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EDITORIAL BOARD

2018

NUMERICAL MODELING OF COMPOSITE BEAMS MADE WITH SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE

By 1S. Sathyan, 2R. Sundararajan, 3K. Vivek

Vol-15 No-4

Abstract

Concrete is a widely used building material; many scientists are in the hunt for forming an alternative material for construction that is environment-friendly, constantly available and offers sustainable development. Composite sections which are made with concrete and cold formed steel sheets are more widely used in foreigncountries to attain more structural efficiency. In this study,CFS sheets of 2mm are used to decrease the selfweight, thereby addingadditional tension reinforcement of 12mm diameter.It can take heavy loads andimprove the structural efficiency. Cold formed steel sheets were used as trapezium shaped perforated sections for composite beams.Therefore, cold formedsteel sections increase the load carrying capacity ofbeams by using self-compacting concrete of grade M30.

SERUM IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, M AND A LEVELS IN CHILDREN WITH NEPHROTIC SYNDROME AND ITS CORRELATION WITH BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS

By Ammar B. Al-Assadi1 , Nidhal A. Mohammed1 and Shatha H. Ali2

Vol-15 No-4

Abstract

Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is an immune-mediated renal disease that linked with T-cells dysfunction and secondary disturbance of B-cells with changes in concentration of immunoglobulin (Ig). The aim of this study is to compare the levels of IgG, IgM, and IgA in children with nephrotic syndrome and healthy control children. Fifty children with NS were divided into four groups: fourteen steroids sensitive infrequent relapse (SSIFR), twelve steroid sensitive frequent relapse (SSFR), nine steroid resistance (SR) and fifteen newly diagnosed nephrotic syndrome (ND) compared to twenty-five unrelated healthy children. Results of IgG, IgM and IgA serum levels determined by RID showed a significant decrease (P=0.0001) in IgG mean level (464.72 ± 50.34 mg/dl) of NS children in compared with healthy control mean level (1209.34 ± 75.51 mg/dl), and a highly significant increase (P=0.0001) in IgM mean level (201.37 ± 10.12 mg/dl) of NS patients in compared with control mean level (113.08 ± 8.42 mg/dl), there is no significant difference (P=0.4387) between NS patients and healthy control in IgA serum levels. In all children with NS, in comparison to healthy control, the serum level of IgG is reduced and the serum level of IgM is elevated. There is a close relation between albuminuria, hypoalbuminemia and hyperlipidemia and serum IgG and IgM levels. There is no significant difference between IgA level in patients and control.

INVESTIGATION ON STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF SELFCOMPACTING CONCRETE WITH M-SAND AND METAKAOLIN

By M. Sivaraj,R.Sundararajan, 1V. Karthik

Vol-15 No-4

Abstract

Construction projects have been increasing rapidly leading to an enormous rise in the usage of concrete, which has led to the depletion of river sand. Extraction of river sand results in environmental problems like the depletion of the ground water and soil erosion and ecological problems such as the extinction of fauna and flora. SelfCompacting Concrete (SCC) can be really a high-performance concrete that may flow under its own weight, occupies the form work entirely and self-consolidates without the need for vibration[5][6].The laying of this type of concrete can save both labour and time. M Sand is crushed rock (fine aggregates) made out of solid granite rock that is cubically formed with wrought borders, cleaned and rated with consistency to function as an alternative for river sand. Using M Sand could overcome the flaws transpiring in concrete like honey cleaning, segregation, voids, etc[3] . The objective of this work is to study the strength properties of self-compacted M-sand concrete Metakolin. For this purpose, M30 grade concrete was used and tests were conducted for various proportion of sand replaced with MSand at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and Metakaolin was used as an admixture to the concrete. Concrete specimens were tested conforming to Bureau of specifications. The results obtained have been analysed with regard to the control specimens. By the evaluation outcome, it has been found that 30 percent of these traditional fine aggregate (River Sand) can possibly be independently substituted with M-Sand to enhance the mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete.

INVESTIGATION ON STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF FLYASH BASED GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE AND PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF FINE AGGREGATE WITH M-SAND

