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EDITORIAL BOARD

2018

THE STERATEGIC ROLE OF FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR-21IN OBESITY

By Mir Hassan Khoso1, Meng Fanrui1, Lubna Muhi Rasoul2, Wen Fei Wang1, Muneer Ahmed Khoso3, Yeboah Kwaku Opoku1, Amro Abdelazez4, Sajjad Hussain5, Deshan Li1*

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

Due to obesity many risk factors arise, such as Type 2 Diabetes, Impaired Glucose Tolerance dyslipidemia, hypertension and metabolic homeostasis and disorder. FGF21 is a key regulating endocrine, lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism. Fibroblast growth factor-21 improves glucose tolerance in obese mice, lowers serum free fatty acids (FFA) & results in weight loss. The FGF-21 in obese & diabetes rodent models create confirmatory metabolic variations which consist of dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and a decrease in body weight achieved by insulin sensitivity, glucose uptake in peripheral tissues, rise in energy consumption, fat usage, reducing the production of glucagon on the islet of alpha cells. However, FGF-21 rectifies several metabolic complications and has a promising strategic role in therapeutic aim for treatment of obesity, T2DM, dyslipidemia and other related metabolic complications

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CLOVES SEEDS OF Syzygium aromaticum and Cinnamon Cinnamomum verum BARK ESSENTIAL OILS

By Mohammed Al-janabi and ZainabYaseen

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

The study was conducted between January and June 2017 at the Biotechnology Research Center/Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq. The antibacterial activity of the clove and cinnamon plant essential oils were evaluated by the disc diffusion method against five pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus spp. and Acinetobacter spp. Sterile paper discs of 5 mm diameter were dipped aseptically in an appropriate concentration of essential oils and placed over Mueller–Hinton plates inoculated with pathogens. The best effect of the antibacterial activity of clove oil was observed on Acinetobacter spp. and the least was noted on Escherichia coli. Cinnamon essential oil showed the strongest antibacterial effect on all the five pathogens. On Escherichia coli, the zone of inhibition was 32mm at 1:2 dilution and minimum zone of inhibition was 28 mm at 1:8 dilution. On staphylococcus aureus as a representative of Gram-positive bacteria, the zone of inhibition was 30mm at 1:2 dilution and minimum zone of inhibition were 10 mm at 1:4 dilution. The antibiotics TS (Trimethoprim), T (Tetracycline), E (Erythromycin), CIF (Ciprofloxacin) FOX (Cefoxitin)), SAM (Ampicillin) and NA (Nalidixic) were used in this study to get some results for comparing their effect with the clove and cinnamon oils. The effect of the clove essential oil is higher than the effect of antibiotics used against the Acinetobacter spp. The results of this study confirm that cinnamon is more active than clove and more potent than all antibiotics used against all tested bacteria.

STUDY OF RATAGA BASIN VALLEY (WESTERN OF IRAQ) CRUSTING AND ERODIBILITY BY WIND AND WATER

By Farhan Muhammed Jasim*, Saifulddin Abedulrazaq Salim** and Husam Naji Mukhlif**

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

A field study was conducted in the area of Ratga Valley, western of Iraq, within longitudes (40ş 46' 40" and 39ş 36' 37" N) and latitudes (34ş 17' 19" and 32ş 41' 06" E) to investigate the degradation process of valley lands, depending on the topographic maps, satellite images and digital elevation model, the nature of region was defined as arid and semi-arid land. Results showed the existence seven series of soils within the study area. The Results showed that the values of wind soil Erodibility indicator were ranged between -0.250 and 0.393, (ARCGIS 9.3 software, used), when the soil area of low Erodibility was within the area of 2306 km2, while the soil mid and high Erodibility indicator was located in the area of 566 and 2748 km2, respectively. In the other hand, the area of soil that had low crusting was in the area of 3080 km2. The mid and low area categories were approached to 646 and 1894 km2 for mid and high class, respectively. Also, the areas categories of low, mid and high classes of water Erodibility was located in the area of 154, 1775 and 3691 km2, respectively.

TLR2 AND TLR4 AS A BIOMARKER IN ADULT AND CHILDREN IRAQI BACTERIAL SEPSIS SYNDROME PATIENTS

By Farah Q. Younis*, Ali Hussein. Alwan*, Neihaya H. Zaki*

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the possibility using of TLR2 and TLR4 gene expression as an early biomarkers for diagnosis bacterial septic syndrome in children and elderly. The causative agents of infection was determined by blood culture. TNF-?, IL-10, and sHLA-DR were measured by ELISA and TLR2, TLR4 expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. about 75 patients was diagnosed with sepsis syndrome included in this study . The age range of patients (13days-92years) with mean 56.3±13.9 and matched to 55 healthy volunteers. Depending on age, patients were divided into 4 age groups (group A <1 year, group B 1-13 year, group C 14-40 year and group D >40 year). The results indicated that the levels of TNF-?, IL-10 and sHLA-DR in all age groups were significantly increased except the level of TNF-? in group B compared with control groups. A positive correlation has observed between levels of TNF-? and sHLA-DR with patients age respectively. TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA expression was significantly increased in all age groups with significant difference between group A and groups D. TLR2 expression highly increases in G+ve infection while TLR4 expressed highly in G-ve bacteria. can be conclude that TLR2 and TLR4 expression in bacterial sepsis patients indicates the strong possibility of using them as biomarkers in the early diagnosis of bacterial sepsis syndrome, in children and elderly patients

STUDY LEPTIN AND TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS GENE POLYMORPHISMS ROLE IN SUSCEPTIBILITY TO AMEBIASIS

By Lazim H. K. Altaie1

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

Background: Amebiasis, is prevalent worldwide caused by Enatmoeba histolytica, Demographic risk factors for this disease are well-illustrated; however, genetic predisposing factors are poorly defined. Aims: it aims to assess the role of Gln223Arg variants in leptin receptor (LPTR) gene and Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile variants in toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) gene in the susceptibility to amebiasis in Iraqi patients. Subjects and Methods: a case/control study, included 150 patients with diarrhea were investigated by direct wet mount stained with Lugol’s iodine solution for E. histolytica. Forty-eight of those gave a positive- results and represented the cases. Other 50, family unrelated, sex-, age-, and geographical residence-matched apparently healthy individuals were chosen to represent the control group. DNA was extracted form blood samples from each participant. LEPR and TLR-4 gene fragments corresponding the three variants were amplified with specific sets of primers. The amplified genes were subjected to direct sequencing. Results: The variant Gln223Arg was found to be significantly associated with the susceptibility to amebiasis. Both AG and GG genotypes were more frequents in cases than controls with significant differences. This association was further confirmed in genetic model and allele analysis. In recessive model, the prevalence of AG+GG genotypes were significantly higher in cases than controls. Similarly, the minor allele (allele G) was more frequents among cases than controls with significant difference. Conclusion: These results suggest the role of Gln223Arg variant in LEPR gene in the susceptibility to infection with E. histolytica.

