commercial applications. Image of object is represented as single or multiple arrays of pixel values. Features that uniquely characterize the object are determined. The arrays are compared with a stored pattern feature set obtained during training procedure. Number of matches of the object in the image must be obtained. As the image consists of a large amount of data, it has to be compressed using a compression technique so that data reduction is achieved. This reduced data is used for comparison process. This image identification technique can be used to recognize objects in specific areas. In this specific work compressive sensing using Sparse Representation can be used for object identification. The planned object identification system consists of three main stages, Sparse dictionary design, Feature Extraction using down sampling and Object detection utilizing sparse representation. Initially a sparse dictionary will likely be designed along with trained with large variety of different training images. It images incorporate assorted items including target image. Intended for feature extraction, if sparsity inside the recognition issue is correctly harnessed, the choice of features is not a critical issue. However, the leading problem can be whether the volume of features can be sufficiently substantial and whether the sparse representation is the right way computed. Here down sampling process inside the images will likely be done. In assessment process, the sparse dictionary typically determines the object among the other items. Extensive experiments will likely be conducted to help verify the efficacy in the proposed criteria, and corroborate the above-mentioned claims.

    A HIGH-PERFORMANCE FIR FILTER ARCHITECTURE FOR FIXED AND RECONFIGURABLE APPLICATIONS

    By E. Mary Priyadarshini, P. Manimegalai, S. Chellaganeshavalli

    Abstract

    The efficient distributed arithmetic (DA)-based approaches for high-throughput reconfigurable implementation of finite impulse response (FIR) filters whose filter coefficients change during runtime. Conventionally, for reconfigurable DA-based implementation of FIR filter, the lookup tables (LUTs) are required to be implemented in RAM; and the RAM-based LUT is found to be costly for ASIC implementation. Therefore, a shared-LUT design is proposed to realize the DA computation. Instead of using separate registers to store the possible results of partial inner products for DA processing of different bit positions, registers are shared by the DA units for bit slices of different weightage.The Proposed presents high speed digital Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter relying on Booth multiplier and Carry Select Adder (CSLA) Using Parallel Pipelining Architecture. Adder has three architectures such as basic CSLA using RCA (Ripple Carry Adder), CSLA using BEC (Binary to Excess-1 Converter) and CSLA using D-latch. In this paper we propose 4-tap FIR Filter architecture using 16-bit CSLA using D-latch and 8-bit Booth tree multiplier. These multipliers and adders are used for high speed operation of digital FIR filter.

    A REVIEW ON OBJECT IDENTIFICATION

    By Giby Jose*, P. Manimegalai

    Abstract

    Object identification is an active research area with numerous commercial applications. Image of object is represented as single or multiple arrays of pixel values. Features that uniquely characterize the object are determined. The arrays are compared with a stored pattern feature set obtained during training procedure. Number of matches of the object in the image must be obtained. As the image consists of a large amount of data, it has to be compressed using a compression technique so that data reduction is achieved. This reduced data is used for comparison process. This image identification technique can be used to recognize objects in specific areas. In this specific work compressive sensing using Sparse Representation can be used for object identification. The planned object identification system consists of three main stages, Sparse dictionary design, Feature Extraction using down sampling and Object detection utilizing sparse representation. Initially a sparse dictionary will likely be designed along with trained with large variety of different training images. It images incorporate assorted items including target image. Intended for feature extraction, if sparsity inside the recognition issue is correctly harnessed, the choice of features is not a critical issue. However, the leading problem can be whether the volume of features can be sufficiently substantial and whether the sparse representation is the right way computed. Here down sampling process inside the images will likely be done. In assessment process, the sparse dictionary typically determines the object among the other items. Extensive experiments will likely be conducted to help verify the efficacy in the proposed criteria, and corroborate the above-mentioned claims.

    A HIGH-PERFORMANCE FIR FILTER ARCHITECTURE FOR FIXED AND RECONFIGURABLE APPLICATIONS

    By E. Mary Priyadarshini, P. Manimegalai, S. Chellaganeshavalli

    Abstract

    The efficient distributed arithmetic (DA)-based approaches for high-throughput reconfigurable implementation of finite impulse response (FIR) filters whose filter coefficients change during runtime. Conventionally, for reconfigurable DA-based implementation of FIR filter, the lookup tables (LUTs) are required to be implemented in RAM; and the RAM-based LUT is found to be costly for ASIC implementation. Therefore, a shared-LUT design is proposed to realize the DA computation. Instead of using separate registers to store the possible results of partial inner products for DA processing of different bit positions, registers are shared by the DA units for bit slices of different weightage.The Proposed presents high speed digital Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter relying on Booth multiplier and Carry Select Adder (CSLA) Using Parallel Pipelining Architecture. Adder has three architectures such as basic CSLA using RCA (Ripple Carry Adder), CSLA using BEC (Binary to Excess-1 Converter) and CSLA using D-latch. In this paper we propose 4-tap FIR Filter architecture using 16-bit CSLA using D-latch and 8-bit Booth tree multiplier. These multipliers and adders are used for high speed operation of digital FIR filter.

    A REVIEW ON OBJECT IDENTIFICATION

    By Giby Jose*, P. Manimegalai

    Abstract

    Object identification is an active research area with numerous commercial applications. Image of object is represented as single or multiple arrays of pixel values. Features that uniquely characterize the object are determined. The arrays are compared with a stored pattern feature set obtained during training procedure. Number of matches of the object in the image must be obtained. As the image consists of a large amount of data, it has to be compressed using a compression technique so that data reduction is achieved. This reduced data is used for comparison process. This image identification technique can be used to recognize objects in specific areas. In this specific work compressive sensing using Sparse Representation can be used for object identification. The planned object identification system consists of three main stages, Sparse dictionary design, Feature Extraction using down sampling and Object detection utilizing sparse representation. Initially a sparse dictionary will likely be designed along with trained with large variety of different training images. It images incorporate assorted items including target image. Intended for feature extraction, if sparsity inside the recognition issue is correctly harnessed, the choice of features is not a critical issue. However, the leading problem can be whether the volume of features can be sufficiently substantial and whether the sparse representation is the right way computed. Here down sampling process inside the images will likely be done. In assessment process, the sparse dictionary typically determines the object among the other items. Extensive experiments will likely be conducted to help verify the efficacy in the proposed criteria, and corroborate the above-mentioned claims.

    A HIGH-PERFORMANCE FIR FILTER ARCHITECTURE FOR FIXED AND RECONFIGURABLE APPLICATIONS

    By E. Mary Priyadarshini, P. Manimegalai, S. Chellaganeshavalli

    Abstract

    The efficient distributed arithmetic (DA)-based approaches for high-throughput reconfigurable implementation of finite impulse response (FIR) filters whose filter coefficients change during runtime. Conventionally, for reconfigurable DA-based implementation of FIR filter, the lookup tables (LUTs) are required to be implemented in RAM; and the RAM-based LUT is found to be costly for ASIC implementation. Therefore, a shared-LUT design is proposed to realize the DA computation. Instead of using separate registers to store the possible results of partial inner products for DA processing of different bit positions, registers are shared by the DA units for bit slices of different weightage.The Proposed presents high speed digital Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter relying on Booth multiplier and Carry Select Adder (CSLA) Using Parallel Pipelining Architecture. Adder has three architectures such as basic CSLA using RCA (Ripple Carry Adder), CSLA using BEC (Binary to Excess-1 Converter) and CSLA using D-latch. In this paper we propose 4-tap FIR Filter architecture using 16-bit CSLA using D-latch and 8-bit Booth tree multiplier. These multipliers and adders are used for high speed operation of digital FIR filter.

    A REVIEW ON OBJECT IDENTIFICATION

    By Giby Jose*, P. Manimegalai

    Abstract

    Object identification is an active research area with numerous commercial applications. Image of object is represented as single or multiple arrays of pixel values. Features that uniquely characterize the object are determined. The arrays are compared with a stored pattern feature set obtained during training procedure. Number of matches of the object in the image must be obtained. As the image consists of a large amount of data, it has to be compressed using a compression technique so that data reduction is achieved. This reduced data is used for comparison process. This image identification technique can be used to recognize objects in specific areas. In this specific work compressive sensing using Sparse Representation can be used for object identification. The planned object identification system consists of three main stages, Sparse dictionary design, Feature Extraction using down sampling and Object detection utilizing sparse representation. Initially a sparse dictionary will likely be designed along with trained with large variety of different training images. It images incorporate assorted items including target image. Intended for feature extraction, if sparsity inside the recognition issue is correctly harnessed, the choice of features is not a critical issue. However, the leading problem can be whether the volume of features can be sufficiently substantial and whether the sparse representation is the right way computed. Here down sampling process inside the images will likely be done. In assessment process, the sparse dictionary typically determines the object among the other items. Extensive experiments will likely be conducted to help verify the efficacy in the proposed criteria, and corroborate the above-mentioned claims.

    A HIGH-PERFORMANCE FIR FILTER ARCHITECTURE FOR FIXED AND RECONFIGURABLE APPLICATIONS

    By E. Mary Priyadarshini, P. Manimegalai, S. Chellaganeshavalli

    Abstract

    The efficient distributed arithmetic (DA)-based approaches for high-throughput reconfigurable implementation of finite impulse response (FIR) filters whose filter coefficients change during runtime. Conventionally, for reconfigurable DA-based implementation of FIR filter, the lookup tables (LUTs) are required to be implemented in RAM; and the RAM-based LUT is found to be costly for ASIC implementation. Therefore, a shared-LUT design is proposed to realize the DA computation. Instead of using separate registers to store the possible results of partial inner products for DA processing of different bit positions, registers are shared by the DA units for bit slices of different weightage.The Proposed presents high speed digital Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter relying on Booth multiplier and Carry Select Adder (CSLA) Using Parallel Pipelining Architecture. Adder has three architectures such as basic CSLA using RCA (Ripple Carry Adder), CSLA using BEC (Binary to Excess-1 Converter) and CSLA using D-latch. In this paper we propose 4-tap FIR Filter architecture using 16-bit CSLA using D-latch and 8-bit Booth tree multiplier. These multipliers and adders are used for high speed operation of digital FIR filter.

    A REVIEW ON OBJECT IDENTIFICATION

    By Giby Jose*, P. Manimegalai

    Abstract

    Object identification is an active research area with numerous commercial applications. Image of object is represented as single or multiple arrays of pixel values. Features that uniquely characterize the object are determined. The arrays are compared with a stored pattern feature set obtained during training procedure. Number of matches of the object in the image must be obtained. As the image consists of a large amount of data, it has to be compressed using a compression technique so that data reduction is achieved. This reduced data is used for comparison process. This image identification technique can be used to recognize objects in specific areas. In this specific work compressive sensing using Sparse Representation can be used for object identification. The planned object identification system consists of three main stages, Sparse dictionary design, Feature Extraction using down sampling and Object detection utilizing sparse representation. Initially a sparse dictionary will likely be designed along with trained with large variety of different training images. It images incorporate assorted items including target image. Intended for feature extraction, if sparsity inside the recognition issue is correctly harnessed, the choice of features is not a critical issue. However, the leading problem can be whether the volume of features can be sufficiently substantial and whether the sparse representation is the right way computed. Here down sampling process inside the images will likely be done. In assessment process, the sparse dictionary typically determines the object among the other items. Extensive experiments will likely be conducted to help verify the efficacy in the proposed criteria, and corroborate the above-mentioned claims.