By 1G. Siva Chidambaram, 1M. Natarajan, 2V. Karthik, 3K. Vivek

Vol-15 No-4

Abstract

Concrete is one of the most vital building materials subsequent to the water. Day by day demand of concrete is escalating with rising demand on infrastructural development, but due to the emission of a considerable quantity of CO2 throughout the course of the production of cement is the principal issue concern with environmental pollution. The output of ordinary Portland cement adds about 5 to 7% of total greenhouse gas emission. As a result, it is essential to discover a substitute for cement. Fly ash is a waste material which is comprised of a great volume of silica and alumina. Fly ash is also a by-product of coal received from the thermal power station. In this research work, fly ash is employed to produce geopolymer concrete. Geopolymer is a cement-free concrete which is produced when silica and alumina react chemically with the alkaline solution. In geopolymer, fly ash function as a binder and alkaline solution function as an activator. The natural river sand has a huge demand in the developing countries to meet the active infrastructure growth. In this circumstance, emerging country like India facing a deficit in the sound quality natural sand. To minimize these difficulties, recently Manufactured sand is employed as a partial replacement with natural river sand. Fly ash and alkaline chemical activator undergo geopolymerization process to make aluminosilicate gel. In this study, fly ash based geopolymer concrete is developed with partial replacement of river sand with M-sand at various percentage replacements from 0 to 100%. An alkaline solution with 2:5 ratio of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide was used in this research work. The strength behaviors of the geopolymer concrete enhance with rising the percentage replacement of M-Sand.

EFFICIENCY OF SOME BACTERIAL CONSORTIA IN THE BIODEGRADATION OF PETROLEUM SOIL-CRUDE OIL

By Akl B.A.*, Hamad Salem S., Abd El-Fattah H.I., Fahmy M.A

Vol-15 No-4

Abstract

Two soil textures, clay soil (CS) and sandy loam soil (SLS) were used among a simple microcosm system, and artificially spiked with 2% crude oil. The bioremediation process was continued for 60 days at 30?C for soil treated with 6 active bacterial hydrocarbon degraders. Results of the microcosm experiment showed that the total bacterial counts were higher in SLS than the CS for all treatments at different times (20, 40 and 60 days). The mixed bacterial strains (Bacillus licheniformis RdI17, Pseudomonas nitroreducens RdI14, Bacillus subtilis ssp. subtilis GH5, Sphingobacterium thalpophilum QBII6, Pseudomonas nitroreducens RdI14 and Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens) in consortium T5 was more efficient in biodegradation during the time course of experiment than other consortiaT3 and T4. Regarding the three consortia, T3, T4 and T5 results showed that the highest soil respiratory rate was 14 days post incubation during microcosm experiment and being 41.86 and 39.44 mg CO2/100 g.dw.soil for T3, 46.70 and 41.86 mg CO2/100 g.dw.soil for T4, and 49.12 and 46.70 mg CO2/100 g.dw.soil for T5 in the case of SLS and CS, respectively. Overall the GC analysis showed that the highest biodegradation of crude oil in microcosm experiment was achieved with 98.891, 79.102 and 88.724% in sandy loam soil and 93.289, 77.112 and 67.921% in CS due to bacterial consortia application.

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON BEHAVIOR OF CONCRETE STRENGTHENED WITH GFRP WRAPPING

By R. Muthukumar, N. Balasundaram, 1Neeta.A

Vol-15 No-4

Abstract

Nowadays, repair, rehabilitation, and strengthening of surviving structures play a significant part in the construction industry. Numerous old structures are to be retrofitted to bear higher loads. A promising and innovative retrofitting system for concrete structures requires the use of externally bonded Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites. Furthermore, the increasing number of development activities need to strengthen the existing buildings to enable them to take additional loads. In this paper, an effort has been made to examine the effect of GFRP flexible wrapping on Beams to enhance the load carrying potential of beams and to assess the behavioral improvement of GFRP composites on beams. This paper exhibits the results of experimental investigations on concrete beam restricted with high-strength Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) composites. The various parameter fiber orientations were considered. Various wrap fiber orientation of 0o , 90o , ± 45o and mixtures of them were examined. The results confirmed a notable improvement in the compressive strength and stiffness of the GFRP-wrapped concrete beams.

USE OF SOME STREPTOMYCES ISOLATES AND THEIR MIXTURES AS BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS AGAINST POWDERY MILDEW OF FLAX CULTIVAR MARYLIN R3 IN AN OUTDOOR POT EXPERIMENT

