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Current Issue 2019

  • Pages: 145-151 Vol-16 No-2

    THE EFFECT OF Lepidium Sativum SEEDS EXTRACT ON SOME OXIDATIVE STRESS, ANTIOXIDANTS AND HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES IN RAT TREATED WITH CCL4

    Corresponding Author

    Loay H. Ali

    hatemloay81@gmail.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Loay H. Ali* and Wurood J. Rajab

    The aim of the current study is to the investigate the effect of hepatoprotective and antioxidant of seeds extracts of the Lepidium Sativum extract against liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride. In our study, white rats were used. CCl4 (0.1) ml \100 gram body weight use to inject the rats intrapersonal mixed in olive oil same amount, twice a week for twelve weeks and treated orally with (LSS) (200 mg/kg) daily for twelve weeks and compared with a group of rats injected intrapersonal with CCl4 (0.1ml\100g b.w.) mixed in olive oil same amount, twice a week for twelve weeks as a control group. CCl4 administration is caused significant changed in serum enzymes (ALP GOT and GPT), oxidant substances (MDA, CAT, GSH and SOD) indicative of hepatic injury. The results revealed that the (LSS) extract significantly decreased AST, ALT and ALP levels. The antioxidant parameters GSH, GPx, SOD and catalase levels were increased considerably compared to their levels in groups not treated with (LSS). Histopathological findings revealed that liver of CCl4-treated rats showed Degeneration, thickness wall of the central vein; the inflammatory cells are infiltrating into portal areas and central vein. There are ameliorated significantly in the rat's groups, that treated by LSS result in a decrease in degenerated hepatocytes and there are reduce in necrosis in the group that treated by LSS (200) mg/kg followed by CCl4 administration, and demonstrated less nuclear degeneration as compared to CCl4 group. Treatment of LSS (200) mg/kg and then followed by CCl4 injection results in a decrease in nuclear degeneration. It could conclude, LSS extract has a protective effect against CCl4 toxicity. Our results are very promising LSS extract could be used to protect liver tissues against CCl4.

    Keywords: Lepidium Sativum, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, carbon tetrachloride

  • Pages: 139-143 Vol. 16 No-2

    CHARACTERIZATION OF SALVINIA MOLESTA AND CHLORELLA PYRENOIDOSA FOR BIOFUEL APPLICATIONS USING FTIR AND TGA

    Corresponding Author

    M. Mubarak

    mubarak7931@gmail.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: M. Mubarak, A. Shaija, T.V Suchithra

    Microalgae and aquatic weeds are considered as promising feedstock for biofuel production due to its higher biomass productivity and lipid content. The characterization of the feedstock is important for biofuel production. In this work, an attempt was made for the characterization of Salvinia molesta and Chlorella pyrenoidosa using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis for biofuel production. The dried and grounded S. molesta and C. pyrenoidosa was used for both analyses. The FTIR spectra was recorded from wavenumber 4004000cm-1. The TGA was performed from 28-750oC with a heating rate of 10oC/min using powdered S. molesta and C.pyrenoiodosa. The FTIR spectra showed that lipid, carbohydrate, cellulose and fatty acids bands are predominant which indicates that S. molesta and C. pyrenoidosa can be used a potential feedstock for biofuel production. The thermogravimteric analysis showed the presence of three distinct stages such as drying, devolatilization and steady decomposition of heavy components such as lignin.

    Keywords: Biomass productivity, FTIR, TGA, Lipid, Carbohydrate. Salvinia molesta, Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

  • Pages: 133-137 Vol. 16 No-2

    POST-PHOTOTHERAPY HYPOCALCEMIA IN FULL-TERM ICTERIC NEONATES AT TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Corresponding Author

    Kanwal mahadev

    kanwalmohanlal@hotmail.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Kanwal mahadev and Mohamad Iqbal