    SECURE AND EFFICIENT WATCHDOG OPTIMIZATION FOR CLUSTER-BASED WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    By Kalaiselvi M., V. Parthasarathy,

    Abstract

    Watchdogs are an effective mechanism to detect selfish and malicious attacks from computer networks. In networks, such as MANETs, attack analysis and detection is a more importantfor the whole network. Watchdog systems detect the misbehavior and that neighbor node by using data collection and analysis, so accuracy, less delay and effectiveness are achieving much more security and performance in wireless sensor networks.In previous process watchdog has inefficient trust system for security in the network.In this paper, we propose a watchdog technique for improving the trust system in networks by using effective optimization methods. To expose this method,:we can achieve better efficiency compare to existing and minimum energy cost for using watchdog technique and also keeping sufficient level security. In our contributions of the proposed method, it consists of theoretical analyses and practical algorithms. Using this watchdog approach the detection of misbehaved nodes is reduced, sufficient security, less energy consumption and the overall accuracy increased.

    ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF NBTI ON DATA FLIP TIME DEPENDENCY ON AN MTCMOS SRAM

    By Patibandla Anitha1, B.L. Raju2

    Abstract

    The predominant restraining factor of the circuits lifespan are Temperature Instability effects like NBTI and PBTI. A regular configuration to evaluate the influence of NBTI on a circuit’s operation is developed relating significant circuit constraints such as the node switching action, variation in supply voltage, temperature etc. The influence of NBTI on Read strength of SRAM cell is analyzed. Due to the NBTI stress, the working of the SRAM is totally affected. The consignment of deterioration in Static Noise Margin (SNM), is computed by the read steadiness of SRAM cells is appraised. We suggest a novel method to retrieve the SNM of SRAM cells employing a data flip process and portray the results obtained. The performance issues of the data flip time are analyzed by HSPICE simulation with varied supply voltages. The circuit design with NBTI stress is calculated depends upon the simulation setup of HSPICE tool. The supply voltage is varied by 0 V, 0.2 V, 0.4 V, 0.6 V, 0.8 V and 1 V with a length of 45nm and width of 90nm (Taken from PTM technology).

    ADAPTIVE CLUSTERING FOR ENHANCEMENT OF THROUGHPUT IN A DISTRIBUTED WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

    By K. Lakshmi Joshitha*, S.Jayashri#

    Abstract

    Clustered networks are of great demand today which may serve for communication in a cooperative fashion for nowadays evolving internet of things. In cases like habitat monitoring the animal may be fixed up with the sensor which becomes mobile. Especially when moving in herds or flocks the scenario is viewed as an event moving in clusters. This work aims at serving for such cases and providing an adaptive clustering with the size of the cluster being varied. As the group head dies in one cluster the cluster members are being allocated to the nearby heads based on the threshold of energy in the Cluster heading nodes. It is shown that the throughput of the network increases as the uninterrupted data collection is sustained through this residual energy scheme of member allocation to the different cluster head.

    INTELLIGENCE IN ROAD SAFETY USING WEATHER FORECASTING SYSTEM

    By S. Vigneshwaran, P. Varoon, S. Kalpana

    Abstract

    Climate is an essential variable that influences movement stream and street wellbeing. Antagonistic climate circumstances influence the driving conditions straightforwardly, consequently, drivers must be instructed about the atmosphere conditions downstream to conform their driving. In the structure of wise transport frameworks, a few frameworks have been created to know the climate circumstances and advise drivers. Be that as it may, these frameworks do not conjecture climate ahead of time, and they require the support of street administrators to educate drivers. This paper shows another independent framework to figure climate conditions in a brief span and to give clients the data got. The framework utilizes an arrangement of calculations and tenets to decide the climate and to conjecture unsafe circumstances out and about system. It has been actualized utilizing a multivalent approach and tried with genuine information. Results are exceptionally encouraging. The framework is capable to conjecture unfriendly circumstances with an abnormal state of significant worth. This quality makes it possible to trust in the structure and to maintain a strategic distance from the supervision of administrators.

    PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OF CLUSTERED NETWORK THROUGH DATA REPLICATION AND SECONDARY CLUSTER HEAD SELECTION

    By K. Lakshmi Joshitha, A. Gangasri

    Abstract

    The objective of the proposed system is to augment the efficiency of the clustered wireless sensor network using Game theoretic approach. In WSN the Cluster Head (CH) has the responsibility of gathering data from the members of its group and transmitting it to the sink. In this approach CH is selected by taking into consideration the residual energy. A periodical change of the head happens when the CH energy drops below the energy of other nodes present in the same cluster. Data replication is done if either CH fails to work or the link between CH or sink gets disconnected.

    PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OF CLUSTERED NETWORK THROUGH DATA REPLICATION AND SECONDARY CLUSTER HEAD SELECTION

    By K. Lakshmi Joshitha, A. Gangasri

    Abstract

    The objective of the proposed system is to augment the efficiency of the clustered wireless sensor network using Game theoretic approach. In WSN the Cluster Head (CH) has the responsibility of gathering data from the members of its group and transmitting it to the sink. In this approach CH is selected by taking into consideration the residual energy. A periodical change of the head happens when the CH energy drops below the energy of other nodes present in the same cluster. Data replication is done if either CH fails to work or the link between CH or sink gets disconnected.

    PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OF CLUSTERED NETWORK THROUGH DATA REPLICATION AND SECONDARY CLUSTER HEAD SELECTION

    By K. Lakshmi Joshitha, A. Gangasri

    Abstract

    The objective of the proposed system is to augment the efficiency of the clustered wireless sensor network using Game theoretic approach. In WSN the Cluster Head (CH) has the responsibility of gathering data from the members of its group and transmitting it to the sink. In this approach CH is selected by taking into consideration the residual energy. A periodical change of the head happens when the CH energy drops below the energy of other nodes present in the same cluster. Data replication is done if either CH fails to work or the link between CH or sink gets disconnected.

    SHESECURE SAFETY APP – THE HEXA UMBILICAL CORD

    By Nirmalrani V., Saravanan P., Kalpana S

    Abstract

    The violence against women is increasing tremendously. With a specific thought, many kinds of violence against women such as sexual assault, rape, and domestic violence. It is often unreported due to social norms, sensitive issues, etc. Nowadays lack of security issues are there, one of the main issues is women security. In this modern world violence against women becomes even more difficult to capture. Also, more issues have been identified in late response. The crime against women is happening beyond the thinking of the common people. So, this paper proposes the development of an Android application called “She Secure Safey App – The Hexa Umbilical Cord” that ensures the various security features to prevent from various victims, the main motto of this app is to prevent women in strange situations. It does not require internet connections except for any features. The contacts are registered through network providers. In case of emergency this application is used to trace the location of the user and the contacts of the nearby police stations using GPRS, video and audio can be recorded for 10 seconds and then forwarded to registered contacts.

    FAIRNESS INDEX OF EFFICIENT ENERGY ALLOCATION SCHEMES IN A TREE BASED SMART GRID

    By Boddu Rama Devi, Manjubala Bisi, Rashmi Ranjan Rout

    Abstract

    Smart power distribution is a challenging task in a power grid as demand from the end users connected to the grid varies dynamically. Energy allocation should be done optimally among the commercial and domestic users which have varied energy consumption and pricing rates. Important aspects such as user demand and fairness among users can be considered for efficient energy allocation in smart grid. In this work, we have proposed and analyzed energy allocation strategies for satisfying maximum number of users, maximizing the profit, minimizing average slots per user, maximizing average slots per user and maximizing the number of users while maximizing the profit in a smart grid tree network. Parameters, such as, total energy cost, number of active users and fairness index are incorporated in our proposed schemes and our schemes are compared with existing schemes, such as, Round Robin and Priority based schemes. Extensive simulation studies have been carried out to show the efficacy of the proposed approaches.

    INTERACTION BETWEEN GROUP OF VITAMINS AND NANO DRUGS TO BRAINSTEM GLIOMA PROTEIN AND REDESIGNING THE CHEMICAL STRUCTURE

    By BIPIN NAIR B.J., SHAMCY O., SHIBIN K.

    Abstract

    Brainstem Gliomas are amongst the most subtle and deadliest disease in the field of cancer. It provides treatments include surgery, clinical approach, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) is very important part allows to circulate blood from brain to body parts. Provides difficulty in delivering nano-molecules efficiently into the brain and offers the medical side effects depends upon characteristics of drugs even that can be used to indicate the effectiveness of drugs in similar tumors. This challenge is to identify how efficiently applied drugs works in central nervous system. Bioinformatics approach in nanomedicine helps to find out the presence of drug molecules present in the body, where they are needed and where they will do the best. I.e. The delivery of drug in BBB focuses on increasing the bioavailability and curate cancer with updated redesigned Drug and protein interaction. So, it is all about to make efficient redesigned drug and view it in 3D. Our novel approach focuses on redesign and apply efficient ligand through BBB to the Mutated Brainstem Glioma sequence using CADD tools, comparing the efficiency with existing drugs and view it in systematic proposed 3D visualization tool.

    FULL CUSTOM LAYOUT OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES

    By Anto Shiny Jenifer M., Umadevi S

    Abstract

    Design of an integrated circuit layout is said to be the characterization of the components and elements of the integrated circuit in 3-dimension in geometrical models which represents the silicon layers, oxide layers, metal and polysilicon. Optimizing the layout helps in producing less parasitic effects, interconnect delays, power dissipation and signal integrity in an IC. The proposed work reduces total layout area of the application by incorporating following methods together: 1) depletion sharing, 2) minimum distance rule and 3) different metal layers. The proposed technique is practiced on 40 transistor D-flip flop[1] layout using Cadence® virtuoso® 64 tool. On using the minimum distance rule method along with depletion sharing the total layout area is reduced by 71.60% and on combining all the three methods area reduces by 73.44% with reference to schematic driven layout of example circuitry. In proposed layout, in order to subdue the reliability issue, single vias are replaced with double vias wherever possible. Simulation after post layout is done and the corresponding power calculation has been identified for the layout of the example circuitry and results clearly say that total layout area reduction is reducing the power consumption directly in total.

    COOPERATIVE PROTOCOL FOR QOS ROUTING IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    By M. Karpagam, D.Devi

    Abstract

    In cooperative networks, optimum path should be selected based on QoS parameters and then the node will recruit the neighboring nodes to form a cluster and assist in communication. QoS based routing for wireless sensor networks helps to select optimum path for routing and it improves the overall performance of the network. In this paper, we have modeled a QoS based cooperative protocol for wireless sensor networks. We have analyzed the energy consumption of nodes and throughput. We have compared the energy consumption and throughput of our proposed QoS based cooperative protocol with existing cooperative transmission protocol. Network Simulator 2 (NS 2) is used to model the method and the comparison results show that the QoS based cooperative protocol outperforms the existing cooperative protocol in terms of energy of nodes and throughput.

    EMERGENCY ALERT FOR CAGED ANIMALS

    By Nalini M., Mathangi A., Jayashri K.R., Nivedha J.K.

    Abstract

    This endeavor is an attempt to explore the means and tools exclusively invented to protect and preserve caged animals in case of any exigency. With receding wildlife population becoming a huge problem and global crisis, round the clock vigilance and preservation of endangered species especially those that are caged, are of utmost necessity. Besides being dumb, the ‘caging- in’ is another trauma. Human being, being the society’s most developed and privileged animal has the major responsibility of taking care of those that need our helping hands. Carelessness and negligence are the negative traits of humans. So it is obviously not possible to provide 24/7 acute attention. This is the part where instrumentation engineers come in hand. This work utilises various sensors and image sensing cameras to continuously monitor these underprivileged beings of the society. The sensors constantly track and maintain various parameters related with the health, safety and wellness of the caged being. In case of any abnormality, the GPS-enabled alert device immediately notifies the important personal, (say the forest rangers, the veterinarian, the guard, etc.), in-charge of the safety and the well-being of the caged animals.