DETECTION AND INVESTIGATION OF AIR POLLUTION ON WORKERS' HEALTH IN BRICKS FACTORIES IN BAGHDAD AND NAJAF FACTORIES IN IRAQ:

By Assal Ghazi Alshammary

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

Air pollution increasing in last year's due to using classical treatment for environmental enhancement, these methods are the existence of brick factories used for building purposes, When using black oil directly with several mixtures of different organic compounds caused to many toxic gases after burning, with poisoning effect of the health of people who are directly treated with it and in special case for people living close to these factories, especially since the spread of these pollutants reach several kilometres away from factories.

EFFECTS OF CHEMOTHERAPY AND RADIOTHERAPY ON BLOOD COMPONENTS OF BREAST CANCER PATIENTS

By Baydaa T. Sih

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women worldwide. It can be treated with surgery combined with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This study aims to investigate the effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy on blood cell components of breast cancer patients who survived one of these therapies, in Al-Amal National Hospital for Cancer Management. Numbers of blood cells including white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC) and lymphocytes, and hemoglobin (HGB) concentration were measured in thirty-two women with eighteen of them treated with chemotherapy and the left treated with radiotherapy. The results showed that the counts of WBC, RBC and lymphocytes decreased faster in the patients treated with chemotherapy compared to that in the patients treated with radiotherapy, whereas HGB concentrations only slightly changed with both treatments, upon four cycles of each treatment. These results support that radiotherapy may cause less side effects on breast cancer patients compared to chemotherapy.

BIOINFORMATICS ANALYSES OF POLYMERASE (pol) GENE OF HBV GENOME OCCURRED IN BLOOD SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT REGIONS OF KSA

By Al Harthi J.H.a, Al-Yami M.R.b and Sadik A.S.a,c*

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

This study aimed to isolate of polymerase (pol) gene belonging to some hepatitis B virus (HBV) from some blood samples collected from different regions of KSA representing south, north, east, middle and west KSA. This was followed by determining the nucleotide sequences of this gene and carrying out some bioinformatics analyses on such genes. The presence of virus in some HBV-infected blood samples collected from different regions of KSA was serologically and molecularly confirmed by ELISA and Rt-PCR techniques. The nucleotide sequence of pol gene was determined and bioinformatically analyzed. Results showed that the nucleotide sequences of the partial sequences of the five HBV strains (LC152751.1, LC152752.1, LC152753.1, LC152757.1 and LC152759.1) were ranged from 600 to 899 nts and proved to be belonging to pol gene of HBV. Bioinformatics comparisons between the five HBV strains showed percent identities 92-98% and 80-95% at the levels of DNA and deduced amino acids, respectively, when compared to some overseas HBV strains recorded in GenBank. Types of domains (DNA_pol_viral_C and DNA pol viral-N) its accession (pfam00336 and pfam00242), super families (RT-like superfamily and cl02825) of the sequenced pol gene(s) were also addressed. Differences at the levels of DNA, encoding amino acids, i.e., open reading frames and domains super families between the strains under investigation and those similar in GenBank were determined.

HERITABILITY ESTIMATES IN F2 SEGREGATING POPULATION IN HEXAPLOID WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)

By Shabana Memon1*, Naveed Iqbal1, Fareeha Zaman1, Sadaf Memon1, Manzoor Ali Abro2, Ghulam Hussain Jatoi2 and Abdul Razaque Mangi3

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

An investigation was undertaken to evaluate heritability and variability estimates among F2 populations of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Twenty-two wheat genotypes including twelve parents and ten F2 crosses were grown in the field according to Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The outcomes from the analysis of variance depicted that the genotypes, parents, crosses, and parents versus crosses were highly significant for flag leaf area, peduncle length, plant height, tillers plant-1 and grain yield plant-1. The mean performances of the parents and F2 populations for the traits studied revealed that the parent genotype Tufan performed best regarding flag leaf area-1, spikelets spike-1 and grain yield plant-1. Kiran-95 showed maximum peduncle length. and maximum tillers plant-1 were produced by TD-1. The cross-combination NARC-2011 x Tufan gave maximum values for flag leaf area, peduncle length, plant height. The overall performances of the F2 crosses for all the traits were way better than their parent genotypes. This suggests that these traits should be considered in selection program for breeding purposes. The results from the components of variance, i.e. phenotypic variance and genotypic variance revealed significant differences among the genotypes for all the traits. The phenotypic variance values were greater than the genotypic variance values indicating the much environmental impact on the expression of the traits studied. High heritability and genetic advance estimates were recorded in majority cases for flag leaf area, peduncle length, plant height, tillers plant-1, grains spike-1, seed index, and grain yield plant-1 Therefore, the cross combinations with high genetic variability and heritability must be considered in future breeding programs.

BIOINFORMATICS ANALYSES OF SURFACE PROTEIN GENE OF HBV GENOME OCCURRED IN BLOOD SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT REGIONS OF KSA

By Al Harthi J.H.a, Al-Yami M.R.b and Sadik A.S.a,c*

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

The major surface antigen (MSA) genes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) were PCR-amplified from different DNA templates of HBV-infected blood samples. On determination of nucleotide sequences these genes were subjected to some bioinformatics analyses at the levels of DNA, amino acids and putative domains. The lengths of partial nucleotide sequences and deduced amino acids in open reading frames (ORFs) of the HBV strains under investigation were 752 & 217, 838 & 257, 893 & 231, 665 & 148 and 840 & 183 nts for HBV strains LC152750.1, LC152754.1, LC152755.1, LC152756.1 and LC152758.1, with percent identities ranged from 94-99% & 86-99%, respectively, compared to HBV overseas related strains in GenBank. The ORFs and their amino acids of the partial sequences of HBV strains confirmed the dependence of these genes to MSA. Presences of general primers of MSA genes, and primers of each of PCR, sequencing and mutagenic were detected in the PCR-amplified sequences of HBV strains. The putative conserved domains of the five HBV strains of MSA genes were belonging to vMSA (Accession ?: pfam00695) domain which described as major surface antigen from hepadnavirus of the superfamily cl02933. Phylogenetic tree of the HBV P, S genes, partial sequence, and strains of this study confirmed that these genes were belonging to the MSA from hepadnavirus compared to the most related genes. Bioinformatics comparisons between the five HBV strains showed that they were closely related to each other, with 90-94%, nucleotides similarity.

