Current Issue 2020
Pages: 195-203 Vol-17 NO-4
A REVIEW ON BIOTRANSFORMATION OF A SYNTHETIC PROGESTIN, NORETHISTERONECorresponding Author
Authors: Azizuddin, Muhammad Iqbal
A biotransformation is a key tool for the structural modification of natural and synthetic complex compounds. It is employed to synthesize those compounds, which are arduous to get from chemical synthesis. During the last few decadesí research has been focused on the modification of biologically potent compounds. Biotransformation is one of the effective ways in this regard. The current article covers the biotransformation of norethisterone (1) by using various bacteria and fungi as well as metabolism in man and animals i.e. rat, rabbit, monkey and dog, which brought mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxylation, oxidation, reduction, epoxidation and deethynylation of 1. The review covers 26 metabolites (2 to 27) of 1, obtained during 1906 to 2018.
Keywords: : Biotransformation, Norethisterone, Progestin, Bacteria, Fungi, Human, Metabolites
Pages: 189-194 Vol-17 No-4
RESISTANCE EVALUATION IN RHYZOPERTHA DOMINICA (COLEOPTERA; BOSTRICHIDAE) TOWARDS PHOSPHINE AND DELTAMETHRIN UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONCorresponding Author
Authors: Muhammad Shahid, , Farooq Ahmed , Unsar Naeem-Ullah , Kanwal Ranian , Muhammad Sagheer and Muhammad Ramzan
The most destructive pest of stored grain commodities is Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), which causes tremendous loss in favorable conditions. During the hot and humid conditions the pest population builds up sharply and deteriorates the quality of stored grains. Mostly, the fumigants and insecticides are used for sustainable management of pest. The residual toxicity of deltamethrin and phosphine gas was evaluated against Rhyzopertha dominica known as the lesser grain borer. The grains commodities were treated with the 6 concentrations of insecticides (0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05 and 0.06 ppm) and phosphine (0.006, 0.007, 0.008, 0.009, 0.01 and 0.011 ppm) to test percent mortality of insect pest under laboratory conditions. The percent mortality data of insecticides and phosphine were noted after 24, 48 and 72 hours and 7, 14 and 21 days. The overall study results showed that maximum mortality was 76.65% in susceptible strains while 42.80% in resistant strain against deltamethrin. The maximum mortality at 0.011ppm against phosphine 56.35% and 31.15% was observed in resistant and susceptible populations of Rhyzopertha dominica. The overall data indicated that after 72 hours the lesser grain borer 3.65 times fold resistant against deltamethrin while 0.882 time fold resistance against phosphine after seven days interval over the susceptible strains.
Keywords: Rhyzopertha dominica, deltamethrin, phosphine, resistance
Pages: 183-187 Vol-17 No-4
ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC PARAMETERSIN RAPESEED GENOTYPESCorresponding Author
Abdul Wahid Balochbalochabdulwahid@yahoo.com
Authors: Sajid Hussain Rao1, Zareen Qambrani , Naila Gandahi , Tauqeer Ahmad Yasir , Saima Bano, Qurban Ali Nahiyoon , Liaquat Ali Bhutto , Abdul Wahid Baloch
The current study was carried out to estimatecorrelation, heritability, and genetic distance in ten (Punjab sarson, Hyola-401, Rainbow, Waster, Abasion-95, Hyola-42, Hbo-555, Mun-1, Kangola and Kn-277) rapeseed genotypes at Botanical Garden, SAU, Tandojam during the crop season 2018-19. The data were collected of seven different traits plant height (cm), branches plant-1 , silique plant-1 , seeds silique-1 , silique length (cm), seed yield plant-1 and seed index) for further genetic analysis. Mean squares displayed that all studied characters were differed significantly, showing that exploited rapeseed genotypes retain valuable genetic resources hence may be used in future breeding programs. Of the total traits, four traits such as silique plant-1 (r = 0.33* ), seeds silique-1 (r = 0.34* ), silique length (r = 0.35* ) and seed index (r = 0.31* ) showed positive and significant associations with seed yield plant-1 , demonstrating that utilization of these traits will enhance seed yield in rapeseed genotypes; however, these characters may be set as selection criteria for evolving high yield rapeseed genotypes. The maximum(179.23) genetic distance was found between Hyola-42 and Mun-1, followed by Hyola-42 and Hbo-555 (166.10), Mun-1 and Kn-277 (162.38), Abasin-95 and Mun-1 (156.79), Hyola-401 and Mun-1 (148.79), Hbo-555 and Kn-277 (148.52), Westar and Mun-1 (146.36) and Abasin-95 and Hbo-555 (143.61). These pairs of genotypes may be given priority in the hybridization program because they carry different genetic recombination and will lead to a great amount of heterosis in hybrids. High heritability was estimated for plant height (h2= 95.54%), branches plant-1 (h2=80.92%), silique plant-1 (h2=84.26%), seeds silique-1 (h2 =90.20%), silique length (h2= 82.60%), seed yield plant-1 (h2=79.12%) and seed index (h2 =66.66%), signifying that these traits were under genetic control.