By Sonya Hamouda Mohamed1 and Mansour M.T.M2

Vol-15 No-4

Abstract

In this study, the effect of some isolates of Streptomyces and their mixtures was evaluated as a biological control agent against powdery mildew (PM) of flax cv. Marlin R3, its effect on disease incidence (DI), disease severity (DS), seed yield (SY) and straw yield (StY) R3 in an outdoor pot experiments of two seasons (2016 and 2017). Four Streptomyces isolates (SI) of SI-3, SI-5 and StI-11 with its mixture and 15 treatments. The individual isolates (SI-1), SI-3, and SI-5 were the most effective in the resistance of mildew disease with efficiency of 86.96, 69.57 and 86.96%, respectively. In contrast, individual isolates (SI-11) had no effect on the disease. On the other hand, there was a difference in the effect of the isolate’s mixture in the resistance of the PM, as demonstrated by the efficiency of the three mixtures (SI-1, SI-3, SI-5, SI-11) and SI-1 (SI-3) and SI-3, SI-5, SI-11), 86.96, 73.33 and 56.67%, respectively. The rest of the mixtures did not have any effect on the resistance of the PM disease. Linear correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation between DI and disease intensity at a significant level (r = 0.985, p? 0.1) in 2016 and 2017 (r = 0.960, p ? 0.1). In 2016 there was a significant negative correlation between DI, DS, SY and StY. While in 2017 there was a negative correlation between the severity of the disease and the occurrence of the disease and SY only. Cluster analysis was only partially successful in the separation of the potent and ineffective strains of Streptomyces in the resistance to PM disease.

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON THE DURABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF HYBRID FIBER REINFORCED SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE

By K. Tamilselvan, N. Balasundaram and 1T.S. Kumanan

Vol-15 No-4

Abstract

Concrete is a recently developed material in the last few decades, which is made up of cement, fine aggregates and water. Self-Compacting concrete can be classified as an advanced construction material. The SCC, as the name suggests, does not require to be vibrated to achieve full compaction. In this project, an attempt is made to study experimentally the durability properties of M40 Self compacting concrete containing Hybrid admixtures such as steel fibre and polypropylene at 0.5% and 1%. Natural sand is replaced by 30% to the weight of sand. Durability characteristics have been studied for both the reference concrete as well as admixture concrete.

CHROMOSOME NUMBERS AND KARYOTYPES OF EURYCOMA LONGIFOLIA JACK AND EURYCOMA APICULATA A.W. BENN (SIMAROUBACEAE)

By Zulfahmi1*, Aidelia Rahmasari1 , Mokhamad Irfan1 , Rosmaina1 , Muhammad Nazir2

Vol-15 No-4

Abstract

Knowledge of chromosome cytology of the Eurycoma longifolia and Eurycoma apiculata was limited. The goal of this study was to investigate number, size, karyotype, and ideogram of chromosomes of E. longifolia and E. apiculata. The total of chromosome lengths, relative lengths, the ratio of long arm to short arm, and index of centrometric of somatic cell chromosomes were measured. The basic number of chromosomes of both species was x=7, chromosome counting displayed that E. longifolia and E. apiculata were diploid. Somatic chromosome numbers that are found were 2n = 2x = 14 for both species. The total chromosome length was ranged from 5.33 to 9.22 µm for E. longifolia and ranged from 4.15 to 10.52 µm for E. apiculata. Karyotype formula of E. longfolia and E. apiculata was 2n = 2x = 14 = 6m + 1sm and 2n = 2x = 7m, of which six pairs metacentric chromosomes and one pair submetacentric chromosome in E. longifolia and seven pairs metacentric chromosomes in E. apiculata respectively. Based on Eroglu’s classification, karyotype symmetric/asymmetric index (S/AI) value of the E. apiculata was 1.0 and was classified into perfectly symmetric karyotype that is characterized by completely metacentric chromosomes, while S/AI value of E. longifolia was 1.14 and was grouped as symmetric karyotype.

STRENGTHENING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS WITH STEEL REINFORCEMENTS BY NSM SYSTEM

By R.Muthukumar, *N.Balasundaram, 3Neeta.A

Vol-15 No-4

Abstract

To enhance the service loading requirement, imposed cyclic loading and errors in design, reinforces the reconstruction of existing structural members to improve its strength. In the current scenario, two primary methods of strengthening were in usage which shows remarkable results. Active strengthening systems are EBR (Externally Bonded Reinforcement system) and NSM (Near Surface Mounted system). In this study, an experimental investigation was made for strengthening of reinforced RC beams in flexural behavior with NSM systems employing various proportions of steel bars. Beams were tested with two-point load test setup up to failure, on 4 RC beams of size 125 mm width, 200 mm depth and 1800 mm length which are strengthened with varied combinations of steel reinforcement. Yield strength and ultimate strengths of RC beams, failure modes, ductility behavior and cracking behavior was recorded and reviewed based on measured load and deflection. The final output of this project results in increasing of deflection, ductility nature and also flexural strength raised up to 54.82%.