    Neonatal jaundice affects approximately 60% of term and 80% of preterm infants requiring medical intervention shortly after birth. Phototherapy is a convenient and economical modality for the treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia but it has some side effects e.g. hypocalcemia. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to determine the frequency of post phototherapy hypocalcemia. A total 117 full-term, icteric neonates who were exposed to photo- therapy for ?48 hours were enrolled and hypocalcemia was assessed from serum calcium level before and after exposure to phototherapy. Phototherapy induced hypocalcemia was present in twenty icteric neonates (17.1%) and affecting more female (n=12, 60%) as compared to male (n=8, 40%). Serum calcium levels were significantly reduced from 9.25 ± 0.56 mg/dL to 8.39±0.92 mg/dL after 48 hours of phototherapy (P-value ? 0.001). Moreover, a significant difference was also observed in Serum bilirubin level from baseline values 17.74 ± 1.986 mg/dL to 9.69 ± 1.29 mg/dL after 48 hours of phototherapy (P-value ? 0.001). Although the prevalence of hypocalcemia was not much higher but there is a need for calcium assessment for all neonates undergoing phototherapy.

    Keywords: Icteric neonates, hypocalcemia, phototherapy

  • Pages: 127-131 Vol. 16 No-2

    ECONOMIC BURDEN OF CAESARIAN SECTION DELIVERIES AT CIVIL HOSPITAL HYDERABAD from PATIENTS PERSPECTIVE

    Corresponding Author

    Qurat-ul-Ain Soomro

    quratulainsoomro@gmail.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Qurat-ul-Ain Soomro and Ejaz Ahmed Khan

    Background: Caesarean Section (CS) is a surgical process to minimize the risk of complications associated with vaginal birth and saves the life of both Mother and Child. Although it has economic aspects that directly effect on low income families. This study was designed to estimate the total average costs and to evaluate the opportunity cost of mothers and her guardian after cesarean section at public tertiary care Hospital.
    Methodology: It was a Hospital based cost estimating cross-sectional study. Total 270 mothers were randomly selected and interviewed. Data was collected through a semi-structured questionnaire consisted of demographic and expenditure on various factors of care for the cesarean section delivery.
    Results: The average unit costs for cesarean section delivery were 7647 rupees (69$). The mean opportunity cost of cesarean section delivery of days of work loss were 1334.02 rupees (12.13$) respectively. Duration of stay (>5 days) at cesarean section wards (p =0.000) and comorbidity (p = 0.001) was showed the significant association with total cost 2064769 (18603.57$).
    Conclusion: This study concluded that expenditure on cesarean section delivery and the opportunity cost of time of work loss were high, and it was equal to/ more than the monthly household income of one-fourth of families. Postpartum mothers and their families were economically affected due to high costs.

    Keywords: cesarean section, unit cost, patient’s perspective, opportunity cost

  • Pages: 119-126 Vol. 16 No-2

    COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE ANTIOXIDANT PHYTOCHEMICAL CONTENTS OF SOME SELECTED COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE OILS IN NIGERIA

    Corresponding Author

    Nkwocha, C. Chinelo

    austinelonwa@gmail.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Nkwocha, C. Chinelo; Ekeanyanwu C. Raphael and Nwagwe R. Onyinyechi

    The present study was aimed at comparing the locally produced vegetable oils (Mamador vegetable oil, Imo palm oil, Nsukka palm oil, Kings vegetable oil) with a foreign produced vegetable oil (Turkey vegetable oil), as to the levels of total flavonoids, total phenolic compounds, total glycosides and total alkaloids. In order to quantify and identify the aforementioned antioxidants, GC model of GC SR18610 Gas chromatography FID/ECD was employed. Kings vegetable oil was characterized by high content of total flavonoids (40.798 g/100g). Turkey vegetable oil was characterized by high content of phenolics (67.173 g/100g). Imo palm oil was characterized by high content of total alkaloids (39.194 g/100g), while Mamador vegetable oil was characterized by high content of total glycosides (40.511g/100g). However, the locally produced vegetable oil (Kings vegetable oil) presented important content of the four antioxidants: total flavonoids (38.141g/100g), total alkaloids (23.132g/100g), total phenolics (51.672g/100g) and total glycosides (19.730g/100g). According to the result, it is therefore suggested that the locally produced vegetable oil (Kings Vegetable Oil) can be used as specialty oil since it contains relatively high amount of the aforementioned antioxidants. However, the other vegetable oils under study such as Imo palm oil, Turkey Vegetable Oil, Nsukka palm oil and Mamador Vegetable Oil are all suitable for consumption since they contain reasonable amount of antioxidants.

