Current Issue 2019
Pages: 187-193 Vol-16 No-3
PHYLOGENETIC IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA WITH ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF TUNICATE Ascidia ornata FROM DORERI BAYCorresponding Author
Authors: Mogea, R.A. , Tururaja, T. S. , Leatemia, S.P.O. , Salosa, Y.Y
We investigated the interaction between tunicate Ascidia ornata and microorganism. This microorganism can be interpreted as a source of food or symbionts for mutualism. Symbiosis of microorganism with tunicate may produce metabolites that have biological activity like antimicrobial. Ascidia ornate were collected from hard coral at Lemon Island Doreri Bay Manokwari. Bacteria isolate of tunicate Ascidia ornatashowed antimicrobial activities against Gram-negative, Gram-positive and the fungus Candida albicans. Eight isolates which can have antimicrobial activity like Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sp, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus, Enterobacter sp, Enterobacter hormaechei and Ochrobactrum sp. The isolate was identified with 16S rDNA sequencing with 99 – 100 % sequence similarities. Bacillus species was identified can against all human pathogenic human isolates including methicillin-resistent Staphyloccocus aureus. The marine symbionts bacteria collected has potential to inhibit human pathogenic microbes and could be used as raw material for medicine.
Keywords: Antimicrobial activities, Doreri Bay, Symbionts bacteria, tunicate, 16SrDNA
Pages: 183-186 Vol-16 No-3
MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL BLIGHT PATHOGENS ASSOCIATED WITH RICE CROPS OF SINDHCorresponding Author
Javed Asghar Tariqjatariq_1411@yahoo.com
Authors: Javed Asghar Tariq , MuhammadIsmai, Iftikhar Ali Odano, Muhammad Usman Asif, Raza Muhammad Memon* and Muhammad Asif
Rice bacterial leaf blight is an injurious disease among all disquieting problems of rice in Pakistan. The key and main procedure for its control is identification and characterization of its causal agent. To achieve the goals, a comprehensive surveillance was made to collect infected samples. Associated bacteria were isolated from these diseased specimens by direct plating method. Then cultures were subjected for purification and morphological characterization. Their colonies were small, medium and large. The shapes of colonies were filamentous, circular and irregular on Nutrient Agar (N.A) media. Their elevation was convex, raised and their edges were entire and undulate. The color of colonies was yellow, pale yellow, light orange, off white, creamy and reddish. Most of the colonies were smooth.
Keywords: Bacteria, Rice, Disease, Characterization, Sindh
Pages: 175-182 Vol-16 No-3
CHARACTERIZATION OF 9-CIS-EPOXYCAROTENOID DIOXYGENASE3 GENE FROM Hevea brasiliensis AND ITS EXPRESSION RESPONSES BY TISSUE TYPE DURING DROUGHT STRESSCorresponding Author
Authors: Chutima Sutjit , Charassri Nualsri, Saowapa Duangpan, Korakot Nakkanong
In higher plants, the first committed step in controlling abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, 9-CisEpoxycarotenoid Dioxygenase (NCED) is an important rate-limiting enzyme. It plays a major role in plant response to drought stress in stomatal aperture regulation. In this study, the 1,785bp full-length cDNA (designated as HbNCED3), has an open reading frame of 595 encoded amino acids. Amino acid sequence alignment showed that HbNCED3 shares more than 80% similarity with NCED3 from Manihot esculenta and Jatropha curcas. The quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used for detecting the transcription level of HbNCED3 gene after withholding water for 0, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 days. The NCED3 gene was expressed in all tested tissues with different response patterns. The HbNCED3 expression level in root increased sharply during the early stages of drought stress. The continuous accumulation of ABA in leaves was caused mainly by increased transcription of HbNCED3 in the root. This suggested the HbNCED3 may play a role in the molecular drought stress of rubber tree and would serve as a guide for future follow?up research on drought stress mechanism in Hevea.