    IMPLEMENTATION OF INFERENCE ENGINE IN ADAPTIVE NEURO FUZZY INFERENCE SYSTEM TO PREDICT AND CONTROL THE SUGAR LEVEL IN DIABETIC PATIENT

    By M. Mayilvaganan, R. Deepa, S. Malathi

    Abstract

    The Adaptive network based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is a hybrid system comprising of the neural network and the fuzzy logic. It is a data driven procedure which can be used to provide the solution of function approximation problems in a neural network platform. Here at first a fuzzy inference system comprising of an initial fuzzy model is formed, based on the fuzzy rules extracted from the input output data set. Selection of the proper rule base depending upon the situation can be achieved by the use of an ANFIS controller, which becomes an integrated method of approach for the control purposes and yields excellent results, which is the highlight of this paper.

    ANALYSIS OF RECENT SHAPE, TEXTURE AND COLOUR BASED IMAGE SEGMENTATION TECHNIQUES

    By Michael Angelo Kandavalli, S. Abraham Lincon

    Abstract

    Image segmentation has an important role in image processing. It is a fundamental step which can be defined as isolating homogeneous regions within an image or finding the boundaries between such regions. Image segmentation has been approached from a wide variety of perspectives but still it is a challenging problem. Therefore, the subject of segmenting objects of interest in images has gained even more attention. From the primary benefit of producing simple, informative input, object segmentation is a foundational tool in various advanced systems such as object recognition, image retrieval, and image editing and scene reconstruction. Due to its significant role, this crucial step has been of perennial interest to many researchers of image processing and computer vision. This makes segmentation process less accurate and highly time-consuming when the foreground and background are much nearby or when the foreground textures are occluded. To overcome these drawbacks, we analyze some of the trending issues in shape, texture and color based image segmentation techniques.

    REDUCTION OF PAPR USING HELICAL INTERLEAVER IN PTS TECHNIQUE FOR SCFDMA SYSTEM

    By R. Jayashri

    Abstract

    OFDM is a high data rate modulation technique used in the downlink of 4G system. Due to the difficulty of PAPR, usage of OFDM system affects the battery period of mobile terminal. So that new accessing technique called SCFDMA system which is employed in the uplink system. But still the PAPR problem persists in SCFDMA system which has to be overcome. A statistical method, Partial Transmit Sequence can be used with SCFDMA to reduce the PAPR even more. In this paper, the PAPR in SCFDMA system is reduced further by PTS technique using helical interleaver. The proposed system yields 3% reduction in PAPR compared to conventional method.

    KINSHIP VERIFICATION SYSTEM BASED ON MID LEVEL FEATURES

    By T. Theresa 1, S. Veluchamy2

    Abstract

    Recognizing of human face from image set has recently seen its prosperity because of its effectiveness in dealing with variations in illumination, expressions, or poses. Unlike most previous kinship veri?cation methods which apply low-level hand-crafted descriptors such as local binary pattern and Gabor features for face representation. This paper investigates about kinship verification system based on mid-level features. Here Scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) descriptors have been extracted. For better performance two features such as blob and corners are detected via Surf and Harris algorithms. Further processed features are undergone for feature learning algorithm continued with classification. Finally, accuracy rate is to be evaluated for verification of kinfaces.

    PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OF CLUSTERED NETWORK THROUGH DATA REPLICATION AND SECONDARY CLUSTER HEAD SELECTION

    By K. Lakshmi Joshitha, A. Gangasri

    Abstract

    The objective of the proposed system is to augment the efficiency of the clustered wireless sensor network using Game theoretic approach. In WSN the Cluster Head (CH) has the responsibility of gathering data from the members of its group and transmitting it to the sink. In this approach CH is selected by taking into consideration the residual energy. A periodical change of the head happens when the CH energy drops below the energy of other nodes present in the same cluster. Data replication is done if either CH fails to work or the link between CH or sink gets disconnected.

    SHESECURE SAFETY APP – THE HEXA UMBILICAL CORD

    By Nirmalrani V., Saravanan P., Kalpana S

    Abstract

    The violence against women is increasing tremendously. With a specific thought, many kinds of violence against women such as sexual assault, rape, and domestic violence. It is often unreported due to social norms, sensitive issues, etc. Nowadays lack of security issues are there, one of the main issues is women security. In this modern world violence against women becomes even more difficult to capture. Also, more issues have been identified in late response. The crime against women is happening beyond the thinking of the common people. So, this paper proposes the development of an Android application called “She Secure Safey App – The Hexa Umbilical Cord” that ensures the various security features to prevent from various victims, the main motto of this app is to prevent women in strange situations. It does not require internet connections except for any features. The contacts are registered through network providers. In case of emergency this application is used to trace the location of the user and the contacts of the nearby police stations using GPRS, video and audio can be recorded for 10 seconds and then forwarded to registered contacts.

    FAIRNESS INDEX OF EFFICIENT ENERGY ALLOCATION SCHEMES IN A TREE BASED SMART GRID

    By Boddu Rama Devi, Manjubala Bisi, Rashmi Ranjan Rout

    Abstract

    Smart power distribution is a challenging task in a power grid as demand from the end users connected to the grid varies dynamically. Energy allocation should be done optimally among the commercial and domestic users which have varied energy consumption and pricing rates. Important aspects such as user demand and fairness among users can be considered for efficient energy allocation in smart grid. In this work, we have proposed and analyzed energy allocation strategies for satisfying maximum number of users, maximizing the profit, minimizing average slots per user, maximizing average slots per user and maximizing the number of users while maximizing the profit in a smart grid tree network. Parameters, such as, total energy cost, number of active users and fairness index are incorporated in our proposed schemes and our schemes are compared with existing schemes, such as, Round Robin and Priority based schemes. Extensive simulation studies have been carried out to show the efficacy of the proposed approaches.

    INTERACTION BETWEEN GROUP OF VITAMINS AND NANO DRUGS TO BRAINSTEM GLIOMA PROTEIN AND REDESIGNING THE CHEMICAL STRUCTURE

    By BIPIN NAIR B.J., SHAMCY O., SHIBIN K.

    Abstract

    Brainstem Gliomas are amongst the most subtle and deadliest disease in the field of cancer. It provides treatments include surgery, clinical approach, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) is very important part allows to circulate blood from brain to body parts. Provides difficulty in delivering nano-molecules efficiently into the brain and offers the medical side effects depends upon characteristics of drugs even that can be used to indicate the effectiveness of drugs in similar tumors. This challenge is to identify how efficiently applied drugs works in central nervous system. Bioinformatics approach in nanomedicine helps to find out the presence of drug molecules present in the body, where they are needed and where they will do the best. I.e. The delivery of drug in BBB focuses on increasing the bioavailability and curate cancer with updated redesigned Drug and protein interaction. So, it is all about to make efficient redesigned drug and view it in 3D. Our novel approach focuses on redesign and apply efficient ligand through BBB to the Mutated Brainstem Glioma sequence using CADD tools, comparing the efficiency with existing drugs and view it in systematic proposed 3D visualization tool.

    FULL CUSTOM LAYOUT OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES

    By Anto Shiny Jenifer M., Umadevi S

    Abstract

    Design of an integrated circuit layout is said to be the characterization of the components and elements of the integrated circuit in 3-dimension in geometrical models which represents the silicon layers, oxide layers, metal and polysilicon. Optimizing the layout helps in producing less parasitic effects, interconnect delays, power dissipation and signal integrity in an IC. The proposed work reduces total layout area of the application by incorporating following methods together: 1) depletion sharing, 2) minimum distance rule and 3) different metal layers. The proposed technique is practiced on 40 transistor D-flip flop[1] layout using Cadence® virtuoso® 64 tool. On using the minimum distance rule method along with depletion sharing the total layout area is reduced by 71.60% and on combining all the three methods area reduces by 73.44% with reference to schematic driven layout of example circuitry. In proposed layout, in order to subdue the reliability issue, single vias are replaced with double vias wherever possible. Simulation after post layout is done and the corresponding power calculation has been identified for the layout of the example circuitry and results clearly say that total layout area reduction is reducing the power consumption directly in total.

    COOPERATIVE PROTOCOL FOR QOS ROUTING IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    By M. Karpagam, D.Devi

    Abstract

    In cooperative networks, optimum path should be selected based on QoS parameters and then the node will recruit the neighboring nodes to form a cluster and assist in communication. QoS based routing for wireless sensor networks helps to select optimum path for routing and it improves the overall performance of the network. In this paper, we have modeled a QoS based cooperative protocol for wireless sensor networks. We have analyzed the energy consumption of nodes and throughput. We have compared the energy consumption and throughput of our proposed QoS based cooperative protocol with existing cooperative transmission protocol. Network Simulator 2 (NS 2) is used to model the method and the comparison results show that the QoS based cooperative protocol outperforms the existing cooperative protocol in terms of energy of nodes and throughput.

    EMERGENCY ALERT FOR CAGED ANIMALS

    By Nalini M., Mathangi A., Jayashri K.R., Nivedha J.K.

    Abstract

    This endeavor is an attempt to explore the means and tools exclusively invented to protect and preserve caged animals in case of any exigency. With receding wildlife population becoming a huge problem and global crisis, round the clock vigilance and preservation of endangered species especially those that are caged, are of utmost necessity. Besides being dumb, the ‘caging- in’ is another trauma. Human being, being the society’s most developed and privileged animal has the major responsibility of taking care of those that need our helping hands. Carelessness and negligence are the negative traits of humans. So it is obviously not possible to provide 24/7 acute attention. This is the part where instrumentation engineers come in hand. This work utilises various sensors and image sensing cameras to continuously monitor these underprivileged beings of the society. The sensors constantly track and maintain various parameters related with the health, safety and wellness of the caged being. In case of any abnormality, the GPS-enabled alert device immediately notifies the important personal, (say the forest rangers, the veterinarian, the guard, etc.), in-charge of the safety and the well-being of the caged animals.

    IMPLEMENTATION OF INFERENCE ENGINE IN ADAPTIVE NEURO FUZZY INFERENCE SYSTEM TO PREDICT AND CONTROL THE SUGAR LEVEL IN DIABETIC PATIENT

    By M. Mayilvaganan, R. Deepa, S. Malathi

    Abstract

    The Adaptive network based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is a hybrid system comprising of the neural network and the fuzzy logic. It is a data driven procedure which can be used to provide the solution of function approximation problems in a neural network platform. Here at first a fuzzy inference system comprising of an initial fuzzy model is formed, based on the fuzzy rules extracted from the input output data set. Selection of the proper rule base depending upon the situation can be achieved by the use of an ANFIS controller, which becomes an integrated method of approach for the control purposes and yields excellent results, which is the highlight of this paper.

    ANALYSIS OF RECENT SHAPE, TEXTURE AND COLOUR BASED IMAGE SEGMENTATION TECHNIQUES

    By Michael Angelo Kandavalli, S. Abraham Lincon

    Abstract

    Image segmentation has an important role in image processing. It is a fundamental step which can be defined as isolating homogeneous regions within an image or finding the boundaries between such regions. Image segmentation has been approached from a wide variety of perspectives but still it is a challenging problem. Therefore, the subject of segmenting objects of interest in images has gained even more attention. From the primary benefit of producing simple, informative input, object segmentation is a foundational tool in various advanced systems such as object recognition, image retrieval, and image editing and scene reconstruction. Due to its significant role, this crucial step has been of perennial interest to many researchers of image processing and computer vision. This makes segmentation process less accurate and highly time-consuming when the foreground and background are much nearby or when the foreground textures are occluded. To overcome these drawbacks, we analyze some of the trending issues in shape, texture and color based image segmentation techniques.

    REDUCTION OF PAPR USING HELICAL INTERLEAVER IN PTS TECHNIQUE FOR SCFDMA SYSTEM

    By R. Jayashri

    Abstract

    OFDM is a high data rate modulation technique used in the downlink of 4G system. Due to the difficulty of PAPR, usage of OFDM system affects the battery period of mobile terminal. So that new accessing technique called SCFDMA system which is employed in the uplink system. But still the PAPR problem persists in SCFDMA system which has to be overcome. A statistical method, Partial Transmit Sequence can be used with SCFDMA to reduce the PAPR even more. In this paper, the PAPR in SCFDMA system is reduced further by PTS technique using helical interleaver. The proposed system yields 3% reduction in PAPR compared to conventional method.