OPTIMIZATION OF BACTERIOCIN PRODUCTION FROM Lactobacillus plantarum IN05 BY USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

By Monafathia1, Nisa Rachmania Mubarik2* and Widanarni3

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial compound. Response surface methodology (RSM) is a combination of statistical and mathematical techniques used to create model and to analyze a response that is influenced by several factors. The objective of this study was to determine the optimum condition using RSM to obtain optimal bacteriocin production from Lactobacillus plantarum. Activity test was performed using well diffusion agar method. The four experimental factors, i.e. glucose concentration, pH, temperature and concentration of yeast extract with 30 treatment. The results indicated that the optimum condition of bacteriocin production from L. plantarum IN05 showed optimum inhibition activity against Salmonella typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes, with the addition of 4 g/L glucose, 8.11 g/L yeast extract, pH of 5.3, and temperature of 30oC. The highest bacteriocin activities against S. typhimurium and L. monocytogenes were 3136 AU/mL and 2426 AU/mL, respectively.

MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF RUST RESISTANCE IN SELECTED SUGARCANE CULTIVARS

By Shafee Ur Rehman1*, Khushi Muhammad+1, Ezad Ali1, Muhammad Amir1, 2Muhammad Shahid Nadeem2

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

The present study aimed at to identify rust resistance based on DNA marker linkage among commercially sugarcane cultivar of Pakistan. Therefore primer were designed by using reported sequences of Resistance Gene analogues DNA and also universal Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA marker were select/picked from literature, initially, In selected rust resistant and susceptible sugarcane cultivar The Resistance Gene analogous marker shown 52 trackable loci and 76.92% polymorphism and the size of loci are between 100-200bp.While the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA primer shown 100% polymorphism and 50 trackable loci were recorded and the size of loci are between 200-3000bp, out of eleven primers seven primer produced fourteen specific loci in three sugarcane genotypes, and the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Polymerase chain Reaction is important use for identifying Saccharum. Spp. By exploiting bivariant data of two different kind of markers (RGA and RAPD), the homology tree was constructed using DNAMAN 5.2.2 software based on Nei’s genetic distance and two major discrete groups with different minor groups were recorded for six genotypes having different disease behavior. This research work will be helpful for identifying resistance and susceptible sugarcane cultivars.

DEVELOPMENT OF RAPID ANTIGEN DETECTION TEST FOR METHICILLIN RESISTANT Staphylococcus aureus INFECTION

By Haider F. Ghazi1, Atheer J. AL-Saffar2, Zainab K. Abdulla3,

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) detection is a challenge to any clinical microbiology laboratory and demands implementation of strict protocols for active screening. This study aims to determine the validity of rapid immunochromotographic (ICT) test for detection compared with the gold standard method. Duplicate swabs were collected from nasal or ear. First swab used for conventional culture and Cefoxitin disk sensitivity. From each culture positive, pure colony were obtained, DNA extracted and conventional polymerase chain reaction for mecA detection were done. The second swab was processed for lateral flow test that constructed in Department of Microbiology laboratory/College of Medicine/ Al-Nahrain University. Monoclonal capture antiPBP2a (test line) and goat anti-mouse IgG antibodies (control line) were applied on each nitrocellulose membrane. Gold-in-a-BoxTM conjugation kit (40nm. 15OD) conjugated monoclonal anti- PBP2a were adsorbed in conjugate pad. Then assembled in the test cassette. Serially diluted Methicillin resistance S. aureus (1-108cfu/ml) and Methicillin sensitive S. aureus also used in concentration 108 (cfu/ml). Bacterial cells treated with lysozyme for 30 minutes and distilled water were loaded on a strip and visually evaluated after 30 min. The minimum detection limit of the immunochromatography test was 103cfu/ml. Furthermore, based on comparison of 82 culture positive of different clinical swabs, the specificity and sensitivity of this assay were 100% and 97.1% respectively. While, in comparison with mecA PCR detection the specificity and sensitivity of this assay were 100% and 93.03% respectively. However, the procedure used in this study was less complicated and gives the results within 1hour. This study recommends using of Rapid pbp2a as a new tool for the detection of MRSA directly from clinical samples.

USE OF LASER IN TREATMENT OF PREMALIGNANT SKIN CONDITIONS

By Sahib Neamah Abdul-Wahid1, Kadhum Shabba2, Bushra Ghaly Yousif3, Arowa abdalhusain4, Nasser Ghaly Yousif5

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

There are various treatment procedures that are used the laser beam in the medical applications especially in the treatment of skin diseases. Some of them are utilized for cosmetic surgery, inflammatory tissue and some for premalignant skin conditions. According to the laser generation systems, there are several types of laser which are used in the medical application such as CO2, Er:YAG and the rest laser types. Almost, all of them are succeed in these applications and distinguished results are achieved. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using laser beam for treatment of the premalignant skin conditions within three types of laser have been used: CO2 laser, Er:YAG and Semiconductor laser (Diode laser). Different types of premalignant skin conditions such as Keratoacanthoma, Dysplastic nevus, Marjolin’s ulcer and Xeroderma pigmentosum have been treated in this paper by those laser types.

BIOACTIVITY STUDY OF NEW SYNTHESIZED METALLIC COMPLEXES OF AROYL HYDRAZONE LIGAND

By Marwan Mohammed Farhan

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

Synthesis of new Ligand has been prepared from aroyl hydrazone derivatives and characterize it spectroscopically (I.R., 1HNMR.). Synthesis of the four new complexes to Nuclear Metallic Cu (II), Hg (II), Cd (II), Zn (II) and prepared ligand and studying their characteristics them spectroscopically (I.R.,1H-NMR.) and the Molar Conductivity with the accurate quantitative elemental and metallic analysis of these Complexes. And studying bioactivities of the complexes which are prepared to explain the antibacterial activities (by using three genus of Pathogenic bacteria).