    Keywords: vegetable oil, total glycosides, total flavonoids, total phenolics, total alkaloids, gas chromatography

  • Pages: 115-118 Vol. 16 No-2

    ANALYSIS OF GENE EXPRESSION VALUE USING BIO-INSPIRED ALGORITHMS

    Corresponding Author

    J. Sumitha

    sumivenkat2006@gmail.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: J. Sumitha

    Breast cancer is one of the most common and rigorous cancers among women and continues to be a health problem all over the world. Due to genetic mutations and changes in the life styles, food habits, radiations, BRCA gene become oncogene. In this paper, Orthogonal Non-Negative Tri-factorization method and Bat algorithm was proposed for finding the disease – causing BRCA gene. Mostly Bat algorithm is used for optimizing the efficiency of the other bio-inspired algorithms. These algorithms are compared with each other to determine the efficiency in detecting the diseases from gene expression value. The results proved that the Bat algorithm performs better than Orthogonal Non-Negative Tri-factorization and other Bio-inspired algorithms than ever before.

    Keywords: Bat, Breast Cancer, Confusion matrix, Identification of BRCA gene, MNTF, ONMTF.

  • Pages: 105-113 Vol. 16 No-2

    INHERITANCE STUDIES FOR MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS IN WHEAT UNDER RAINFED CONDITION.

    Corresponding Author

    Muhammad Shahid Iqbal1

    shahidkooria@gmail.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Mian Faisal Nazir, Talat Mahmood, Muhammad Kausar Nawaz Shah, Zareen Sarfraz, Wazir Ali Metlo, Muhammad Abaid Ullah and Muhammad Shahid Iqbal1

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) the most widely grown crop across the globe is considered as the staple food of about 35% population of the world. Being a water-deficit country, Pakistan faces major reduction in wheat production especially in rainfed areas. Photosynthate or current assimilates are among the major carbon sources used during the grain filling period, whereas during moisture stress these may not be available. Hence reserves present in stem and other parts of the plant are important carbon sources for grain filling under stress conditions. Under treatment of Potassium iodide genotype LLR-22 showed the better performance while Nacozari showed the highest grain yield under rainfed conditions. Among crosses, cross LLR 20 x Parula showed the highest value for yield under both environments. Combining ability analysis revealed that under stress conditions, the traits showed different behaviour than the control condition. GL, GW, NGS, PH, DH and SL showed non-additive gene action (GCA< SCA) under control conditions while GW, TGW, YLS and NGS depicted non-additive gene action under treated conditions. GL, PH and DH showed additive type of gene action under treated condition. The crosses Nacozari x LLR 22, LLR 22 x CB 42, CB 42 x LLR 21 and LLR 22 x LLR 20 showed highest SCA effects for traits under study viz. grain yield, grains per spike, plant height and days to heading respectively. LLR 21 can be considered as the best general combiner for multiple agronomic traits under study.

    Keywords: Stem reserve translocation, photosynthetic assimilates, GSC, SCA, combining ability

  • Pages: 101-104 Vol. 16 No-2

    ANALYSIS OF GENE EXPRESSION VALUE USING BAT ALGORITHM WITH MULTIFACTOR NON-NEGATIVE MATRIX FACTORIZATION

    Corresponding Author

    J. Sumitha

    sumivenkat2006@gmail.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: J. Sumitha

    The main aim is to identify the disease-affected gene from microarray data and predict the results from the gene expression value. Many computer-assisted algorithms are proposed to investigate a gene is done using machine learning and other bio-inspired algorithms. In this paper, hybridization of Bat algorithm with Multifactor Non-negative Matrix Tri-factorization method are proposed and compared with Multifactor Non-negative Matrix Tri-factorization method to estimate the efficiency of hybridization of bio-inspired algorithm to prove its optimization. The proposed Multifactor Non-negative Matrix Tri-factorization method with Bat algorithm is used to optimize these predictive results and proven its effectiveness and efficiency in detecting the disease-causing gene than ever before.