    KINSHIP VERIFICATION SYSTEM BASED ON MID LEVEL FEATURES

    By T. Theresa 1, S. Veluchamy2

    Abstract

    Recognizing of human face from image set has recently seen its prosperity because of its effectiveness in dealing with variations in illumination, expressions, or poses. Unlike most previous kinship veri?cation methods which apply low-level hand-crafted descriptors such as local binary pattern and Gabor features for face representation. This paper investigates about kinship verification system based on mid-level features. Here Scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) descriptors have been extracted. For better performance two features such as blob and corners are detected via Surf and Harris algorithms. Further processed features are undergone for feature learning algorithm continued with classification. Finally, accuracy rate is to be evaluated for verification of kinfaces.

    AN INTERLEAVED HIGH FREQUENCY FLYBACK MICRO-INVERTER USING SLIDING MODE CONTROL ALGORITHM

    By S. Subha, A. Gurumurthy J. Nishanth, M. Shriraam, T Thirukkumaran

    Abstract

    The presence of nonlinear voltage current characteristic with a unique Maximum Power Point (MPP) is usually found in PV panels. When their operating conditions are subjected to changes, the MPP will also change. This project aims at the design and implementation of a stand-alone micro inverter for Photovoltaic (PV) applications based on interleaved fly back converter using Sliding Mode Control (SMC) algorithm. Here, a fly back converter is designed at high power rating and its practicality with good performance is demonstrated. A sliding mode controller is used to estimate the MPP which forces the PV system to operate at MPP and to stay on the surface at all times. This method is simple and robust to irradiance and temperature variations. A simulation model is developed and the design is then verified and optimized for best performance based on the simulation results. Finally, a prototype at rated power is built and evaluated under realistic conditions.

    A NOVEL APPROACH FOR EXPLORING ANCESTRAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VARIOUS ORGANISMS THROUGH CUSTOMIZED FAMILY PROFILE ANALYSIS

    By BIPIN NAIR B.J.

    Abstract

    The purpose of the paper “A Novel approach for exploring ancestral relationship between various organism through customized family profile analysis” aims at exploring the evolutionary relationship between organisms which share the common set of proteins. Family profile analysis is used to obtain the profile of the given proteins and apriori algorithm is customized to suite the purpose the generating the frequent proteins through sequencing and provide the evolutionary relationship of various organisms. Which implies there is a common ancestral relationship between these organisms

    AN APPROACH FOR EXAMINING LUNG CANCER BY OBSERVING THE MICRORNA IN AN ASSEMBLY OF DRUG INTERACTIONS

    By BIPIN NAIR B J., ANJU K J, JEEVAKUMAR A

    Abstract

    MicroRNA is the non-coding RNA in the gene sequences, is the major factor of invoking the oncogenes. Late identification of lung cancer leads to deaths. Multiple studies on miRNAs have made a break through discoveries including their direct and indirect involvements in causing lung cancer. Several miRNAs like miR-21a, miR-196 and miR-69 are identified as bio marking elements of non-small cellular lung cancer few like miR138 and let-7 are considered as anti-cancer agents. This work studies the changes happening to miR-138 in interaction with NSCLC drugs. miRNA use to interact with multiple natural factors, utilizing this property of miRNA we examined the possibility of studying different drug effects on miR-138. Target Scan, Mol View, and free energy calculation algorithm were used for creating an interactive environment for the simulation. From the results, we conclude that miRNAs are reactive to cancer drugs. This could be used for further development of cancer prevention drugs which targets miRNAs rather than oncogenes

    ENHANCING THE SECURITY OF CLOUD STORAGE FOR MEDICAL DATA RETRIEVAL USING DOUBLE ENCRYPTION WITH DATA ANONYMIZATION

    By P. Harish, S.Vigneshwari, K.B.S. Ravi Teja

    Abstract

    Now-a-days the major issue that was seen in hospital management is providing security to the patient’s related data. Such data’s are so sensitive, exploiting that type of data may result in leakage of patient’s information. They are some previous systems which provide security to the patient’s data, but the algorithms that have been issued are timing enabled proxy re-encryption algorithms, which issues keys and to use them within in the time limit, so these causes in some difficulty to user in order to access his data whenever he wants. In order to overcome this type of encryption processes we propose a double encryption with anonymization technique and implementation of multiple health records in a cloud server. Whenever the user wants to retrieve the information from the cloud server, user gets a one-time password to his registered email id.

    NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY HARVESTING USING FOOT PRESSURE

    By M. Nalini, A. Krithika, B. Shruti, C.V. Rakshana

    Abstract

    There is driving force more powerful than steam, electricity and nuclear power- the footstep. In today’s world energy is the major resource in which we humans relay on. This project brings an idea to produce electricity by a non-conventional source. A Non-conventional energy using footsteps involves a process in which mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy. This system becomes pollution free, eco-friendly and socially relevant by generating energy from non-conventional sources. It is designed to be applied in public areas where there is sufficient crowd such as complexes transportation hubs and schools. This system has to be placed at points where people travel through entrance or exit and they have to step on this device to get through. Then a voltage is generated on every footstep and when mounted in series they will produce a sizeable amount of electricity.

    REAL TIME SIMULATOR FOR FIELD SURVEY MOBILE ROBOT

    By K. Nandhakumar, T. Viswanathan,

    Abstract

    A systematizing elucidation to the hazards present in the current human health due to spraying of conceivable toxic chemicals in the detained space of an agricultural field or hot and steamy glasshouse is accomplished by the design and disposition of a sovereign mobile robot for use in disease prevention and pest control applications in monetary greenhouses. An Embedded system based stereotyped robot is designed for this purpose. The platforms ability to fortunately head out for itself down the platform of a greenhouse shows the forcefulness of this platform, while the pesticide sprinkling system is used to efficiently spray the plants evenly with set dosages. A vision based robotic control regulation strategy is developed for a non-calibrated camera system which is mounted on a wheeled single mobile robot contingent on non-holonomic motion restraint, which can drive the mobile robot to the target position with exponential convergence. Subsequently, by using the retrieved camera intrinsic parameters, a straight-line motion controller is developed to drive the robot to the desired position, with the coordination of the robot always facing the target position. By the proposed method, the robot can be confined in map-free and GPS-free environments, and the results of localization can be theoretically proved confluent to their real values and thriving to the measurement noises. The performance of the proposed method is further validated by both simulation and experimental results.

    SAFETY IN PUBLIC AREAS USING FACE RECOGNITION

    By Carmel Rani V., Deepa Naga Manjari G., Nirmalrani V

    Abstract

    Face recognition systems are generally used for security purposes. Face recognition is a biometric method that compares a person’s face that is live capture image or a video source with the stored images. Protecting the people from the criminals in public areas and at the same time accounting for law enforcement is a great challenge. Facial recognition is used for the very purpose. For any facial recognition system, there is a primary step that is ought to be done. Face detection is the preliminary step for face recognition. There are many algorithms and classifiers for face detection. Some of them are Segmentation algorithm, PCA, SVM, AdaBoost etc. Face detection itself is not sufficient. The detected face need to be accurate in various aspects like when the faces are rotated, under lighting conditions, complex backgrounds, variety of skin tones etc. These became challenging factors in face detection process. Many systems were proposed earlier for face detection. These existing systems ensure face detection in color images or background complexities or lighting conditions. Some common issues in these systems is that they have to go through many stages repeatedly leading to more time consumption, noisy output, less accuracy and efficiency levels. Hence this paper proposes a system for detection and recognition using Haar – cascade. Haar-cascade classifies the input into frames which for feature extraction. The proposed system detects faces in a group of people, variability in skin tones, variability in scale, in the presence of outliers. The recognition system recognises a suspect by comparing the face of the suspect with the faces that were stored in the database. The suspects face is automatically forwarded to nearby police station to catch the suspect. The proposed system provides a fast detection rate accounting for better accuracy and efficiency levels. This paper provides safety to the public in crowdy areas like railway stations, bus stands, market areas, shopping malls, parks and so-on.

    NINE SWITCH CONVERTER BASED SOLAR HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE

    By M. Nirmala, S. Rameshselvakumar

    Abstract

    Hybrid electric vehicle system with nine switch converters using permanent magnet synchronous machine as a motor and as a generator has been discussed in many papers. A series hybrid electric vehicle system with three phase induction motor connected as load to the Nine switch converter powered by a spark ignited internal combustion engine, along with solar panel to charge the battery based on its state of charge has been analyzed in this paper. Nine switch converter technique reduce voltage stress, power loss, number of switches required and the cost of the system.

    MODIFIED SVPWM FED NINE SWITCH INVERTER FOR MOTOR LOAD

    By M. Nirmala, K. Baskaran, S. Sowmiya

    Abstract

    The nine-switch inverter has been suggested in order to reduce the switching components and the cost of regular six switch inverter. In this paper, the conventional Space Vector Modulation (SVM) and Level-Shift Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) design of nine-switch inverter is contemplated, controlling the two independent parallel ac induction motors without the shoot-through in the inverter leg. The SVPWM is proposed for minimizing total harmonic distortion (THD). The dual output voltages and phase currents can prevent the distorted attribute, which is originated by the crossover of the modulating signals. This will suitable for high power inverter application where cost and efficiency are vital decision factors. The mathematical models are suggested by the level shift SVPWM scheme and based on the zero-sequence injection principle. The offset control decrement are arranged by the interconnection of the modulation indices in level shift of the SVPWM modulating signals. The suggested modulation performance has been confirmed by the simulated implementation that is effectively carried out on the applicability of the proposed algorithm, the high modulation index is needed.

    IMPLEMENTATION OF A WIRELESS MOBILE ROBOT FOR INTELLIGENT FARMING

    By K. Lokesh Krishna, Y.N.Vijaya Kumar, S.Theivachandran

    Abstract

    Over the past few years, there has been significant awareness in designing intelligent robotic devices for use in external outdoor environments, which can independently sense, analyze and react to their own surroundings. The agricultural sector is already experiencing enormous challenges such as limited availability of arable lands, increasing requirement of water resources, and variation in climatic conditions. Also due to the recent advances in computer and related technologies, still the farmers are not adapted to those technologies as they are neither poorly managed nor designed for their particular needs. One method to address these various issues is to develop sensing technology to make agricultural farms more intelligent. In this paper a novel wireless mobile robot using ARM7 microcontroller is designed and implemented for carrying out various operations on the field. This proposed wireless mobile robot is equipped with various sensors for measuring different environmental parameters. The main features of this novel intelligent mobile wireless robot is that it can execute tasks such as moisture sensing, scaring birds and animals, spraying pesticides, moving forward or backward and switching ON/OFF electric motor. The robot is fitted with a wireless camera to monitor the activities in real time. The proposed wireless mobile robot has been tested in the fields, readings have been monitored and acceptable results have been observed, which indicate that this system is very much useful for intelligent farming.