MACHINE LEARNING BASED IMAGE PROCESSING USING UNSUPERVISED APPROACH

By Dhanalakshmi Samiappan1, S. Latha2, Deepak Verma3, CSA Sri Harsha4, A. Sashank5

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

Enhancing the visual media for the purpose of better perception has been a research topic for years. It finds its secondary application in the recognition of objects, analysis of medical images accounting the astronomical data and so on. The disintegration of an image based on its meaningful components plays a key role in many image processing applications like filtering, interpolation, image enhancement, feature variation, etc. the solution to this vary from basic segmentation techniques to advanced methods like fuzzy logic and machine learning. Through this paper, we present a novel method of image processing using machine learning algorithms. We also conduct experiments with preliminary image processing techniques and provide comparable performance measures to illustrate the success of our approach.

ASSESSMENT OF TOTAL ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY, INTERFERON- GAMMA AND INTERLEUKIN-6 IN IDIOPATHIC INFERTILE MEN

By Madha Mohammed Saleh1, Estebraq Al -Wasiti2, Adnan Nafil Muslim3, Nasser Ghaly Yousif 4*

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

Infertility is an overall issue that portrayed by multifactorial etiology including physiological, hereditary, irresistible, ecological factors and in addition autoimmunity. The goal of this investigation is the connection between the aggregate cell reinforcement limit level with specific cytokines; interleukin-6 (IL6) and interferon gamma (IFN-?) levels in fundamental liquid and blood of idiopathic Infertility and ripe male relationship with original liquid level. Blood and fundamental liquids were gathered from 70 guys with idiopathic Infertility and 20 males with demonstrated Infertility and were broke down for the level of TAC, IL-6, IFN-? and original liquid quality. Fundamental TAC levels were p<0.05 and lower in those with idiopathic Infertility. A negative relationship was seen between sperm quality parameters and TAC levels in idiopathic Infertility men. A fascinating noteworthy height in serum and semen IFN-? level was recognized in idiopathic Infertility men. Furthermore, altogether lifted serum and semen IL-6 level was likewise seen in a gathering of idiopathic Infertility men. Inconclusion, TAC level has a critical negative impact on sperm quality and subsequently adds to male Infertility. Novel cytokine miniaturized scale designs for patients with various sorts of Infertility may be proposed and hence, cytokine level estimation of IL-6 and IFN-? in fundamental plasma is recommended to be incorporated into assessment of particular kinds of male Infertility.

TANDEM RECOMBINANT PLASMID CONSTRUCTION AS POSITIVE CONTROL FOR PIK3CA H1047R DETECTION BASED ON SYBR GREEN I qPCR

By Nahdaturrugaisiyah1,2,+, Azamris3, Bugi Ratno Budiarto1, I Made Artika2, Desriani1,*

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

PIK3CA H1047R mutation is found in breast cancer in high frequency and its detection could be applied as prognosis and predictive factor for trastuzumab therapy. qPCR is one of the simplest and robust method for PIK3CA H1047R detection. Provision of positive control for PIK3CA H1047R detection based on qPCR will support data analysis efficiently and avoid false negative result. In this research, we constructed a tandem recombinant plasmid (pGEM-tandPIK3CA) as positive control for Tm Shift SYBR Green I qPCR-based of PIK3CA H1047R detection system by ligating wild-type and PIK3CA H1047R fragments tandemly into pGEM-T Easy. The tandem plasmid was confirmed by restriction, DNA sequencing and qPCR. As a result, pGEMtandPIK3CA has been successfully constructed and confirmed. Statistical analysis shows high repeatability and reproducibility with % CV of <25%. The main advantage of this tandem positive control is its ability to serve as positive control for both wild-type PIK3CA and PIK3CA H1047R simultaneously, therefore improving the efficiency of the detection system.

ELECTROCHEMICAL POLYMERIZATION OF (N-CREATININYL MALEAMIC ACID) COATED LAYER ON STAINLESS STEEL SURFACE AND STUDY ITS ANTI-CORROSION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY

By Khalil S. Khalil, Khulood A. Saleh, Muna I. Khalaf

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

Electrochemical polymerization of N-Creatininyl maleamic (NCM) acid was carried out on stainless steel plate electrode in a protic medium of monomer aqueous solution using electrochemical oxidation procedure in electrochemical cell. Fourier Transform Infrared FT-IR Spectroscopy has examined the structure of synthesized polymer. The anti-corrosion action of polymer was investigated on stainless steel in 0.2M Hydrochloric acid solution at temperatures range (293-323) K. by electrochemical polarization method. In addition, reinforce the anticorrosion of coating polymer by nanomaterial (TiO2) or (ZnO bulk and nano) by adding these nanomaterials to monomer solution. The results of the experimental study showed that the corrosion current density increases with increasing temperature in the range (293-323) K and the protection efficiency of polymer decrease with temperature increase. Kinetic and thermodynamic of activation parameters Ea, A, ?H* and ?S* have been calculated for the corrosion process of S-steel in 0.2M HCl solution in the presence and absence polymeric coating. Furthermore, were studied the effect of the preparing polymer on some strain of bacteria.

STUDY ON PERFUNCTORY PROPERTIES OF M30 GRADE OF CONCRETE WITH E-PLASTIC WASTE FIBER

By 1D. Prasannan, 2S. Deepashri

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

The wastage of e- plastic waste fiber can be reduced by adding in concrete. It gives high tensile strength upto optimum mixture of e-plastic waste in concrete. In this project describes the compressive strength, tensile strength and flexural strength of concrete containing with different proportion of E-plastic waste fiber like 1%, 2% and 3% and it is compared with conventional concrete. The test result shows that a significant improvement in compressive strength was achieved in the E-plastic waste fiber concrete compared to the M30 grade of concrete. Due to increase in strength of concrete we can reduce e-waste and increase the resources conservation.