    Keywords: Cotton Seed Bug, Fiber Characteristics, Transgenic and Non-Transgenic Cotton

  • Pages: 91-99 Vol. 16 No-2

    ASSESSMENT OF COTTON SEED BUG, OXYCARENUS LAETUS KIRBY DAMAGE IN TRANSGENIC AND NON-TRANSGENIC GENOTYPES OF COTTON.

    Corresponding Author

    Muhmmad Shahid Iqbal

    shahidkooria@gmail.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Muhammad Akram, Muhammad Rafiq Shahid, Mussurrat Hussain, Muhammad Farooq, Ghulam Mujtaba Khushk, Muhammad Shahid, Ali Raza, Saghir Ahmad and Muhmmad Shahid Iqbal

    By introduction of transgenic cotton, dusky cotton bug (DCB) (Oxycarenus laetus Kirby) has attained the status of major pests of cotton. In order to assess its damage on cotton crop current study was undertaken under field condition at the research area of Cotton Research Institute, Multan. For this purpose, two transgenic cotton genotypes viz. MNH-886 and MNH-988 and two non-transgenic cotton genotypes viz. MNH-814 and VH-289 were cultivated during the two cropping seasons during 2014 and 2015. The cotton plants were covered with muslin cloth at reproductive stage to keep crop free from attack of any other insect pest at the time of data recording. A total of 400 bugs were manually released in caged plants possessing on an average 10 semi- opened bolls/plant. The bug density was maintained during the time of data recording. The results revealed that O. laetus caused significant decline in cotton seed germination %, 100-seed weight, boll weight, staple length, mike, staple strength and lint index ranged from 35.11 to 49.68%, 17.4 to 39.6%, 28.27 to 33.24%, 3.33 to 8.58%, 2.93 to 6.59%, 11.32 to 28.24% and 8.16 to 15.02%, respectively of both Bt and non Bt cultivars of cotton. Whereas, due to cotton seed density Ginning Out Turn percentage increased over control ranged from 11.43 to 19.39% in both transgenic and conventional cultivars of cotton. If we see the combine effect of coefficient of determination on both transgenic and non-transgenic genotypes of cotton it exerted 45.10% variability in boll weight, 56.90% in GOT, 5.00% in staple length, 16.5% in mike, 70.9% in staple strength, 73.20% in seed index, 16.30% in lint index and 84.70% in cotton seed germination. The regression model in combine effect was observed statistically significant to all the parameters of cotton except in case of staple length.

    Keywords: Cotton Seed Bug, Fiber Characteristics, Transgenic and Non-Transgenic Cotton

  • Pages: 81-90 Vol. 16 No-2

    ANTISTATIC PACKAGING OF PLASTICIZED BIODEGRADABLE POLYLACTIC ACID / GRAPHENE NANCOMPOSITES

    Corresponding Author

    Saif M. Jaseem

    saif.mohammad1990@icloud.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Saif M. Jaseem and Nadia A. Ali