    ECONOMIC AND EMISSION ANALYSIS OF PV SYSTEM,SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEM, HYBRID SYSTEMS FOR RURAL ROW HOUSES

    By 1G. Priyanka, 2R. Mahalakshmi. 3V. SharmilaDeve, 4V. Ezhilarasi

    Abstract

    The Emission and Economic analysis is undertaken to prove that Hybrid PV/Solar-Thermal (PVT) systems is optimized for distributing electricity and hot-water for rural row houses. For this study, Kallipatti village in Coimbatore District is chosen. The Rural Row Houses load capacity is 3KW and 700 liters of hot water is required daily. The emission and economic analysis was carried out for Conventional system, Photovoltaic (PV) system, Solar Thermal System and Hybrid PV and Solar-Thermal(PVT) system individually. From the Emission analysis, the PVT system has less carbon dioxide emission when compared to other systems. The Economic analysis shows that Photovoltaic(PV) System is less cost. But for generating both electricity and hot water, hybrid PV/solar-thermal (PVT) system is optimal when compared with installing Photovoltaic (PV) system for electricity and Solar-Thermal (PVT) system for hot water. The simulation is carried out by using MATLAB

    DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF EFFICIENT ADVANCED ENCRYPTION STANDARD COMPOSITE S-BOX WITH CM-MODE

    By S. Gnana Soundari, B. Senthil Kumar

    Abstract

    The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is one of the famous algorithms for the cryptographic security algorithm and it is specifically used for the data protection and the transmission. The AES novel Mix-Column operation implementation is proposed in this research paper. The Mix-Column is model is improved for the AES decryption through the Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) System design in this research paper. In AES Mix-Column, large number of logic gates used to perform the multiplication of input stage bytes (output of shift row) and fixed defined state bytes. In order to decrease this problem, the redundant function of Mix-Column is eliminated and re-designed in this paper. Proposed model of Mix-Column minimizes 25% of logic gates compared with previous work. Further, the proposed Mix-Column of AES decryption achieves by improving the performance of area, delay and power consumption. The transformations optimized and the speed is increased.

    MELATONIN AND FLUOXETINE INTERACTION WITH SHANK3 PROTEIN GENE FOR AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER

    By BIPIN NAIR B.J., ARUNJIT K., VIJESH BHASKARAN

    Abstract

    Autism spectrum disorder impairs the nervous system and affects the overall poignant, societal and substantial health of the affected human being. We here try to redesign the drug 2D structure through various predicting techniques and visualize drugprotein interaction through molecular dynamics and molecular docking techniques. We here collect the drug id of Fluoxetine, Melatonin and the protein SHANK3 form drug bank, then these two drugs are interacted with the protein SHANK3 through molecular docking technique and the 2D structure of their interaction is predicted.

    EFFICIENT INTERLEAVED BUCK BOOST CONVERTER FOR SOLAR APPLICATIONS

    By M.SUMITHRA, R. KAVITHA

    Abstract

    Solar Energy is the prominent source of renewable energy. But, the practical DC –DC converter can extract only partial amount of energy from the Solar cells by our conventional methods. An interleaved buck boost dc/dc converter is developed that it requires only a smaller input/output filters, it provides the fast dynamic response and low stress on the devices than conventional designs, for solar powered applications. Input and output ripples of voltage and current of the converter is very low. The simulations were carried out using MATLAB/SIMULINK software package and hardware implemented

    OPTIMIZATION OF OPTICAL AMPLIFIER SATURATION POWER IN NGPON2 USING 2048 WAY SPLITTER

    By S. Rajalakshmi1, T. Shankar2

    Abstract

    This article represents design of Next Generation stage-2 Passive Optical Network (NG-PON) for a reach of 100km and over 2048 split using a hybrid time and wavelength division multiplexing (TWDM) for the data rate of 40Gbps. The down stream signal uses L band and upstream signal uses C band with the wavelength plan of ITU-T G.989. The network provides cost effective solution by directly connecting the increasing numbers of customers to the core network by use of 2048 way split. The splitter loss and the ASE noise is optimized by EDFA amplifiers to extend the long reach. An in-depth analysis is performed using an analytical model of NGPON with non- dispersion shifter fiber.

    MONITORING ROUTINE IN WEB EXPLORATION ENVIRONMENTS

    By D. Saravanan

    Abstract

    Technology brings every-thing in our finger tips, the problems of bringing this information most existing algorithm applied to every user retrieval in the same technique. Users information’s are handled with special way it means quires priorities based on the searching. In such a case, simply leveraging pages visited by this user in the history may achieve better performance. Based on the users search information extraction in web pages are reacted differently. Even if search histories are enough to infer general user interests, users often search for short-term information needs that may be inconsistent with general user interest. In such cases, long-term user profiles are useless or even harmful, whereas a short-term query context is more useful. This proposed done on how personalization strategies perform under real-world search engine conditions faced by users. In this paper, we address these problems and make some contributions.

    ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF PV/SOLAR THERMAL/HYBRID PVT SYSTEM IN HOSTEL APPLIANCES

    By 1V. Ezhilarasi, 2V. SharmilaDeve, 3R. Mahalakshmi,4G. Priyanka

    Abstract

    The purpose of this project is to determine the performance of hybrid systems which consists of solar thermal collectors. The study is taken out by analyzing the behavior of the designed systems and implemented in KCT hostel building. The calculations of primary energy consumption, Emissions and the inclusion of a Life Cycle Cost analysis are the major contribution. Photovoltaic panels will produce part of the electricity. Solar thermal collectors will reduce the energy required for DHW (domestic hot water) production. This project is implemented for hostel room and cooking purpose. Then analyze the hybrid system which consists of solar PV, PV thermal, solar PV thermal system. Choose the best hybrid system which suitable to hostel mess. With this system, MPPT (maximum power point tracking) is used to extract maximum power.

    POWER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT IN GRID CONNECTED WIND ENERGY SYSTEM USING FUZZY CONTROLLED UPQC

    By R. Prema Priya1, M. Mohanraj2

    Abstract

    Wind power generation is grasping more attention nowadays because it offers the benefits of reduced cost, increased efficiency, less pollution and so on. But the known disadvantage is that the integration of wind farm with grid leads to many power quality problems such as voltage sag, swell, unbalance, harmonics, flickers etc. This paper concentrates mainly on diminution of source voltage sag and load current harmonics which are caused mainly due to the use of nonlinear loads such as personal computers, variable frequency drives, SMPS, monitors, printers etc in both industrial and commercial sectors. For the betterment of power quality issues, custom power devices are used. Among many of the custom power devices, Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) have been used nowadays which diminishes both voltage sag and current harmonics. The performance of UPQC can be improved by using a new strategy of control which is implemented using Fuzzy Logic Controller and from the simulation results, the performance of fuzzy controlled UPQC is better which can be validated by comparing its performance with the conventional control of PI controller.

    CONTROLLING OF BLOOD GLUCOSE INCLUDING THE EFFECT OF FFA DYNAMICS

    By Nalini M1,2*, Balaji V3

    Abstract

    Diabetes is a chronic disorder because of the secretion of insulin was not sufficient. Due lack of insulin, the amount of blood glucose will be increased and cause diabetes, this paper provides the closed loop control using the Bergman’s extended minimal model with fuzzy logic controller. The controller takes the corrective action even for the maximum disturbance and it brings back the glucose level into around 70mmHg which is a basal value. By using this proposed model the level of glucose is continuously monitors and the corrective action will be takes place according to the defined rules.

    CONVERSION OF IMAGE INTO TEXT TO REGIONAL TEXT AND SPEECH

    By BalaKrishnan K ., Shivapraksh Ranga, Nageswara Gupth

    Abstract

    In the current scenario digital images are the raw inputs for all the digital image processing applications. These raw images are captured by the electronic devices which contains the unwanted noise or background scene. Preprocessing technique is used to completely eliminate the unwanted noise from an image. In the existing research work, conversion of image to text and speech are analyzed and results are obtained which is useful to the various image processing applications and visually challenged people. In the proposed practice, text to particular regional language text conversion is done which is useful to the Tours and travels and visually challenged people. Using this methodology, they can convert the images into their regional language like bus boards, shop boards and product etc., These regional language text are converted into speech signals using TTS.


    AUTOMATED INTEGRATED CLUSTERING ALGORITHM FOR MAMMOGRAPHIC MASS SEGMENTATION

    By K. Akila1, L.S. Jayashree, A. Vasuki

    Abstract

    Segmentation plays an important role in mammographic image processing by facilitating the delineation of regions of interest. An automated Histon based integrated clustering algorithm is presented in this paper for the detection masses in mammographic images by integrating K-means clustering algorithm with Fuzzy C-means algorithm. Initially Histon of the input image was calculated and given as initial centroid for K-means clustering algorithm and Fuzzy C-means algorithm was applied to segment the mass. The performance of proposed algorithm was evaluated using area overlap measure. The morphological features are extracted from the segmented mass and 85% classification accuracy was obtained using SVM classifier.

    A REVIEW OF STABILITY AWARE CLUSTERING ALGORITHM IN VEHICULAR AD HOC NETWORK

    By Kumar T. and Jaison B

    Abstract

    A Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) is a special kind of Mobile ad hoc network, in which vehicle acts as a node (communication device) to create Ad hoc network. VANET is identified as the future transportation system in which vehicles communicate with each other and it ensures road safety by avoiding accidents on the road. Due to sparse distribution of vehicles in the network, communication between the vehicles is a challenging task. Clustering avoids this problem by grouping the geographically adjacent vehicles into a cluster. Clustering of vehicles can significantly improves the scalability of the network, but high mobile nature of vehicles in the cluster affects the network stability by dynamically changing the network topology. To create more stable network, clustering algorithm should consider mobility of the vehicles as one of the key factor for cluster formation and cluster head selection. Such a mobility aware clustering produces stable and secure connection between the vehicles in the network. Since most of the recent research papers were focused on stability aware clustering scheme in VANET. This survey paper focus only on stability based clustering algorithms instead of considering various clustering schemes available in VANET.


    Pak. J. Biotechnol. Vol. 14 (special issue-I) 2017

    Published Paper of

    International Conference on Futuristic Innovations in Mechanical Engineering and Manufacturing Management

    MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF HYBRID METAL MATRIX COMPOSITE WITH AL6063/ B4C/RIVER SAND

    By R. Vijayakumar, R. Kirubaharan

    Abstract

    Metal system composite (MMC) focuses in a general sense on upgraded specific quality, high temperature and wear resistance application. From the assembled composing it is found that, metal grid composites are under honest to goodness thought as potential cheerful materials and it is generally used to supplant standard materials in flying and auto applications . The MMC are particularly used as a piece of auto and space applications. The aluminum system can be sustained by fortifying with hard dirt particles like SiC, Al2O3, B4Cetc. In this wander, aluminum 6063-T6 composite is picked as one of constituent parts, which has extraordinary mechanical properties and presentations awesome weldability. The mechanical properties like unbending nature and Hardness can be extended by fortifying 6063 Al structure with Boron Carbide (B4C),River Sand particles. In this wander, the making of aluminum 6063 with boron carbide,and stream sand is done by mix tossing process, which is a liquid state material produce and viable procedure. By then, the examples are striven for mechanical properties like versatile, hardness, influence. Finally, the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) examination is done, which thinks the geography of composites and it produces photos of a case by checking it with a drew in light emanation.

    THERMAL PROTECTION SYSTEM ON SPACE SHUTTLE

    By Vijayakumar P., Velavan R., Sathyamoorthy G.

    Abstract

    Plan and investigation of Thermal Protection System (TPS) is directly completed utilizing CATIA V5, Computational Techniques (CFD), and ANSYS. In this venture, we are managing the approach includes the vehicle optimal design and the innovation of warmth shield. i.e, warm insurance system. This demonstrates has been created in CATIA V5 and dissected the temperature conveyance and weight circulation by utilizing CFD. At last we delivered that CFD result into Ansys input and investigate the capacity of our warm security system. The composite materials used to ensure the surface are Re-in forced carbon carbon(RCC) withstand over 1300oc , High temperature reusable surface insulation(HRSI) withstand underneath 1300oc, and Low temperature reusable surface insulation(LRSI) withstand beneath 700oc.Reinforced carbon is utilized as a part of the nose and wing driving edge, high temperature reusable surface protection utilized as a part of the alongside the nose top and base surface of the model and low temperature reusable surface protection utilized as a part of the place of mid fuselage and trailing edge.

    DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF BRAKES USED IN AUTOMOBILES

    By G. Sathyamoorthy*, P. Vijayakumar, R. Manivel, K. Christal

    Abstract

    Brakes are employed to stop or slow down the speed of the vehicle depending upon the driving needs. When brake applied, each wheel of the vehicle builds-up a certain braking force. For this reason, greater the number of wheels braked, greater will be the braking effect, and sooner the vehicle comes to halt. The existing air brake system of a 6-wheeler is studied and analysed. Brake shoe assembly is completely modelled using Pro/E and the analysis of the brake shoe assembly is carried out in Ansys. The results are analysed. Then redesigned brake shoe assembly is modelled in Pro/E and analysed with certain changes as required.

    THE MIXTURE OF ALKALINE EARTH METAL AND ZIRCONIUM OXIDE AS A CATALYST IN CATALYTIC CONVERTER

    By M. Karthe *, S.C. Prasanna

    Abstract

    Increasing of automobiles in the world, proliferates the harmful pollutants in the atmosphere. The catalytic converter is introduced to reduce antagonistic exhaust emissions from the automobiles. The emissions of concern are unburned or partially burned hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen such as nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide (NOX). Catalytic converter incorporates a precise combination of precious metals platinum, palladium and rhodium. It decline the emissions through oxidation and reduction reactions. For diesel engines, catalytic converter is used to control HC and CO, but reduction of NOX emissions is poor because the engine runs lean, in order to avoid excess smoke. Although, various emission control techniques are in progress, the emission level are always in higher rate. While more efforts persist to find cheaper alternatives, we done a project by using barium chloride (BaCl2), an alkaline earth metal and zirconium oxide (ZrO2) are mixed together in the definite ratio and feed into the catalytic converter setup by spray pyrolysis methodology. As a result, the reduction of emission level as well as cost is acquired. This experiment will enhance the pollution free environment.

    PROPERTY EVALUATION OF SUPER HARD ALLOYS

    By M. Karthe*, S.C. Prasanna

    Abstract

    The Super hard alloys are having excellent impact resistance and wear resistance. The present work directed towards the development of superhard alloy which containing a complex carbide mixture of chromium, molybdenum, niobium, vanadium, manganese, and tungsten. These elements combine to offer excellent hardness retention up to 16000 F, and the ultimate in abrasion resistance. These alloys have less weight and more strength and very high melting point. Due to these admirable properties these alloys are more used in Aerospace, chemical industries and also in manufacture of turbine blades. For use on all iron based metals subject to severe fine particle erosion, these deposits exhibit wear properties superior to standard tungsten carbide deposits. The aim of the work is to characterize the properties like strength, hardness and micro-structural analysis of metallic powder samples of varying the compositions.

    INVESTIGATIONS ON THE EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF DIESEL ENGINE BLENDE WITH ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL

    By M.Karthe *, S.C.Prasanna

    Abstract

    Now a days population intensity of vehicle rapidly increase so cost of the fuel like petrol diesel, etc. are increase highly and emission of the vehicle create many problems like affecting human health, cause the depletion in ozone layer, affecting the photosynthesis of plants, etc. so reducing the pollution diesel is blended with the isopropyl alcohol at various different proportion. First isopropyl alcohol is converted into fuel by using transesterification by adding acid catalyst. Now isopropyl alcohol is blended with diesel fuel at various proposition 5%, 10% and 15% by total volume of fuel. The emission characteristics of 5%, 10% and 15% of blending of isopropyl alcohol with ordinary diesel to record and evaluate the emission characteristics of blending fuel and ordinary fuels. The emission test at 80% load revealed that, the CO, HC and smoke density are increased by 22.222%, 28.571% and 14.757% respectively for 10% addition of isopropyl aclhohol with diesel. The NOx emission while using 10% isopropyl alcohol blend with diesel is decreased by 19.131% at 80% load. Isopropyl alcohol increase the atomization of the fuel so complete combustion can take place and low calorific value of isopropyl alcohol so heat release during combustion of engine rapidly decrease so NOx emission significantly reduce.

    TRACKING OF OPTIMAL THERMAL AND ELECTRICAL POWER IN SOLAR PVT SYSTEMS

    By S.C. Prasanna*, C. Ramesh, R. Manivel, M. Karthe

    Abstract

    Solar PVT systems combine the characteristics of the photovoltaic and thermal solar systems in a single module. Due to the abundant presence of the natural resource from the sun–solar energy, in the past decade several algorithms and related electronic approaches were developed in order to monitor the photovoltaic and thermal panels maximum power generation. Solar PVT Systems possess several control parameters designed to produce better results and in this paper, the task is to track the optimal thermal and electrical power. As such, no appropriate control mechanism has been developed for tracking the maximum power generated from Solar PVT systems. In this paper, a PVT control algorithm based on the proposed neural network architectures are designed to compute the Optimal Power Operational Point (OPOP) by taking into account the model behavior of the Solar PVT system. Ambient temperature and irradiation are considered by the optimal power operational point to compute the optimal mass flow rate of Solar PVT module. Numerical simulation results prove the effectiveness of the proposed neural network models compared with that of the calculated outputs and the solutions derived from the earlier literature studies.

    CRONBACH ALPHA VALIDATION AND CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF WORK PRACTICES MEDIATION MODEL

    By M. Selwin, S.G. Arul Selvan, B. Sivaraman

    Abstract

    Relational Coordination (RC) is the important factor to improve the performance of an organization. This project objective is to improve quality of Care provided by the hospitals in India by analyzing the parameters of RC. In order to provide better quality of care RC parameters are analyzed in selected hospitals. The relational coordination parameter is considered by Survey methodology. Relational coordination is meant for the purpose of integration of various tasks. It is the mixed combination of Communication and Relationship ties of relationship.Parameters of RC selected from the detailed literature review includes relational ties such as shared goals, shared knowledge, mutual respect and communication ties such as frequent communication, timely communication, accurate communication and problem solving communication . 2 Questionnaire has been framed one based on work practices mediation model and other based on Quality and Efficiency outcome. Both are tested for validation with the sample size of 30 to 50. Survey is conducted and the impact factor is found for better outcome. Correlation Analysis is done between various RC parameters for betterment of Quality

    EXPERIMENT IN EDM PROCESS BY USING BRASS ELECTRODE WITH INCONEL MATERIAL IN NANO POWDER MIXED DIELECTRIC MEDIUM

    By R.Velavan*, S. Nandhakumar, P. Vijayakumar

    Abstract

    Electric discharge machining (EDM) is widely adopted unconventional machining practice, which relies on thermal energy produced from the spark in-between the electrode and the clamped workpiece. In this EDM, the removal of the material is accomplished by continuous discrete discharges between anode and the cathode. The efficiency of the EDM purely relies on the material from which electrode and machining workpiece is made and combined with the dielectric media used. A good selection of electrode can decrease the machining cost. This paper deals with die-sinker EDM with brass as electrode to improve performance factors and cost reduction in machining with EDM. From the experimental results, it is found that a brass electrode give comparatively a better results for certain characteristics but the cost became a worrying factor for machining when the brass electrode material is utilized. So with the intention of balancing the cost and input parameters, brass electrode is experimented with nano powder mixed dielectric medium. It is concluded that the addition of nano powder in the dielectric medium reduces the surface roughness considerably while improving the machining performance.

    EFFECT OF POST COMBUSTION TREATMENT ON DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST GAS EMISSIONS

    By P.C. Mukesh Kumar, M. Vijayakumar

    Abstract

    The more usage of diesel vehicles leads to very big challenges in the aspect of pollution and running out of diesel fuel recourses. Much research works are carried out on reduction of emissions with the advanced technology for cleaner diesel fuels, quick responding electronic control units, advanced engine design and effective post treatment of exhaust. In this investigation, the effect of solid chemical reactants, Urea and Sodium chloride, on engine exhaust gas emissions is studied with post treatment method. This is experimentally done with diesel engine fuel as reference at different engine loads like 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%. The reaction chamber of this study is located in the exhaust gas pipe line after the cooling treatment. The tests are carried out with diesel, urea and Nacl as the reactants in the reaction chamber. Test results are compared by using diesel fuel as a reference without chemical component in reaction chamber and with chemical reaction. The test results show that the urea produces minimum exhaust gas emissions at 80% load and the reactant urea gives 43ppm lower NOx formation at the peak load. It is also studied the effect of back pressure on it is negligible. The same is proved with by using CFD analysis.

    EFFECT OF CONSTRUCTIONAL CHANGE IN I.C ENGINE PISTON BY PARTIALLY CERAMIC COATING

    By C.Vignesh , S.C.Prasanna

    Abstract

    To modify the construction of the piston in S.I. engine is the main goal of this project. Modifying the construction improves the engine operating parameters. As a consequence, the durability of the piston gets reduced. In order to increase the durability of the piston, “Partially ceramic coating” is given on the piston. Thermal analysis are to be examined on a standard (uncoated) SI engine piston, made of Al Si alloy and steel. Then, thermal analysis are to be made on piston, coated with MgO-ZrO2 material by using a analysis software, named ANSYS. Lastly, the analyzed results of different pistons will be compared. The effect of coatings and the thermal behavior of the piston are to be inspected and improved.

    EXPERIMENTAL TESTING ON GALVANIZING KETTLE BY USING STAINLESS & MILD STEEL WITH ZrO2 COATING

    By R.Velavan1, C.Vignesh2 , P.Vijayakumar,

    Abstract

    This work is aiming to study the galvanizing kettle material properties. Now a days, kettle produce using mild steel. The problem is dross formation on the kettle, low life period of kettle and less thermal withstand-ability. Our project is to reduce dross formation, increase the life period and thermal withstand-ability by using zirconium coating on stainless steel. Also compare the mild steel and stainless, which is best one to use the kettle in galvanizing process. Above the material the zirconium (ZrO2) coating is done for the reason is increase the fatigue strength and life time of the material as the material is working under the high temperature. While the spray pyrolysis is used to the Zirconium coating is increasing the efficiency of kettle.

    STRESS ANALYSIS OF ARTIFICIAL HIP PROSTHESES USING FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

    By *S. Sathishkumar1, N. R. Karthik2, R. Shanmuga prakash1, R. Manivel

    Abstract

    Mostly the finite element approach is used in engineering applications for the structural analysis especially in biomechanics. This approach is used for designing the prostheses used for the total hip replacement. Already the various geometrical shapes are introduced to eliminate the cement loosening from the stem, but in this work the curved geometry is introduced in the design of prostheses to eliminate the cement loosening. Also the double curved geometry and vertical slot is introduced, collar is applied at below the proximal area to minimize the stress level in the curved geometry area. This new design will assist the prostheses to withstand for the maximum human working environmental loading conditions. Sharp edges in the prostheses are also eliminated in this proposed prostheses design. The static analyses have been conducted for the four different geometrical shapes of the prostheses and the results are compared. Ti-6Al-4V alloy is utilized for the finite element analyses in order to achieve the least effective stress value of prostheses for obtaining the highly durable geometry.

    OPTIMIZATION OF MACHINING PARAMETERS IN CNC DRILLING OF ALUMINIUM 6351 ALLOY

    By S.Sakthivelu1*, M.Meignanamoorthy2, M.Ravichandran3

    Abstract

    In this research, an experimental investigation of the machining parameters of Aluminium Alloy 6351 in CNC lathe machine for drilling operation using HSS drill bit had been carried out. In machining operation, the minimum surface roughness was considered as important factor for the better quality of the product. Subsequently, the decision of upgraded cutting parameters is imperative for controlling the required quality. The motivation behind this exploration is centered on the investigation of ideal cutting conditions for least surface harshness in CNC drilling of Aluminum Alloy 6351 by Taguchi strategy. The experiment has been carried out based on L16 standard orthogonal array design with three process parameters namely Spindle Speed, Feed rate, Depth of Cut. The experiment results were used to characterize the main factors affecting surface finishing by Signal to Noise ratio and Analysis of Variance method. The investigations infer that the surface roughness was influenced by the feed rate. It was identified that the Surface roughness decreases with increase in feed rate.