CYTOGENETIC ACTIVITY AND ANTIOXIDANT ROLE OF FLAXSEEDS (LINUM USITATISSIMUM L.) EXTRACT IN MALE ALBINO RATS TREATED WITH CYPROTERONE ACETATE

By Maysaa Adil Hadi*, Nuha Yaarub Al-Harbi, Fawaz Ali Abbas Mahmoud

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

Objectives Investigation the cytogenetic activity and antioxidant role of methanolic extract of flaxseeds in male albino rats treated with cyproterone acetate. Methods The first part contains a phytochemical analysis of flaxseeds 20% methanolic extract include: Thin layer chromatography (TLC), determination of active compounds, and antioxidant activity of flaxseeds extract. The second part was experimental groups include 35 rats divided randomly into 7 groups: first and second groups treated with distilled water (D.W) and corn oil respectively as control groups, cyproterone acetate (CPA) (10 mg/kg/day) group, flaxseeds extract (250 and 500 mg/kg/day) respectively, and groups treated both CPA with flaxseeds extract with the same doses above respectively. After 50 days, the cytogenetic study including mitotic index (MI) and chromosomal aberrations (CA) of bone marrow cells in addition to the levels of DNA fragmentation in both white blood cells (WBC) and testes tissues was assessed. Results Presence of some phytochemical and antioxidant compounds in 20% methanolic extract of flaxseeds. CPA group had a significant increase (P?0.05) in MI and CA compared to both D.W and corn oil control groups and has a high level of DNA fragmentation in both WBC and testes tissue. In contrast, flaxseeds extract alone or with CPA did not induce a significant difference in MI and CA but it considered as significant decreasing (P?0.05) when compared with CPA group. Furthermore, both groups treated with flaxseeds 250 and 500 mg/kg/day alone did not record any fragmentation of DNA of WBC but caused fragmentation of DNA of testes tissue. While a decreased level of DNA fragmentation of WBC and testes tissue was noted in CPA with flaxseeds treated groups when compared with the CPA group. Conclusions The methanolic extract of flaxseeds had a cytogenetic activity to suppresses mitogenic and genotoxic effects of CPA via its antioxidant properties.

OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESS PARAMETERS AND SCALE-UP OF XYLANASE PRODUCTION USING CORN COB RAW BIOMASS BY MARINE BACTERIA BACILLUS SUBTILIS LBF M8 IN STIRRED TANK BIOREACTOR

By Heskia Kereh1, Nisa Rachmania Mubarik1, Rendi Palar2, Pugoh Santoso2,Yopi2

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

Optimization parameter for production several xylanases have already been studied, but only a few derived from marine bacteria especially Bacillus sp. Focus on this research is optimation of process parameters for xylanase production and scale-up production in stirred tank bioreactor using corn cob raw biomass as a substrate. Maximum xylanase production was obtained at 1,5% corn cob concentration, pH medium 6, temperature fermentation 30?C, and agitation rate 200 rpm. For production using agricultural waste, production with corn cob (2,963 U/mL) is higher than rice straw (1,938 U/mL) and sugarcane bagasse (1,728 U/mL). Optimization process parameters increased xylanase activity from 1,864 U/mL at 96 h to 2,963 U/mL at 24 h incubation. The scale-up of the fermentation process up to 2 L stirred tank bioreactor with the optimum condition at flask scale, significantly increased xylanase activity to 3,519 U/mL.

STUDY OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES ON M25 GRADE OF CONCRETE BY REPLACING OF DEMOLISHED CONCRETE WASTE INSTEAD OF COARSE AGGREGATE

By 1D. Prasannan* and 2S. Deepashri

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

The hardened Concrete waste can be reused in concrete for achieving the economical construction. In this paper, describes the reuse of demolished concrete in concrete instead of coarse aggregate. Such reusing not only helps conserve natural resources, but also helps to reduce the cost of construction. The demolished concrete was used to replace upto 10% of coarse aggregate. The tests were carried out in laboratory to evaluate the strength properties of normal concrete by using this demolished concrete as coarse aggregate. These tests included workability, unit weight, compressive strength, flexural strength and split tensile strength. Test results give significant strength improvement in concrete.

THE SIDE EFFECT OF NORISTERAT INJECTION IN SOME BIOCHEMISTRY PARAMETERS IN AL-DIWANIYA CITY

By Ali Noory Fajer*, Haider Khabt Aboud**, Noor Essam Abdul Rezaq ***

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

The present study aims to investigate the side effect of the injection by Noristerat on some biochemistry parameter in women in Al-Diwaniya city by evaluate oxidative stress and antioxidant level and change in lipid profile in women that using contraceptive by injection Noristerat. The results show that there is a significant increase in cholesterol, LDL and T.G, and a significant decrease in HDL in women who use contraception when compared with the group of women who do not use contraception. Also, the result points that there is increase significant in TOs and decrease significant in SOD, Cat, C.K and GSH in women who use contraception (Noristerat) when compared with the group of women without treatment contraception.

MATERNAL IMMUNITY RESPONSE AND LARVAL GROWTH OF ANTI CYHV-3 DNA VACCINATED COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO) AT DIFFERENT PRE-SPAWNING TIME

By Ardana Kurniajia, Sri Nuryatia*, Sri Murtinib, Alimuddina**

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate maternal immunity response of common carp broodstock and their progenies. Vaccination of broodstock was performed by injecting GP25 plasmid as anti-CyHV-3 DNA vaccine at 30, 45 and 60 days pre-spawning (dps). Three fish were used for each treatment. Triplicates challenge test at 7, 14, 21 and 28-dayold progenies were performed for 21 days by 1hour immersion of 10-3 CyHV-3 filtrate dilution. Serum was collected six times from broodstock, and four times from larvae. The result showed that vaccination could induce the immune response of broodstock. Leukocytes count, and phagocytic activity of the vaccinated broods were significantly higher than that of control (P<0.05) at 30 days post vaccination (dpv). Furthermore, broodstock vaccination at different pre-spawning time allowed different immunity response in their larvae. Vaccination at 60 days prespawning (dps) had the highest antibody titer in eggs and larvae and offered higher protection on the larvae against CyHV-3 infection. Growth of larvae from vaccinated broodstocks was significantly higher than that of control (P < 0.05). This study indicated that broodstock vaccination at a proper pre-spawning time improves its immunity and protection capability is transferred to their immature immunity larvae against pathogens infection.