    Poly lactic acid is inexperienced various to organic compound artifact plastics, employed in packaging with graphene that being one atom thick sheet, composed of sp2 carbon atoms organized in an exceedingly flat honeycomb structure .In this analysis victimization plasticizer thymol with composites were ready by an answer casting technique with (0.5-10) % towers Graphene .Experimental work contain morphological (AFM,FTIR), mechanical(Tensile, Tear, Hardness),electrical conductivity Color , contact angle, and TGA . Results hyperbolic electrical physical phenomenon with hyperbolic Graphene and makes the composite less resistive and appropriate to be used as antistatic packaging , increase the strength and tensile modulus and elongation at (0.5-1)% and attenuate in (3-10%)%,Tear Resistance attenuate once the tensile decrease however hardness hyperbolic with graphene .The results of contact angle of pure PLA is 83? that hydrophobic and attenuate to 51? at PLA/thymol/Graphene 10% percent to get hydrophilic that able to dissipate or promote the decay of electricity and improve method ability of device. Color and Brightness show that attenuate however appropriate for antistatic packaging and have become opacity at 100 percent Graphene. Thermal stability shows that Graphene hydrolysis by oxidization and exfoliation of carbon and also by the functionalization of sheets graphene to hence on the mass loss of composites.

    Keywords: Polylactic acid, Graphene, Antistatic packaging, Color, Contact angle

  • Pages: 69-80 Vol. 16 No-2

    EVALUATION OF CULTURE REQUIREMENTS FOR CELLULOSE PRODUCTION BY EGYPTIAN LOCAL ISOLATE ALONGSIDE REFERENCE STRAIN GLUCONACETO- BACTER HANSENII ATCC 23769

    Corresponding Author

    Ahmed Khera Saleh

    asrk_saleh@yahoo.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Ahmed Khera Saleh, Ayman Farrag Ahmed, Nadia Abdel-Mohsen Soliman, Maha Mohamed Ibrahim, Nashwa Ahmed El-Shinnawy, Yasser Refaat Abdel-Fattah

    Cellulose demonstrates unique properties and suitable for many different applications. In the present study an acetic acid bacterial strain has been isolated from rotten apple and investigated as cellulose producer. The strain was identified using morphological, biochemical characterization and 16s rRNA gene sequencing and named as Komagataeibacter hansenii (K. hansenii AS.5) under identity percentage 99%. Culture conditions for BC production by K. hansenii AS. 5 were screened and compared with reference one Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC 23769 under static condition. Optimization of key production parameters has been carried out using OVAT (One Variable at Time) approach. Effect of media composition, inoculum size, pH, temperature, incubation time, different carbon and nitrogen sources were evaluated. The highest production of cellulose (3.75 g/l) was obtained after 10 days, 8% inoculum size, incubation 25?C by K. hansenii AS.5 using Yamanaka medium with glucose and yeast extract (YE) as a sole carbon and nitrogen source, respectively. On contrast, G. hansenii ATCC 23769 exhibits the maximal BC production (2.18 g/l) under the modified GEM medium composed of mannitol and yeast extract as the optimum carbon and nitrogen source after 7 days at 25 ?C and inoculum size 6%. It is clearly noticed the Cellulose production by the local isolate is higher than the reference one by 1.7- fold.

    Keywords: Cellulose production, Egyptian isolates, Culture requirements, OVAT.

  • Pages: 64-67 Vol. 16 No-2

    THE PREVALENCE OF SEN VIRUS GENOTYPES IN BAGHDAD CITY

    Corresponding Author

    Tariq M. Quasim

    Tarikmkasim1956@gmal.com,
  • Abstract

    Authors: Tariq M. Quasim, Abdelwahab A R. Alshaikhly

    SEN virus (SEN V) is one of worldwide incidence of blood borne pathogen. The most dominant genotypes among the nine genotypes of the SEN virus are SENV-D and H. The objective of this research was to determine the frequency of SENV genotypes particularly SENV- D and H genotypes in healthy Iraqi participant’s sera. Totally, 200 serum samples from healthy voluntaries were collected from both gender as well as subjected to nested PCR. SENV-D was detected in 30% healthy individuals and more frequent in tested male 51.25 than in female individuals 48.75%. The frequency of SENV-H was found in 5% of participants. SENV-D is the dominant strain in the Iraqi studied group followed by genotypes H. phylogenetic tree analysis of virus near-complete open-reading frame 1(ORF1), was performed, and the evolutionary relationship indicated that local isolates were very close to the group that included the Asian isolates.

    Keywords: SEN virus, genotypes H, genotypes D, PCR, Sequence,