    PREDICTION OF OPTIMIZED MACHINING PARAMETERS IN CNC END MILLING

    By S. Sakthivelu1*, T. Anandaraj2, M. Meignanamoorthy3, M. Ravichandran4

    Abstract

    An experimental investigation of the machining parameters of Aluminium Alloy 6082 in CNC End milling machine for milling operation using HSS end mill cutter had been carried out. For better quality of product, surface roughness was considered as the most important factor. So surface roughness was taken as response parameter in this work. The experiment has been carried out based on L16 orthogonal array design with machining parameters namely Spindle Speed, Feed rate, Depth of Cut. The experiment results were used to characterize the most influencing factor surface finishing by Signal to Noise ratio and Analysis of Variance method. The investigations infers that the surface roughness was influenced by the cutting speed. It was identified that the Surface roughness was inversely proportional to the spindle speed.

    OPTIMIZATION PARAMETERS OF DRILLING PROCESS IN ELECTRIC DISCHARGE MACHINING USED IN SS317 MATERIAL

    By Parthipan, N.* Prasanna, S.C., Balamurugan, R., Manikandan, A.

    Abstract

    This research paper, an analysis of increasing surface quality, characterization of SS317L material using electric discharge machining process (EDM). This material is higher hardness value and high corrosion resistance which is conducted various machining optimization techniques. In this paper mainly focused on drilling optimization techniques has been conducted various speed, feed and pulse current ON/OFF time in Electric discharge machine in copper drill tool, finally the Scanning electron microscope image is visualized in micro-crack of surface in AISISS317 material and prediction of tool surface and internal drill hole surface, better optimization value. The result shows that the machined work piece has compared in motionless tool and rotary tool EDM process.

    EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON HEAT TRANSFER AUGMENTATION IN HELICALLY COILED TUBE SOLAR COLLECTOR WITH MWCNT / WATER NANOFLUID

    By K.Palanisamy 1*, P.C. Mukesh Kumar 2

    Abstract

    In this study the heat transfer of the direct cylindrical glass solar collector are investigated experimentally. The MWCNT /water nanofluids at 0.3% particle volume concentration and 0.25% weight percentage added in to SDBS as surfactant was prepared by two step methods. It was found that the cylindrical solar collector efficiency of 10 -29 % higher than the water. This may be due to random motion of the flow particles and higher thermal conductivity of nanofluid. It is concluded that MWCNT /water based nanofluid can be applied as heat absorption in tube helical coiled solar collector at 0.3% particle volume concentration without significant of pressure drop.

    FATIGUE ANALYSIS ON FSW AND GTAW WELDED JOINTS OF AA7175-T6

    By Nishanth, S.*, Anandaraj, T.

    Abstract

    This project investigates the comparison of fatigue characteristics friction stir welding (FSW) and Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) on aluminium alloy AA7175-T6 in solid state. The material of 4mm thickness is treated for T6 condition and then it is subjected to weld. With the constant tool pin profile and axial force, FSW is done by varying the tool rotational speed and the welding speed. Also GTAW is done by varying the current with the filler material ER4346. The welded specimen is tested under varying cyclic load in the multiaxial fatigue testing machine for repeated number of cycles. Both FSW and GTAW welded specimen are subjected to low cycle fatigue testing. The S-N curve is plotted to know the ultimate stress and the endurance limit of the material. The study on fatigue testing of different welded joints gives better fatigue performance on FS Welded joints.

    LOOP LAYOUT IN FMS USING DIFFERENT HYBRID ALGORITHM AND BACKTRACKING DISTANCE OF THE AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLE

    By Kirubagharan, R., Balamurugan, R.

    Abstract

    In this work loop layout in FMS is being analyzed with different algorithms and the identified hybrid algorithm (ISSA) which have a better result. The newly proposed algorithm gave enhanced sequence for the loop layout of an FMS which helped to minimize the distance travelled and backtracking distance of the AGV. The result also shows that the number of iteration required for completing the job was drastically reduced by the ISSA. This paper helps for the researcher to understand about the hybridization of algorithm and in future by considering the cost of manufacturing, due dates involved, multiple AGV in the FMS layouts for achieving better-quality results. Innovative and new meta-heuristics like artificial system, fuzzy system etc… may be integrated with Scatter Search or other meta-heuristics for getting optimum result.

    SCHEDULING USING PETRINET TO INCREASE UTILISATION OF RESOURSE IN FLEXIBLE MANUFACTRUING SYSTEM

    By KirubagharanR1 VijayakumarR2

    Abstract

    Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) is a mechanized assembling framework which has work shop adaptability and stream shop productivity. One of the real worries in FMS is booking of occupations to the machines with the target of expanding machine use. A Petri net is a graphical scientific displaying instrument appropriate to numerous frameworks and this is a promising device for portraying and contemplating data handling frameworks that are described as being simultaneous, non concurrent disseminated, parallel, nondeterministic and stochastic. The Petrinet idea is proposed to take care of booking issues. Disperse Search calculation is populace based met heuristic that used to join its answers and develop new arrangements. This technique creates a populace of arrangements. The dispatching rules calculation has assumed a noteworthy part in the entry of occupation to the machine as per the need of given determined parameter. Dispatching Rules resemble Shortest Processing Time (SPT), Longest Processing Time (LPT), Least Operation Remaining (LOR), Most Work Remaining (MWR), Most Operation Remaining (MOR) and Least Work Remaining (LWR). This paper manages demonstrating and booking of Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) utilizing diverse Meta Heuristics calculations like Petrinet, Dispatching Rules and Scatter Search. The outcomes are thought about for three distinctive contextual investigations and it is watched that the Petrinet gives better outcome when contrasted and different calculations, for example, Dispatching Rules and Scatter Search calculation as for machine usage.

    MACHINING FIXTURE LAYOUT OPTIMIZATION USING HYBRID KRILL HERD ALGORITHM

    By S.Nishanth1, P.Praveen2, L.Ragunath1

    Abstract

    Machining fixtures are most importantly used for holding the workpiece while doing machining operation. Apparatus design means the situating of fixing of the components, for example, locators and clamps. To make sure that the workpiece is made by indicated measurements and resistances, it must be suitably found and clamped. Minimizing workpiece distortion because of clipping and cutting strengths is fundamental to keep up the machining precision. A perfect apparatus configuration displays minimum deformation while machining. This research work has been done to find the desired fixture to minimize the distortion of elasticity of the workpiece created by the fixing and machining strengths following up on the workpiece while machining. This will be accomplished by choosing the perfect number of fixture components with correct positions. To find the optimum location of fixture elements locator and clamp positions are varied with the basic 3-2-1 layout. Then the corresponding moment values are found out by Hybrid Differential Evaluation Krill Herd (HDEKH) In HDEKH objective function for minimization of moment is formulated. The position of fixture elements which gives minimum moment is the optimum fixture layout. Then the deformation of work piece for the optimum fixture design has got from MATLAB.

    MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF VINYL ESTER BASED HYBRID COMPOSITE REINFORCEMENT WITH SISAL/PROSOPIS JULIFLORA/E-GLASS FIBERS

    By T. Keerthi Vasan*. S. Padmavathy, G. Sharmila Devi, S. Nandhakumar

    Abstract

    Natural fibre reinforced polymer composites became more attractive due to their high specific strength, light weight, and environmental concern. The incorporation of natural fibres with the combination of E-glass has gained many industrial applications. Naturally fibres are of little use unless they are bonded together to take the form of structural element that can carry load. Hence the combination of fibres and the matrix can have high strength and stiffness yet they have low density. The fibres used here are Sisal, prosopis juliflora and E-glass with Vinyl Ester as the matrix. The composite material has different mechanical properties. The arrangement of fibres is anisotropic which means that the body has different mechanical properties in different directions. The material is cut in the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard and the mechanical properties such as Tensile, flexural and impact strength are determined. The main objective of the paper is to make a composite material which is to be incorporated in replacing the conventional steel leaf spring and in utilizing the fibre which pose threat to the environment.

    EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON DOUBLE PIPE HEAT EXCHANGER BY USING NATURAL FLUID WITH TWISTED WIRE COIL

    By M.Kalidass*, K.S.Deepak , R.Karthickraj, M. Saravanan, R. Dhanasekaran

    Abstract

    Thermal Performance of heat transfer devices can be improved by heat transfer enhancement techniques.In this project we do that augmentation works to increase the heat transfer coefficient by making the turbulent flow of the cold fluid and also using the different fluid to decrease the cost.The twisted cable wire coil inserts are fabricated by 20 mm diameter by winding of cable wire diameter is 0.2 mm. Different mass flow rate will produce the different pressure drop also making alterations in flow of fluid that will make changes in the friction factor, Reynolds number and so on.The convective heat transfer coefficient of double pipe heat exchanger under various operating conditions was determined.

    STUDY OF TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF RAPESEED OIL AND CANOLA OIL

    By Emmanual L., Ragunath L.,Vignesh D.

    Abstract

    A lubricant is a kind of matter to minimize friction and wear between sliding and contacting surfaces. The key role of lubricant is dissipating heat, prevention from corrosion, improving power transfer and improving liquid seal between contact surfaces. Metal working fluid is one of the lubricant which are mostly used in machining operations. The application of coolants for machining was first proclaimed by Taylor in 1907, which achieved up to 40% increase in cutting speed when machining steel with HSS, using water as a coolant. Due to industrial development lubricating oils are associated with machining like mineral oil, natural oil. But mineral oil is cheaper and available in a wide range of viscosities. Mineral oil is working fluid have their advantages but by using this oil major health hazards involved like skin diseases caused by contact with nitrosamines, bactericides present in metal cutting fluids, respiratory problems, exposure to oil fags and fumes. The disposal of metal cutting fluid may pollute soil and water recourses due to inappropriately discharged.

    QUALITY COST ANALYSIS IN AN INDUSTRY

    By L. Emmanual*, V.K. Kannan, L. Ragunath

    Abstract

    Quality Cost means that the cost spends on the bad products and service. The quality cost is more means that the rejection of the company will be more and no control over the rejection in an organisation. The value of quality cost should be as minimum as possible to a specified value say 0.5 %, 1 % and 1.5 % of turn over (quality Cost Index) of the organisation or even less specified value. Quality cost will be varying depends on the nature of business of the organisation. Quality cost is not only bad product or service and also includes prevention cost, appraisal cost, internal failures cost and external failure cost. In this paper, we have details explanation made on the quality cost calculation and quality cost index on rejection of the organisation and it will be useful for quality engineer and who is monitoring the waste cost controller (lean Engineer).

    OPTIMIZATION OF ROTARY EDM PROCESS PARAMETERS FOR INCONEL 718 USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK

    By Dhanabalan S1, Karthi.RR2, Sivakumar K3, and Sathiya Narayanan C4

    Abstract

    This works, an experimental analysis of drilling on Inconel 718 using EDM process with 6 mm diameter rotary electrode. Peak current, pulse on-time (Ton), pulse off time (Toff), flushing pressure and electrode speed were chosen as input parameters. Taghuchi L18 orthogonal array are utilized to take readings. Workpiece removal rate (WRR) and tool wear rate (TWR) were consider as output responses.Artificial Neural Network is used to modeling.

    MULTI-OBJETIVE OPTIMIZATION OF EDM PARAMETERS FOR Ti ALLOY

    By Dhanabalan, S.1 and Karthi, R.R.

    Abstract

    This works, an experimental analysis of drilling on Titanium using EDM process with 6 mm diameter electrode. Peak current, pulse off time (Toff) and pulse on-time (Ton) are selected as input parameters. Taghuchi L27 orthogonal array are utilized to take readings. Workpiece removal rate (WRR) and tool wear rate (TWR) were consider as output responses. Taguchi method is used to optimization purpose.