ANTIBIOGRAM STUDY AND PREVALENCE OF PSLÁ GENE AMONG BIOFILM PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA PRODUCERS ISOLATED FROM SOME CLINICAL SPECIMENS IN THI_QAR PROVINCE

By Mohammed A.S. Issa1*, Kais Kassim Ghaima2, Manal Bady Saleh2, Mohammad I. Nader1

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

One of the major causes of hospital-acquired contagion due to the rising antibacterial resistance is opportunistic Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biofilm formation is an important virulence factor increase the pathogenicity infectious of P. aeruginosa, since sessile bacteria are protected in an extracellular matrix of a polysaccharide. The expression of expolysaccharide (EPS) manufacturing locus (pslÁ gene) can be significant for biofilm formalization by P. aeruginosa. The goal of this research estimate antibiotics resistance pattern and apportionment of the pslÁ gene among biofilm construction P. aeruginosa isolates collected from different infections sources. There were 113 infection samples collected as swabs and sputum from burns, post-surgical wounds, ear (otitis media), and respiratory tract. They cultured on different selective and differentiation media, next to P. aeruginosa identification by traditional bacteriological, API 20E strip, and molecular PCR technique by 16S rRNA. The antibiogram of isolates achieved by exposed to ten antibiotic items with disk diffusion method according to standard protocol of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Biofilm formation was detected qualitatively and quantitatively by 96-well microtiter plate test (MPT). Genotypic prevalence of pslÁ gene among the isolates performed via monoplex thermocycler of PCR technique. Of 113 different infection specimens there were 109 gave positive growth. Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were allocated to; 13/31 (35.5 %) burns, 8/26 (30.7 %) wounds, 11/29 (34.5 %) otitis, and 7/23 (30.4 %) sputum. Of 39 there was 23 multidrug resistance (MDR), 5 pandrug resistance (PDR) and the rest multidrug sensitive (MDS). The highest resistance was against Ticarcillin, Netilmicin, Piperacillin, and Ticarcillin/clavulanic acid while Amikacin, Meropenem, and Ciperofloxacin more effective with all isolates except burn isolates. The quantitatively of biofilm formation by MPT appeared 17 (43.6 %), 9(23.1 %), 7 (18.0 %), and 6 (15.4 %) were strong, moderate, weak, and non- biofilm producers. The prevalence of biofilm pslÁ gene was in 35 (90.0 %) isolates. All strong biofilm and 4 non-biofilm producers harbored target gene, while 1 moderate, 1 weak, and 2 non- biofilm producers not harboring pslÁ. All PDR and most MDR isolates were strong biofilm formation. P. aeruginosa is still developing the resistance to most antibiotics especially with strong biofilm formation isolates mostly of pslÁgene harboring which increasing the concern and difficulty of bacterial infections treatment. Therefore, the need to find new strategies for healing is urgent.

SHOT COMMUNICATION: SUPPLY CHAIN DESIGN WIH FIXED CHARGE AND DEDICATED FACILITIES

By Anand Jayakumar Aa, Krishnaraj Cb, Raghunayagan Pc

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

In this article we design a supply chain with fixed charge and dedicated facilities. The data is collected from a pump manufacturing industry. A mathematical model is created and the model is optimized using LINGO package. The result is discussed with the management and readied for implementation.

QUALITY OF SILAGE MADE FROM A COMBINATION OF CORN STRAW AND PEANUT STRAW AND ITS EFFECTS ON BALI CATTLE PERFORMANCE

By Syamsul Bahri1,2, Sitti Nurani Sirajuddin3, Syamsuddin Hasan3, Asmuddin Natsir3*

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

This experiment aimed to study the nutrient quality of the silage made from a combination of corn straw and peanut straw and the silage effects on the feed consumption, average daily gain, and feed efficiency of bali cattle. Twelve heads of bali cattle were randomly assigned to the experimental diets according to the completely randomized design, consisted of four treatments and three blocks giving a total number of the experimental unit of 12. The treatments were R0 = Corn straw silage, R1 = Silage consisted of 60% corn straw + 40% peanut straw), R2 = Silage consisted of 50% corn straw + 50% peanut straw, and R3 = Silage consisted of 40% corn straw + 60% peanut straw. In addition to the experimental diets, each animal was given 2 kg concentrate/d. The silage was provided ad libitum and drinking water was freely available. The results of the study indicated that chemical and physical characteristics of the silages were not different. The silage pH ranged between 3.2 -4.2 and it was considered as optimum pH. Other characteristics such as odor, color, compare, and the existence of fungi were found similar. In terms of bali cattle performance, the cattle fed on ration R2 had a better performance (feed consumption, average daily gain, and feed efficiency) compared to the cattle fed on either R0, R1, and R3. In conclusion, silage made with a combination of 50% corn straw and 50% peanut straw was the best combination compared to other treatment combination.

SERUM TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ? AND INTERLEUKIN-10 ASSAY IN NASSIRYHIAN IRAQI PATIENTS WITH HYPOTHYROIDISM

By Alia E. Mahmood Alubadi1, Majida Ghazi Magtooph2, Aysar Isam Mahmood3, Eman Natiq Naji1, Meroj A. Jasem1, Zainab Hashim Sharhan1

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

Tumor Necrosis Factor ? and Interleukin-10 are inflammatory cytokines has a significant role in the pathogenesis of immunological inflammatory processes at multiple levels. The study was performed on 80 Iraqi patients attended Endocrine and diabetic Medical center in Nassiryhia, with hypothyroidism and 23 healthy adults were enrolled. All subjects were (20-53) years old. Thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4), concentrations were (1.62 ± 0.399) vs (1.98 ± 1.119) nmol/l, (104.55 ± 48.27) vs (92.03 ± 13.71) nmol/l not significant increase in patients than in control respectively, while thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations were (17.63 ± 29.16) vs (2.138 ± 1.09) µIu/lP (0.013*) significant increase in patients than in control. This study supports the fact that some cytokines may play a role in hypothyroidism, so there are a Significant increase of TNF-? and IL-10 concentration in patients when compared with the healthy controls (p<0.001 for both) (Mean ± standard deviation) (277.5±253.1), and (214 ±168.3) pg/ml and (7.34±3.3) and (4.75±0.62) respectively. This finding may indicate that hypothyroidism might influence cytokine production in these patients.