Keywords: 9-Cis-Epoxycarotenoid Dioxygenase3, Hevea brasiliensis, drought stress, gene expression
Pages: 169-174 Vol-16 No-3
ANTAGONISTIC ACTIVITY OF ACTINOMYCETES ISOLATED FROM KUALA LUMPUR SOIL SAMPLES AGAINST PATHOGENIC BACTERIA.Corresponding Author
Abdullah Y. Al-Mahdidrabdullahyahya@lincoln.edu.my
Authors: Abdullah Y. Al-Mahdi , Ebthag A. Mussa , Alabed Ali A. Alabed , Rasheed Abdulsalam , Nagi A. Al-haj
Background: The screening for novel antimicrobial agents continues in a rather overlooked hunting ground for many researchers. Streptomyces is the best-recognized genus of actinomycetes used in the screening approach for novel antibiotic-producing microorganisms. The work is aimed to isolate bioactive actinomycete strains and identify the most potent isolates. Methods: forty-one actinomycete strains were tested for their antimicrobial activity; out of them, 19 isolates showed a positive response. They were isolated from 18 different soil samples from different locations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Modified agar-streak, agar disc diffusion method (ADD) and agar well diffusion method (AWD) methods were used in both primary and secondary screening. Isolation media were applied, without antibiotic integration and pretreatment heat, which stimulated the growth of actinomycete isolates. Antagonistic actinomycetes were identified based on morpho-chemical properties using Probability Identification of Bacteria (PIB) software. Results: Starch casein agar was found to be selective for actinomycetes. The inhibition zone diameters were found to be larger on nutrient agar plates for bacterial targets. Out of 19 actinomycetes with antagonistic activity, 5 actinomycetes were chosen for secondary screening and further identification. Selected criteria’s were based on a strong zone of inhibition against at least four tested bacteria, specifically targeted organisms, E. coli MTCC 740 and S. aureus MTCC 501. Four isolates were tentatively identified as; Streptomyces violaceoniger, Streptomyces antibioticus, Streptomyces atroolivaceus and Streptomyces alboflavus. Conclusions: Four actinomycete isolates of genus Streptomyces proved strong antibiosis activity against two Gram –ve and +ve important bacterial strains.
Keywords: Antagonistic, Atinomycetes, Streptomyces, PIB, E. coli, S. aureus, ADD, AWD
Pages: 163-167 Vol-16 No-3
HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHLORINATED WATER: A REVIEW ARTICLECorresponding Author
Israa Harjan MohsenIsraa.h.Mohsem@gmail.com
Authors: Israa Harjan Mohsen , Athraa Harjan Mohsen and Haider Kamil Zaidan
Although there are many ways to sterilize drinking water such as chemical and physical methods, many countries still use chlorine to sterilize drinking water. Several researches have shown a strong correlation between chlorine used in water sterilization and the emergence of a large number of diseases when it reacts naturally with organic matter found in water such as decaying tree residues and animal material, producing substances known as chlorinated hydrocarbons which has adverse effects on health, so this article review aimed to investigate the influences of chlorine on health in general
Keywords: Chlorine, by-products, disinfection, water, carcinogenic, health effects
Pages: 153-161 Vol-16 No-3
A PATTERN OF TUBERCULOSIS INFECTION AN OVERVIEWCorresponding Author
Authors: Meerwais Khan , Zhoaib Raja , Hussain Ahmed , Abdul Rauf
Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by pathogenic bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is an acid-fast bacillus (AFB), gram-positive, non-motile, aerobic organism. Each year millions of people became sick due to this disease. Beside this, it caused a huge number of deaths each year and hence is in the top 10 causes of death. In only 2007, 1.3 million people die due to TB. There are several diagnostic tools that can be employed to detect TB infection. This includes rapid molecular diagnostic tests, microscopic examination of sputum and culturing of an infectious agent. These methods have their own limitations and different strategies are employed to develop new tools. Besides this, different new approaches are urgently needed to develop efficient TB vaccine. Tuberculosis can be intervene at different points to develop efficient strategies. In this review, we try to summaries epidemiology of TB, different strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, vaccination for TB, different stages of Tuberculosis, intervening points, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and diagnostic strategies for TB.