Keywords: correlation, genetic diversity, heritability, rapeseed, seed yield
Pages: 173-182 VOl-17 No-4
LOCAL MEDICINAL PLANTS OF PAKISTAN IN THE FIGHT AGAINST GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT PATHOGENIC BACTERIACorresponding Author
Murad Ali Khandrmalikhan@yahoo.com
Authors: Rifat Zahid1,Jafar Khan , Mohammad Khuram , Murad Ali Khan
The arise of drug-resistant pathogens is persistent in the control of pathogens. Several effective drugs have their roots in natural products, which have a traditional use in different diseases. To authenticate the efficacy of these traditional medicines, we selected the gastrointestinal tract infection as a target disease. Two plants Withania coagulans and Ehretia obtusifolia, were selected on the bases of their usage in folk medicine for the gastrointestinal tract complications. The bacteria selected were Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholera and Aeromonas spp. The crude extracts and fractions at three concentrations (15, 30, and 50 mg/ml) were tested for effectiveness against E. coli, S. dysenteriae, V. cholrea, S. typhi, P. aeruginosa and Aeromonas spp. The results show that the Ehretia obtusifolia has good activity against all test bacteria except S. dysenteriae while W. coagulans had activity against all the test bacteria.
Keywords: Withania coagulans; Ehretia obtusifolia; Gastro-intestinal tract; Gram negative bacteria
Pages: 161-172 Vol-17 No-4
COMPARATIVE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND ACTIVITY OF DEFENSE RELATED ENZYMES AND GENE EXPRESSION IN RUBBER CLONES AGAINST RIGIDOPORUS MICROPORUS INFECTIONCorresponding Author
Authors: Afdholiatus Syafaah , Natthakorn Woraathakorn , Patimapon Plodpai , Charassri Nualsri, Korakot Nakkanong
Rigidoporus microporus is the causal agent of rubber white root disease (WRD). Control of this is commonly carried out by chemical treatment. The use of tolerant rootstocks may present an effective method to lessen its impact. The screening of rubber rootstocks for tolerance of WRD was investigated by both defense-related enzymes and gene expression, and assessment of disease symptoms.Two recommended clones in Thailand (RRIT251 and RRIT408) and RRIM623 (Malaysian clone) were screened and compared with susceptible clones (RRIM600 and BPM24) and tolerant clone (PB5/51) by inoculating young rubber seedling with R. microporus. The expression of PRs and PAL were analyzed at 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days post inoculation (dpi) along with the defense-related enzyme activities. Based on observed transcriptional level of PRs and PAL genes, CHI, PAL, and POD enzyme activities, and also evidence from WRD symptom assessment in the field, we concluded that PB 5/51 had the best tolerance with the lowest disease incidence, high PAL and POD enzyme activities, with the next best being RRIM 623 and RRIT 251, respectively. Meanwhile, BPM 24, RRIM 600, and RRIT 408 clones are moderately susceptible to WRD. The study introduces new possibilities for the control of WRD using alternative rubber rootstock clones.
Keywords: Hevea brasiliensis, PR genes, PAL gene, chitinase, peroxidase, Rigidoporus microporus