GRANULAR SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR AND PHOTO-FENTON PROCESSES FOR TREATMENT OF CATTLE MANURE WASTEWATER

By A. Matinfar1, G. D. Najafpour*1, M. Mohammadi1

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

In this study, the photo-Fenton process was followed an aerobic granular sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The combined system was used for cattle manure wastewater treatment. In biological stage, the granulated SBR was resistant against feeding shocks, when imposed by substrate with food to microorganisms (F/M) ratio of 1.6. The bioreactor was operated at three different HRTs. Kinetic studies showed the most efficient performance was HRT of 32 h, rather than 24 and 48 h. Fenton and photo-Fenton (ph-F) reactions were individually performed as a polishing stage. The optimized ratios of H2O2/COD (1.5:1) and Fe2+/H2O2 (1:10 M/M) were defined. In ph-F reactions, the impacts of UV-C and solar lights were evaluated, where the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies noticeably enhanced to 82.8 and 85.3%, respectively. The best COD, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and total phosphorus (TP) removals for the combined SBR and ph-F systems were 97, 98.5 and 99%, respectively. For the first time, the feasibility of combined aerobic granular SBR and ph-F process for cattle manure wastewater treatment and recycling water were successfully investigated.

ESTIMATION OF PAX8/PPAR FUSION GENE BY FISH TECHNIQUE IN FOLLICULAR THYROID LESIONS

By Ban J. Qasim*, Alaa G. Hussein*, Wijdan B. Abid**, Buthinah I. Hameed***

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to detect PAX8/PPAR G gene rearrangement by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, the present study is the first time in Iraq used this technique to detect fusion gene in follicular thyroid lesions, follicular carcinoma (FC) follicular variant papillary of carcinoma (FVPC), follicular adenoma (FA) and follicular hyperplasia. A total of 120 paraffin block were included in the study, 30 blocks were (FC), 30 blocks were (FVPC). 30 blocks were (FA), 30 blocks were blocks thyroid follicular hyperplasia.20 blocks endocervical epithelium.20 paraffin blocks of colonic epithelium. The clinicopathological parameters were obtained from patients’ admission case sheets and pathology reports (age, gender). The description of measures regarding fluorescent instu hybridization of PAX8/ PPAR G fusion gene there was significantly highest in follicular carcinoma, followed by follicular variant of papillary carcinoma, then follicular adenoma and lastly by follicular hyperplasia The area under the curve for all three markers was >0.8.The p-value was highly significant for all three markers (P<0.001). Cutoff values that predict malignant thyroid follicles lesion were as following: score of >1 for Galectin-3 marker, score of >2 for HBME-1 marker and number of positive cells per 50 of >13 (>26%) for PAX8 /PPAR G fusion gene marker. The sensitivities for the three markers were 100.00 %, 90.00 % and 66.67 %, respectively, whereas the specificities were 88.30 %, 98.33 % and 100.00 % respectively.

EFFECT OF EFFLUENT IN CONTINUOUS TYPE ANAEROBIC DIGESTION

By A.Vijin Prabhu1*, S. Antony Raja1, C. Lindon Robert Lee1, P. Jeba2

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

The anaerobic digestion (AD) of biomass feed materials like Prosopis juliflora pods (PJP), dry leaves (DL), water hyacinth (WH), and cow manure was investigated in a batch and continuous type of digestion. The daily biogas yield and the composition of biogas and the cumulative biogas yield were evaluated for each experiment. The batch experiment was conducted to find the hydraulic retention time of the feed materials. The continuous digestion was conducted under three different phases. The first phase was batch digestion for startup the experiment, the second phase was to continuously feed the materials without microorganism and the third phase was continuously fed the materials with the effluent filtrate. For an HRT of 50 days, the average biogas production of 13.2 l/day was shown by the batch experiment. The average biogas production of 19.7 l/ day was shown by the continuous type of digestion third phase in 40 days. Moreover, it showed the highest biogas composition (CH4:75.73% and CO2:24.08%). However, the second phase performed worst in the average biogas production (9.4 l/day) in 20 days and the biogas composition (CH4:69.58% and CO2:29.06%). After stabilization (from the 15th day) of the third phase, experiment feed materials with effluent filtrate gave the maximum average biogas yield (23.2 l/day). Overall these studies show that the addition of effluent filtrate with the feed material can be a promising technique for improving biogas production.

LARVICIDAL AND ADULT ATTRACTANT EFFICIENCY OF THE EDIBLE MUSHROOM PLEUROTUS PULMONARIUS ON AEDES AEGYPTI AND CULEX SITIENS (DIPTERA, CULICIDAE) MOSQUITOES

By Tanawat Chaiphongpachara*, Siriluck Jittrabiab and Duangporn Nacapunchai

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

Mosquito-borne diseases, including malaria, filariasis, Japan encephalitis, chikungunya, dengue fever, yellow fever and other viral diseases, are major public health issues worldwide, especially in tropical and sub-tropical areas. The commercially available edible mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) (Indian oyster) has been reported to contain octenol. Thus, we assessed the larvicidal and adult female attractant activity of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex sitiens Wiedemann of this mushroom. We examined 5 P. pulmonarius extract concentrations for larvicidal tests (120, 12, 1.2, 0.12 and 0.012 mg/L) and 3 concentrations for adult mosquito attraction (100, 10, and 1 mg/L). The results showed that P. pulmonarius extract did not kill Ae. aegypti larvae but had a minimal larvicial effect on Cx. sitiens. While P. djamor extract attracted adult female Ae. aegypti and Cx. sitiens mosquitoes, especially at the 10 mg/L concentration, but no significantly mosquitoes of both species were attracted by the extract compared to octenol. However, this mushroom extract attracted more than 50% of Ae. aegypti adults.

SERUM CONCENTRATION OF CU, ZN AND SE IN MALIGNANT AND BENIGN PROSTATIC LESIONS

By Raid Jasim M. Al-Timimi

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of death among cancer in men. Trace elements are involved in many vital functions. Fluctuations in serum levels of these elements may reflect the occurrence and/or severity of PCa.This prospective case/control study aimed to assess the serum concentration of Cu, Zn and Se in patients with PCa (newly diagnosed and longstanding) and with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The study recruited 60 patients with PCa (30 newly diagnosed and 30 longstanding patients) and 30 patients with BPH. Other 30 healthy men were randomly selected to be a control group. Sera were separated from blood samples which were collected from each participant. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to measure serum concentration of the studied trace elements. The newly diagnosed patients with PCa showed significantly (P<0.05) higher serum concentration of Cu (3.14±1.1 µg/ml) than each of longstanding group (1.48±0.91 µg/ml), BPH (0.96± 0.17µg/ml), and controls (1.1±0.23 µg/ml), while there were no significant differences between different groups regarding Zn concentration. In newly diagnosed patients, Se concentration was 58.2± 6.12 ng/ml) which is significantly lower than other groups (P<0.05). In longstanding patients, the concentration was relatively high (98.4± 12.38 ng/ml) and differed significantly from patients with BPH (72.4± 8.11 ng/ml) and non-significantly from controls (108.1±15.34 ng/ml) These results indicate that serum levels of Cu and Se undergo a marked change in newly diagnosed patients with PCa, and thus could be used as additional marker for this malignancy.