DEGRADATION STUDY OF THIOPHANATE-METHYL RESIDUES IN CUCUMBER (Cucumis sativus)

By 1Ali Bassam Al-Obaidie, 2Abdulkareem Jawad Ali, 3Saleh Hassan Sumir, 4Osama Imad Al-Samaraie, 5Methal Hadi Ali

Vol-15 No-4

Abstract

We carried out the experiment under greenhouse conditions in plant protection department/ Ministry of Agriculture during 2017–2018 season, to assess the degradation sample of Thiophanate methyl (70% WP) fungicide in cucumber at three use rates (1.5gm/L. 3gm/L. and double spray 1.5gm/L).The researchers carried out the quantitative analysis of the fungicide residues as carbendazim was using High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using QuEChERS extraction method. I found the rate of recovery was 92-106% and the comparative standard variation (RSD) were below 3.8%. Next the first order kinetics the fungicide degrades in cucumber i found the half life value in cucumber between 12.2–13.4 days unheeding of position and dose.

AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON THE STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS OF HYBRID FIBER REINFORCED SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE

By K. Tamilselvan1 , N. Balasundaram1 , V. Karthik2 , S. Suryarakash3

Vol-15 No-4

Abstract

The concrete is one of the most recognized society development materials in the construction industry. Today’s challenge in the construction field is to improvise the strength and durability characteristics of concrete. Usually, the concrete is innovated by appropriating most popular supplements for the ingredients of concrete. In this study, the impact of metal (steel) and polypropylene fibers on the strength features of self-compacting concrete (SCC) has been analyzed. Self - Compacting Concrete may compact with the help of its own weight and is a viscous concrete mixture with no segregation. From the density and strength results of the experimental analysis, the mix and dose combination of superplasticizer and VMA to obtain better quality of Self Compacting concrete was selected.

STARCH-CHITOSAN MODIFIED BLEND AS LONG-TERM CONTROLLED DRUG RELEASE FOR CANCER THERAPY

By Ismaeel Moslam Alwaan1* , Muhannad Ahmed1 , Khalida K. Abbas Al-Kelaby2 , Zuhair Saleh Mehdi Allebban3

Vol-15 No-4

Abstract

The conventional drug delivery system has serious limitations. These limitations can be overcome by using the smart materials to produce an effective drug delivery system. Corn starch cross-linked chitosan using potassium persulfate as an accelerator with different ratios of corn starch/chitosan blends were prepared as smart materials for drug delivery system. The hydroxyurea drug was loaded in smart materials blends to evaluate the efficacy of new materials on therapy of Rhabdomyosarcoma cancer cell line (RD). The FT-IR results revealed that the reaction was occurred between blends materials (starch/chitosan). SEM tests illustrated that the different morphologies were obtained in blend films surface. The rate of drug release was sensitive to pH and significantly increased at pH 2.2 as compared to pH 7.4. Furthermore, the percentage of swelling was higher in acidic solution than in neutral solution. It was concluded that the starch/chitosan smart materials may be suitable for medical applications like drug delivery system to RD cell line as confirmed by the availability and morphology test of RD cell line.

STARCH-CHITOSAN MODIFIED BLEND AS LONG-TERM CONTROLLED DRUG RELEASE FOR CANCER THERAPY

By Ismaeel Moslam Alwaan1* , Muhannad Ahmed1 , Khalida K. Abbas Al-Kelaby2 , Zuhair Saleh Mehdi Allebban3

Vol-15 No-4

Abstract

The conventional drug delivery system has serious limitations. These limitations can be overcome by using the smart materials to produce an effective drug delivery system. Corn starch cross-linked chitosan using potassium persulfate as an accelerator with different ratios of corn starch/chitosan blends were prepared as smart materials for drug delivery system. The hydroxyurea drug was loaded in smart materials blends to evaluate the efficacy of new materials on therapy of Rhabdomyosarcoma cancer cell line (RD). The FT-IR results revealed that the reaction was occurred between blends materials (starch/chitosan). SEM tests illustrated that the different morphologies were obtained in blend films surface. The rate of drug release was sensitive to pH and significantly increased at pH 2.2 as compared to pH 7.4. Furthermore, the percentage of swelling was higher in acidic solution than in neutral solution. It was concluded that the starch/chitosan smart materials may be suitable for medical applications like drug delivery system to RD cell line as confirmed by the availability and morphology test of RD cell line.

EFFECT OF BEES, CARNAUBA MIXED WAX COATING ON SHRINKAGE PATTERN, WEIGHT LOSS, RESPIRATION AND SENSORY OF SWEET ORANGE CV. CANH

By Nguyen Thu Huyen1,2, Tanachai Pankasemsuk2

Vol-15 No-4

Abstract

The impact of bees, carnauba wax - mixed wax (MW) on shrinkage pattern, respiration, sensory weight loss of Vietnamese sweet orange cv. Canh was studied, by coating fruit with 4, 6, 8 and 10% MW and stored at ambient temperature (22±2oC) RH 80±5% for 20 days, while uncoated fruit were used as control. The shrinkage pattern on the top, middle and bottom were collected during the storage time. The results presented that 8%MW coating at ambient temperature reduced the wrinkle, respiration, maintained sensory values, and weight loss compare with the control fruit. Thickness of orange cv. Canh coated at 10%MW was highest. No significant change on the top, middle, bottom was recorded due to treatment waxing. The number of lenticels and stomata was observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).