    EXPERIMENT IN EDM PROCESS BY USING BRASS ELECTRODE WITH INCONEL MATERIAL IN NANO POWDER MIXED DIELECTRIC MEDIUM

    By R. Velavan*, S. Nandhakumar, P. Vijayakumar

    Abstract

    Electric discharge machining (EDM) is widely adopted unconventional machining practice, which relies on thermal energy produced from the spark in-between the electrode and the clamped workpiece. In this EDM, the removal of the material is accomplished by continuous discrete discharges between anode and the cathode. The efficiency of the EDM purely relies on the material from which electrode and machining workpiece is made and combined with the dielectric media used. A good selection of electrode can decrease the machining cost. This paper deals with die-sinker EDM with brass as electrode to improve performance factors and cost reduction in machining with EDM. From the experimental results, it is found that a brass electrode give comparatively a better results for certain characteristics but the cost became a worrying factor for machining when the brass electrode material is utilized. So with the intention of balancing the cost and input parameters, brass electrode is experimented with nano powder mixed dielectric medium. It is concluded that the addition of nano powder in the dielectric medium reduces the surface roughness considerably while improving the machining performance.

    ANALYSIS OF HEAVY VEHICLE CHASSIS USING E-GLASS COMPOSITE MATERIAL

    By G. SHARMILA DEVI1, S. PADAMVATHY, K. CHRISTAL, T. KEERTHIVASAN

    Abstract

    The strength of an automobile relies on the automotive frame which supports the overall vehicle parts. It is the essential part that plays a major role in giving potential characteristics to the vehicle under various circumstances. The strength and stiffness are the major characteristics that need to be considered for the frame. This present work is the static structural and modal analysis of a Tata 407 truck couch case. This modeling can be done by CATIA and the analysis to be performed by ANSYS. The analysis is based on the Finite element approach. The behaviour such as stress, frequency, deflection, strain of the truck case under different loading conditions are examined for the two different materials such as Steel and E-Glass composite. The main failure will be due to the fatigue. The life of the truck chassis depends on the structural and modal analysis. Keywords: Model analysis, Structural analysis, E-Glass, Steel

    EFFECT OF WEAR AND MICROSTRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF AL6061 BASED COMPOSITES USING STIR CASTING METHOD FOR PISTON ALLOY

    By A. Manikandan1, C. Gokulkumar2

    Abstract

    The projected paper is to examine the frictional wear and SEM view of Al6061 reinforced with the aluminium oxide, zirconium oxide and silicon carbide to improve the strength and wear of piston material. There will be several failures occurring in the piston due to continuous working like corrosion, wear etc., To wipe out the failure occurring in the material the composition of aluminium alloy material is made through the stir casting technique in various composition and tested. The scrutiny is attempted with the fraction of AA6061+SiC+Al2O3+ZrO2 different fractions using casting process and the Frictional wear and SEM analysis is carried out as per the standard norms. It shows the reduction of wear in the third sample and the microstructure of the composition exhibits the uniform distribution of the reinforcement material.

    EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF WEAR BEHAVIOR OF GRAPHENE REINFORCED VINYL ESTER POLYMER COMPOSITE

    By C.Manickam1, R.Balamurugan1, K.Christal1

    Abstract

    The wear mechanism is a complex process in polymer composite because of their interaction of two or more materials are involved in the fracture process. Adhesive bonding, abrasive wear, surface fatigue and corrosive properties are the influencing factors in the mechanism of wear behavior. The present work shows the wear rate of the graphene filled vinyl ester polymer composite with varying filler material content. It has been shown that the reduction of wear as the grapheme content increases and gives the lowest wear at10wt% of graphene.

    INFLUENCE OF PARTICLE SIZE ON THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF GRAPHENE COMPOSITES

    By 1Manickam.C, Christal.K, Prasanna S.C

    Abstract

    The behavior of thermal conductivity of GNP/polyester composite for two size of GNP particle with different percentage of volume fraction of filler has been investigated. GNP particles of size 50nm and 100nm are used for the fabrication of GNP/polyester composites. Same percentage of volume fraction of filler material is added in the polymer for both the types. We have determined the thermal conductivity value experimentally and compared with the theoretical values of thermal conductivity. The theoretical values show in good agreement with the experimental investigations.

    AN INVESTIGATION ON MICRO ROBOT FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS

    By *Karthi, R.R., Dhanabalan, S., 1Jeeva, R., Manikandan, A.

    Abstract

    This study deals about the development of micro robotics has the potential to make these tiny intelligent micro robots to navigate throughout the body in nearby future. It will revolutionize the medical field by making the therapeutic and diagnostic procedures less invasive. It calls for the micro robot to be bio compatible, remotely controllable and able to perform the designated functions. In this work, design of micro robot for use in circulatory system is focused. First, the introduction about the MEMS and the various methods of actuation, locomotion and powering of micro robot are discussed. Second, the conceptual designs for the micro robot are proposed based on the information collected from field study and the best design is being selected based on the selection criteria. Third, the method of actuation, mathematical model are proposed for the selected design. Finally, the report concludes with the suggestions for improvement in the design of micro robot.

    COMPARITIVE ANALYSIS OF PLAIN AND HERRINGBONE GROOVED JOURNAL BEARING UNDER THE HYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION CONDITIONS

    By Karthi. R.R., Dhanabalan. S.

    Abstract

    Journal bearings are important machine elements which are used for supporting the shafts. They are used in various applications like gas, oil engines, aircraft, automobile engines, machine tools, and turbines, etc. One such application is two- wheeler oil pump to which the paper is concerned with. The plain journal bearings are used in the oil pump to support the radial loads. Though the load carrying capacity of the PJB is higher, it has some common problems like low radial stiffness, instability in concentric operations, hydrodynamic pressure losses, etc. To overcome these problems, a beveled-step herringbone grooved journal bearing can be used. This is because it has higher radial stiffness, stability in concentric operations, hydrodynamic pressure recovery in divergent zone, increased pumping capacity, etc. Thus, by replacing the PJB by HGJB, the problems in the oil pump can be rectified and the oil pump works more effectively than before. ‘C’ and ANSYS are the tools used for proving the effectiveness of HGJB over PJB. ‘C’ program is used to determine the maximum hydrodynamic pressure where ANSYS is used to determine the maximum stress developed in the journal bearing due to the hydrodynamic pressure. By observing the results of PJB and HGJB, their working eccentricity ratios are determined. This itself would provide information about compensation of radial stiffness, load carrying capacity, pressure recovery, etc.

    LASER AND FRICTION STIR WELDING BEHAVIOUR OF POLYMERS AND POLYMER COMPOSITES- A REVIEW

    By S.G. ARUL SELVAN *1, M. SELWIN1 and M. KALIDASS1

    Abstract

    This literature work provides a deeper study on the welding processes like laser and friction stir welding and clear reports on their effect on the polymer materials and their composites when welded. The reason behind considering thermoplastic breed of polymers whether pure or blended with fillers is due to the fact that it attracts attention from both industrial and research applications in most cases as a replacement for metals. Polymers are known for bulk replacement but which is not favoured in the engineering field and hence in the recent past they are put into situations where they have to be joined. Among the available joining technologies for the polymers welding holds good in high performance applications. Hence welding techniques on polymers are analysed based on various valuable works of various authors of various authors and reasonable suggestions common from all the works taken are provided for clarity of thoughts.

    OPTIMIZATION OF WED MACHINING PARAMETERS DURING MACHINING OF ALSIC Using RSM

    By Nandhakumar, S1., B. Sivaraman and K. Christal

    Abstract

    The Optimal evaluation of wire-cut electrical discharge machining (WEDM) parameters by considers the impact of info parameters. Time On (Ton), Time Off (Toff), Wire Speed and Wire Feed. Tests have been led with these parameters in three divergent levels information identified with strategy reactions. The rate of metal removal (MRR) and surface roughness(Ra) was measured for every trial run. Aluminum Matrix Composites are increasing expanding consideration for application in aviation, safeguard. The utilization of un-conventional machining strategies in molding aluminum metal matrix composites has created extensive enthusiasm as the manufacturing of confused shapes. Wire Electrical release machining (EDM) has all the earmarks of being a fit strategy for machining metal matrix composites. The target of this work is to examine the impact of parameters like Current (I), Pulse on time (T), Voltage (V) and Flushing pressure (P) on tool wear rate (TWR), metal removal rate (MRR) and additionally surface roughness(SR) on the machining of half and half Al6061 metal framework composites strengthened with 10% SiC and 4%graphite particles. Composite manufacture utilizing blend throwing process. A focal composite rotatable plan was chosen for leading examinations. Scientific models were produced utilizing the MINITAB programming. The strategy for slightest squares system was use to register the relapse coefficients and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) method was utilized to check the essentialness of the models created. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) examination was done to concentrate the surface attributes of the machined substrate and connected with the models created.

    QUADRATIC-CONJUGATE-GLOBAL CRITERION FOR OPTIMIZATION OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIORS OF BIO PARTICULATED COIR-POLYESTER COMPOSITES

    By Christal.K1, Padmavathy.S1, Sharmila Devi.G1, Jayabal.S2

    Abstract

    This contemporary analysis on the optimization of mechanical performance of hybrid bio particle infused natural coir polyester composites using Quadratic-Conjugate Global criterion method. The rice husk particles and groundnut shell particles are the bio particles which are used with natural coir fibers as particle reinforcements in polyester matrix. The mechanical performance such as tensile and impact of coir polyester composites bio particulated with rice husk and groundnut shell particles were evaluated for the introduction of a new range of polymer composites with natural fibers and particles. The interlaminar bond between the reinforcements and matrix of the composite materials were evaluated using SEM images. The quick collapse of natural fibers due to cracking of matrix in the polymer composites was solved in this research by including bio particles which strengthens the matrix. The most favorable fabrication considerations for enhanced mechanical properties were predicted using QuadraticConjugate Search procedure. The efficiency of this Quadratic-Conjugate search was endorsed on the achieved fabrication parameters by using confirmation trials.

    EMISSION STUDY ON SI ENGINE FUELLED WITH PETROL AND ISO-BUTANOL BLENDS

    By P.Baskaran,

    Abstract

    An Emission study was carried out on a 4Stroke Single Cylinder with Electrical load Spark Ignition Engine at constant speed of 3000rpm for all loads, Fuelled with petrol and Iso-Butanol blends at different proportions i.e IBu0%, IBu20%, IBu30%. All blends are by volume based Proportions. The Engine Emission parameters like CO, HC, CO2 emission readings were analyzed and discussed at Full load and partial load for the above-mentioned fuel blends compared with base line readings of petrol. The Experimental results showed that the Reduction of CO, HC, CO2 Emission levels for blended fuels when compared with pure petrol at both Full load and partial loads. From the analysis Iso-Butanol is found to be a better alternative fuel (or) fuel blend to petrol for Reduction of polluting Emissions.

    PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS BY LEAN CONCEPTS IN HEALTHCARE SECTOR

    By R. Balamurugan1 and H. Abdul Zuabr2

    Abstract

    In competitive global market, the firms are looking for maximizing profit in their product or services and hold their customer for running the business in long decade. Nowadays, achieving customer satisfaction not enough, every firm developing customer delightful in their products or services. To maximize the profit, the firms are adopting the new managerial concepts and techniques to enhance the growth of organization. Lean concepts will help to increase the effectiveness of the organization. In this proposed work, the Lean concepts applied in health care sector to achieve the customer delight in services. The time study conducted for identifying the completion of service time for a patient, the systematically non-value added activities identified. Furthermore, the 5S concepts implemented to enhance the performance of the hospital and eliminated wastes produced in hospital. From this proposed work, the hospital achieved in customer delightful in the services. As results shows, after implemented lean concepts the number of customer increased the profit of the organization increased by 50%. By applied this lean concepts the employee of the hospital benefited by increasing their salary. The conclusion was made based on the comparison of before and after implementing the lean concepts in hospital.