NUMERICAL INTEGRATION OVER ARBITRARY TETRAHEDRAL ELEMENT BY TRANSFORMING INTO STANDARD 1-CUBE

By T. M. Mamatha and B. Venkatesh

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

In this paper, we are using two different transformations to transform the arbitrary linear tetrahedron element to a standard 1-Cube element and obtain the numerical integration formulas over arbitrary linear tetrahedron element implementing generalized Gaussian quadrature rules, with minimum computational time and cost. We also obtain the integral value of some functions with singularity over arbitrary linear tetrahedron region, without discretizing the tetrahedral region into P3 tetrahedral regions. It may be noted the computed results are converging faster than the numerical results in referred articles and are exact for up to 15 decimal values with minimum computational time. In a tetrahedral sub-atomic geometry, a focal particle is situated at the middle with four substituents that are situated at the sides of a tetrahedron. The bond edges are cos?1(??) = 109.4712206...° ? 109.5° when each of the four substituents are the same, as in methane (CH4) and in addition its heavier analogs. The impeccably symmetrical tetrahedron has a place with point amass Td, yet most tetrahedral particles have brought down symmetry. Tetrahedral atoms can be chiral. Mathematically the problem is to evaluate the volume integral over a arbitrary tetrahedron transforming the triple integral over arbitrary linear tetrahedron into the integrals over a standard 1-cube using two different parametric transformations.

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EFFECT OF AZATHIOPRINE ON LIVER, INTESTINE AND SPLEEN OF ALBINO MICE

By Dina Khudhair Hussein Ali*

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

This study was carried out to study the effect of azathioprine drug on some histological structure in albino mice. sixty adult female albino mice (20mice/group), were used in this study, the average body weights are 30-32 gm. two doses of azathioprine (50 mg/kg/b wt. and 100 mg/kg/b wt.) were given by the oral route daily for 40 days to the second and third group respectively, while control group was given normal saline. The histopathological examination of the treated animal for liver showed congestion with dilation of portal vein, Dilation of sinusoids and Mono-nuclear cell aggregation for the second group while for the third treated group showed small granulomatous lesion of mononuclear cells, Enlargement and proliferation of kupper cells, Severe necrosis. Sever vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes. The histopathological section of spleen was showed Infiltration of megakaryocyte for the second group while for the third group showed hypertrophy of central arteriole with dilation and infiltration of mono-nuclear cell mainly macrophage and plasma cell in red pulp. The histological changes in intestine tissue of the treated animals showed vacular degeneration of epithelial cell with hyperplasia of goblet cell which produce allots of mucin for the second group while for the third group showed infiltration of mononuclear cells between glands. From this study we concluded that there was harmful effect of azathioprine on different tissues of the experimental animal dependent on increasing dose of this drug.

BEHAVIOURIAL STUDY ON RC BEAM WITH SEA SHELL AS A FINE AGGREGATE SUBJECTED TO REVERSE CYCLIC LOADING

By S. Veeradhithyan1 and S. Deepa Shri2

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

Concrete is the widely used material after water in the world. The word concrete denotes the coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, water and cement. There are several researches going on in the present world in the field of concrete technology. This project aims to find a solution for the exploitation of river sand and to replace with the other abundant and cost-effective material as the fine aggregate for the betterment of our society and the construction Industry. The viability of using grinded sea shell as the fine aggregate are investigated in the project. The grinded sea shell is replaced in the place of river sand in the percentage of 20,40%,60%,80%,100%. There is promising increasing in the strength of the specimen in all the percentage when compared to that of the conventional. The maximum strength is obtained for the replacement of 80%. The further investigation is carried with the aid of RC Beam subjected to Reverse cyclic loading. The optimum percentage (80% Sea shell + 20% river sand) is found out and the beam is cast and subjected to loading and the corresponding deflection is noted down. The parameters like ultimate load carrying capacity, energy absorption, ductility factor, stiffness and the maximum deflection is studied.

TOXICITY OF Salvia officinalis EXTRACTS AGAINST Lymnaea auricularia THE INTERMEDIATE HOST OF FASCIOLIASIS CYCLE DISEASE IN IRAQ

By Mohammed J. Al-Obaidi, Ali H. Abbas, Mohammed Y. Abd Al-Hussain

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

The objective of the present study is to determine the acute toxicity of aqueous extracts of Salvia officinalis against the snail Lymnaea auricularia, which is considered as the intermediate snail host of Fascioliasis. About 720 snails were used for the experiments. The LD50, LD100 and Dose-Response relationships of S. officinalis against the snail L. auricularia was calculated. The S. officinalis extracts concentrations were found to be potent against L. auricularia. The results of 96 hr-LD50 and LD100 of S. officinalis extract against the target snail were 6.6±1.1 and 18.4±3.4 g/L respectively. It was observed that the toxicity of different preparation for snails was both time and dose-dependent. The study suggested that the aquatic extract of S. officinalis could be used as a control substance for the target snail.

AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION AND COMPARISON OF PMEDM WITH CONVENTIONAL EDM PROCESS

By M. Rajesh1*, M. Sudhahar2 and P. Vijayakumar1

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

This present experimental work is to find out the optimize input process parameters of powder mixed electrical discharge machining (PMEDM)on OHNS-O2 with graphite powder. Taguchi design is used to found out the optimized value and to analyze the experiments. Analysis were done to investigate the effects of the process parameters viz. pulse on time (Ton) , pulse off-time (Toff)& current and concentration of the Sic powder in IPOL dielectric (C) and its effects on material removal rate (MRR), surface roughness (Ra),and process parameters were optimized for high MRR, low Ra and machining timing using Taguchi function approach of MINITAB software.optimal factor for Surface Roughness was obtained, and conventional EDM process is undergone for the obtained surface roughness factor.Both process Roughness value are compared and found that the PMEDM process is better than conventional EDM process.