FEASIBILITY OF ONSITE COMPOSTING FOR INSTITUTIONAL WASTE

By U. Indira Priya Dharshini * , S.Venkatesan ** ,

Vol-15 No-4

Abstract

The present study describes the generation and handling of waste and the feasibility of onsite composting as a waste management practice. The heaps of non-segregated waste in tones along with foul smelling organic materials make even the paper and plastic a fetid. The waste generated are usually heaped in a place or dumped in the landfill thus causing unhygienic environmental conditioning and improper usage of land. Hence waste management is practiced effectively to manage the waste. Waste management is the collection, transport, recycling, monitoring and disposal of waste. In this paper we discussed about the amount of waste generated in our institution, method and process of managing the organic waste, various sensors used for the process and the process for efficiently managing the organic waste generated from institution.

DEGRADATION OF OILY WASTE WATER IN AQUEOUS PHASE USING SOLAR (ZnO, TiO2 and Al2O3) CATALYSTS

By Ali A. Hassan, Haider T. Naeema , Raid T. Hadi

Vol-15 No-4

Abstract

Oily waste water treatment beforehand injection into reservoirs of oil is required to diminish creation damage. This can be done using solar -catalytic procedure to lessen the oil droplets in oily waste water. In order to optimize the purification of waste water and, a new technique of degradation (the heterogeneous solar-catalysis) of the oil content was underlined. As catalysts we chose a semiconductor which are ZnO, TiO2 and AL2O3 in the presence of solar as source of energy. The results show that the adsorption of the oil content on catalyst agent supported in absence of radiation solar is negligible. It was found that the removal of oil content by zinc oxide touched 95.2 % and 92.11%, 80.7% for titanium dioxide and aluminum oxide respectively in pH=7.42 and 120 min irradiation time. The capability of catalyst agent to eliminate organic was augmented after addition different catalyst agent. Generally, zinc oxide meaningfully by its high ability to adsorb suspended solids and organic compound from oily waste water, in addition, decreases the economic cost of waste water treatment. The kinetics of organic degradation follows pseudo-first order.

PERFORMANCE OF SEVEN EARLY MATURING VARIETIES OF GRAPES (VITIS VINIFERA) UNDER AGRO- CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF POTHWAR, PAKISTAN

By Muhammad Aqeel Feroze1 , NaveedaAnjum1 , Ayesha Manzoor1 , Muhammad Tariq1 and Muhammad Shahid Iqbal1,2*

Vol-15 No-4

Abstract

Seven early maturing grape varieties (Kings Ruby, Sultanina-C, Perlette, Flame Seedless, Vitro Black, Early White and Superior) were evaluated for their comparative performance under semi -arid conditions of Pothowar region during 2015-17 at Barani Agricultural Research Institute, Chakwal, Pakistan. As these varieties ripen before monsoon season so they are suitable for growing in Pothowar region. Data analysis showed that all quality traits regarding these varieties significantly differed from each other. During the year 2015-16, maximum cluster weight was observed in “Flame Seedless” (450.90 g) followed by “Kings Ruby” (449.74 g) and “Superior” (384.97 g) while minimum cluster weight was recorded in “Early White” (199.62 g). However, berries of “Early White” variety were of largest size (2.68 cm) and variety had highest numbers of clusters (49.66) per plant and 10 berries weight (29.21 g) as compared to other varieties. In terms of yield, variety “Superior” performed best and had highest yield (15.90 kg/plant), whereas “Perlette” had lowest yield (8.06 kg/plant). Fruit of “Sultanina-C” had highest T.S.S (19.72 and 19.53 % during the year 2015-16 and 2016-17 respectively) but acidity was highest in fruits of “Vitro Black” (0.35 and 0.34 %). Similar trend was observed for both quality parameters and organoleptic properties during year 2016-17 except cluster weight and 10 berry weight where “Kings Ruby” (412.54 g) and “Superior” (37.03 g) gave the best results. The present study obseved that varieties “Superior”, “Sultanina C”, “Kings Ruby” and “Early white” are most suitable for growing in agro-climatic conditions of Pothowar region.

HALF-CELL POTENTIOSTATIC STUDY OF REINFORCED CONCRETE IN MARINE ENVIRONMENT

By Sindhu, R., Raymond Joseph, Manikandan. N., Mohan Kumar, V., Mouli,. R.

Vol-15 No-4

Abstract

Corrosion of reinforcement in concrete affects the strength and durability of reinforced concrete structure. Monitoring and maintenance of concrete structure throughout the service life prevent the ingress of corrosion at the initial stage. Half-cell potential meter was developed and fabricated to monitor the corrosion potential of reinforcement in a concrete of M25 grade. Half-cell potential test and accelerated corrosion test was carried out in marine environment of 3.5% of NaCl solution. The potential behaviour of specimen subjected to accelerated corrosion is studied throughout the test period. The results were obtained in terms of current flow behaviour and weight loss. Obtained results were plotted graphically and the result comparison of accelerated corrosion test and half-cell potential test was done to know the rate of corrosion occurred in the specimen. Obtained results clearly show that when rate of accelerated corrosion increases the rate of potential difference obtained in half-cell potential also increases. Compression test was carried in both controlled specimen and in the specimen subjected to accelerated corrosion.

OPTIMIZATION OF PEDIOCIN N6 PRODUCTION BY ISOLATE Pediococcus pentosaceus STRAIN N6 WITH MODIFICATION OF CARBON AND NITROGEN SOURCES

By Nurjama’yah Boru Ketaren1*, Yetti marlida2 , Arnim2 and Yuherman2

Vol-15 No-4

Abstract

Pediocin bacteriocin was produced by isolates Pediococcus pentosaceus strain N6. This Pediococcus pentosaceus strain N6 was isolated from Hot Springs RimboPanti West Sumatra. The aim research was to optimize the production Pediocin N6 using modified of carbon and nitrogen sources. Moreover, the testing temperature and pH optimum to obtain the highest antimicrobial activity against pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella thyphimurium and Listeria monocytogenes as well as optimum time in producing Pediocin N6. The growth of cells isolate and optimum production of Pediocin N6 occurs at the end phases logarithms that is between 19-20 hours until the end of the exponential phase is between 35-36 hrs. Antimicrobial Activity of isolated Pediococcus pentosaceus strain N6 was reached optimum 50oC with diameter inhibition zone of 29.6 mm against the bacteria Listeria monocytogenes, 20.3 mm against the E. coli O157: H7 and 18.4 mm against the S. thyphimurium. The optimum pH of antimicrobial activity is pH 5 with diameter inhibition zone of 29.7 mm against the bacteria Listeria monocytogenes, 21.4 mm forthe bacterium E. coli O157: H7 and 19.3 mm forthe bacterium S. thyphimurium. Incorporation of molasses as a carbon source to produce diameter inhibition zone of 34.5 mm against the bacterium L. monocytogenes, 27.9 mm against E. coli O157: H7 and 26.2 mm against S. thyphimurium and skim milk as nitrogen sources to produce diameter inhibition zoneof 3.7 mm against the bacterium L. monocytogenes, 27.6 mm against E. coli O157: H7 and 26.8 mm against S. thyphimurium. Modification of molasses as a carbon source and skim milk the nitrogen source produces highest antimicrobial activity.

AN IMPROVED HAZE REMOVAL METHOD FOR THE APPLICATION OF GEOGRAPHICAL DATA ANALYSIS

By Anju J. Prakash, A. Ferdin and Christopher

Vol-15 No-4

Abstract

The images taken in ghastly climatic conditions is a lot tainted owing to the occurrence of haze. It may also affect heavily, such images used in the ground of computer visualization, object recognition etc. As an aim to resolve this problem in this paper a better image enhancement as well as classification method is employed. The projected work takes benefit of SVD as this solo value allow us to characterize the picture with a minimal set of value that shrink storage space and progress the quality. For a superior quality and feature improvement a rate-based alteration is completed with the help of gaussian filter. The eventual dehazed image is then classified using an improved knn as part of geographical data analysis.

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON BEHAVIOUR OF BEAM USING LATHE WASTE

By B. Preethiwini, P. Hemalatha Dinesh kumar

Vol-15 No-4

Abstract

An experimental investigation is carried out on the strength of lathe waste concrete and behaviour of lathe waste in concrete beams. The lathe waste which is occurred in the powdered form as a raw material which is used in the concrete cubes, cylinders and beams. The Concrete mixes are tested for its compressive strength, split tensile strength and Flexural Strength. The beams were tested for the deflection and cracking. Due to the addition of lathe waste, the powdered form of steel waste when added along with the concrete which tends to attain more strength of the concrete, when compared with the normal conventional concrete. The addition of lathe waste takes place by the percentage of the lathe waste 0%,1%,1.5%,2%,2.5% and tested for its strength and deflection.

IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF SELECTED FUNGICIDES AND BOTANICAL EXTRACTS AGAINST Botryodiplodia theobromae, RESPONSIBLE FOR GUAVA DECLINE

By Shah Dad1 , Manzoor Ali Abro1 , Adnan Baloch2 , Ghulam Jan1 , Yusuf Ali Abdulle3 , Rehmat Ali Baloch2 and Muhammad Anwar2

Vol-15 No-4

Abstract

There are numerous diseases which cause slow growth of plants. Botryodiplodia theobromae is one of the chronic diseases which generate guava decline. It is a destructive fungal pathogen, which brings considerable economic losses in the yield of guava in tropical regions of Sindh, Pakistan. The management of guava decline is very difficult; however, it can be managed up to satisfactory level through certain chemical and botanical practices. Here we studied the efficacy of some selected fungicides, such as Topsin-M, Cabriotop and Acrobat with three concentrations (25, 50, 75 ppm) and botanical extracts, such as tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), Akk (Calotropi sprocera), Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Tooh (Citrullus cololcynthis), for which the concentrations were kept as (2.5, 5.0, 7.5 ml) against B. theobromae. The results manifested that between all of the fungicides Topsin-M was profoundly effective in dropping the linear colony growth of the fungus, whereas Cabriotop appeared moderately helpful, and Acrobat was less effective. While in-vitro evaluation of the botanical extracts showed high variation in reducing the fungus growth. The botanical extracts extensively decreased the linear colony growth of B. theobromae. Between them, tobacco was found to be the most effective botanical extract followed by akk, whereas, neem was moderately effective, and tooh was found less effective against B. theobromae. The present study revealed that B. theobromae could be effectively managed through Topsin-M and Tobacco, fungicide and botanical extract, respectively, which could be future prospective in controlling the guava decline under field conditions. Also, further different fungicides and botanical extracts must be evaluated in-vitro and then applied under field conditions.

STUDY A NEW MACRO ALGAE OF MARINE GREEN IN THE NORTH-WEST OF ARABIAN GULF

By Feryal H. Ibrahim

Vol-15 No-4

Abstract

This study was carried out to study species of marine green algae (Chlorophya) collected from six stations along, Iraqi coast in the north-west of Arabian Gulf, at different depths and seasons during the year 2013.Eighteen species of Chlorophyta were recorded during this work, twelve of them were recorded for the first time in Iraqi marine coastal water. Four species (Codium tomentosum, Monostroma grevillea, Prasiola calophylla, and Prasiola stipitata) are new for Arabian Gulf region.

STUDY ON BEHAVIOUR OF SECONDARY STRESSES IN TRUSSES DUE TO CONNECTION ECCENTRICITIES

By P. Chandrakumar1 , B. Preethiwini2 ,

Vol-15 No-4

Abstract

Secondary stresses occur in steel truss members due to fixity at the nodes, which are considered, pinned in primary analysis. It may also occur in the members due to member imperfections or due to temperature variations. When a truss is fabricated with web members directly welded to chord members, secondary stresses may be induced due to eccentricity of member at the node and weld length imbalance at a joint. If loads are applied over a member, flexural stresses are superimposed over axial stresses, thus the member will be a beam – column. This paper aims at studying the secondary stresses occurring in the following problems, pitched roof truss with directly welded connections with loads at nodes, pitched roof truss with concentric connections (with gusset plates), Parallel chord lattice trusses with directly welded connections with loads at nodes, Parallel chord lattice trusses with directly welded connections with loads on chords. Based on the analysis, Elimination of gusset plates will result a considerable economy in the total cost of the roof truss (i.e)5 to 10% of the cost of truss can be omitted, High secondary stresses exist only in some of the members and then only in the extreme fibers at the ends of the members.

ANTI-BIOFILM STRATEGY: MEROPENEM MODULATES BIOFILM FORMATION IN Acinetobacter lwoffii

By Hadeel Musafer

Vol-15 No-4

Abstract

Objectives: Numerous studies investigated multi-drug resistance and biofilm formation, but not determined the concentration of antibiotics which can be as anti-biofilm. Acinetobacter lwoffii is opportunistic pathogen that is caused increasing rate of hospital-acquired infections. Methods: A. lwoffii isolates from urinary tract infection are MDR. Results: A. lwoffii was resistance to all antibiotics that were tested. The planktonic cells of A. lwoffii 1 and A. lwoffii 7 show resistance (256 and 32) ?g/ ml toward meropenem and levofloxacin respectively, as well as strong resistance (ND) for ceftazidime, amikacin and gentamicin. The biofilm cells MICs results were significantly P < 0.005 higher than the planktonic MICs. Pattern of biofilm ability for #1 and #7 with 2 ?g/ ml meropenem and without showed great tendency to shape a biofilm, where A. lwoffii 1 (1.1) followed by A. lwoffii 7 (1.07). Conclusion: An interesting observation was the formation of biofilm showed enormous decline at a concentration 32 ?g /ml with the presence of meropenem. The intracellular secondary messenger c-di-GMP also significantly declined with meropenem 32 ?g /ml, hence, this confirm the estimation that meropenem affect biofilm formation.

A STUDY ON ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AT COIMBATORE CITY AND ASSESSMENT OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE IMPACT ON THE SOIL ENVIRONMENT IN VELLALORE DUMPING YARD, COIMBATORE CITY, TAMILNADU, INDIA.

By Jenin Rajasingh J., C. Rajakumar, Ashiga T.S., Shruthi R., Jenisha G., Kalaiyarasan.G

Vol-15 No-4

Abstract

The prime objective of this work is the study the condition and quality of municipal solid waste, ground water and air in Coimbatore city. Coimbatore is the popular city in the south Indian state in Tamilnadu with an area of 246.8 km/sq. of 1.60 million as per 2001 sense. Coimbatore is the fastest growing city in India with major hub for Textiles Industries, Commerce, Education, Information Technology, Health Care and manifesting, it’s also refers to as the pump city. Due to rapid increase in urbanization, industrialization and population which leads to increase in solid waste generation and it is disposed by dumping on landfill. Day by day, increase in municipal solid waste (MSW) and its inadequate disposal have become major environmental issues in urban areas. The study of soil characteristics was undertaken to assess the quality of soil due to solid waste dumped at Vellalore dumping yard. Proper municipal solid waste management is not practiced in Coimbatore, though several initiatives are taken by the corporation. This paper deals with the study of polluted soil. The Physico – Chemical characteristics of soil samples were analyzed based on standard procedure. The soil characteristics like major and secondary nutrients such as pH , EC, MC, OM, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na + , K+ and Minor nutrients were estimated and related parameters such as SAR, CEC and ESP were also calculated.

STUDY OF THE K13 GENE POLYMORPHISMS IN PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM IN PESAWARAN, LAMPUNG, INDONESIA

By Betta Kurniawan1 , Nuzulia Irawati2 , Jhons Fatriyadi Suwandi1 , Djong Hon Tjong3

Vol-15 No-4

Abstract

Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has led to a high incidence of malaria. One of the factors most allegedly associated to such resistance is polymorphism of the Plasmodium falciparumK13-propeller (PfK13) gene. This study aimed to determine whether polymorphism of PfK13 gene in Pesawaran, the district with the high incidence rate of malaria in Lampung Province, Indonesia has occurred.Patients (n=52) diagnosed with falciparum malaria that are fulfilled inclusion criteria were assigned as research subjects.The DNA was sampled from venous blood using GB-100 isolation kit (Geneaid), gene amplified using PfK13 primers and Pfk13 nested reaction. All patients recieved ACT treatment and malarial clinical symptoms as well as the density of parasites were recorded on day 1, 2, 3, 7,14 and 28. The results showed there was no mutation of PfK13 gene detected and most patients (98.1%) showed a good response to ACT. In conclusion, the polymorphisms of PfK13 gene in Plasmodium falciparum has not occured in Pesawaran district.

HEMATOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF GRAPHENE NANOPARTICLES EXPOSED TO COMMON CARP CYPRINUS CARPIO L.

By Abdulmotalib J. Al-Rudainy and Hawar A. K

Vol-15 No-4

Abstract

The current was research conducted to study the hematological effects of graphene nanoparticles exposed to common carp Cyprinus carpio L. A total of 48 specimens of Cyprinus carpio with average of 68.44 g in weight were examined to detect the expose graphene nanoparticles on experimental fish. Experimental fish were acclimated for two weeks prior to initiation of the experiment to adapt to laboratory conditions. Fish were exposed to graphene nanoparticles as followed T1, 10; T2, 20 mg / l and control group (without graphene) for 10 days. The study included measuring the hematological parameters of the experimental fish including RBC, WBC, PCV and Hb. Results of statistical analysis showed significant decrement at P ? 0.05 for both RBC (0.770 Cells / ?lx106 ) in T1 and 0.850 Cells / ?lx106 in T2 compared with negative control (1.410 Cells / ?lx106 ). No significant decrease P > 0.05 of each PCV in T1 and T2 (31 and 27%) respectively compared with control negative (35%) and hemoglobin (10.30 and 9 mg/dl) in T1 and T2 respectively compared with negative control (11.65 mg /dl), while the addition of graphene nanoparticles did not effect on the number of WBC in T1 and T2 (15.1 and 19.1 Cells / ?lx103) ) respectively compared with negative control (15.6 Cells / ?l x103 ). The present study was suggested to investigate of the graphene nanoparticles effects to clarify a clear representation about on fish and its danger of its accumulation in aquatic environment