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EDITORIAL BOARD

2018

IDENTIFICATION OF Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major BY REAL-TIME PCR USING ITS1 and KDNA GENES IN BAGHDAD

By Nada Noori Younis and Amina N.AL-Thwani

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by Leishmania spp, this disease is a problem in Iraq. The purpose aims of the study is using a Qualitative - Real-time PCR (Q-R.T) to diagnosis compared with traditional methods to investigation of Leishmania species in Baghdad. Total 75 suspected patient with CL from both sex was enrolled in the present work study during the period between March / 2016 to March / 2017 who attended, AL-Yarmook, ALKaramaa Al-Kadhimiya, Al-Kindi, Teaching Hospitals in Baghdad, all the demographic feature of the diseases, were recorded. The direct Microscopic examination was carried out by direct smears using Giemsa stain, aspiration fluid from lesions were cultured on Novy–MacNeal–Nicolle (NNN) medium and used R T-PCR for detection of internal transcribed spacer1 (ITS1) and Kinetopast (KDNA) genes. The results revealed that 43% of cases were positive by Microscopic examination while 16% by culture and 91% by R.T- PCR positive for kDNA gene , 60% for (ITS1) gene , it was found , 62% were typed as L. tropica and 38% of isolates were typed as L.major . Highly Significant (P<0.01) correlation was observed between diagnosis methods.

THE EFFECT OF APPLICATION ACAULOSPORA SP ON THE ROOT GROWTH OF CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS L AT NICKEL POST-MINE LAND

By Muhammad Akhsan Akib, Kahar Mustari, Tutik Kuswinanti, Syatrianty Andi Syaiful.

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Plant root growth is greatly influenced by the chemical properties of the soil; therefore, excessive heavy metals content in the soil will affect plant root growth. The aim of this research was to study the effect of Acaulospora sp as biological agents on the root growth of Canavalia ensiformis at nickel post-mining land in Sorowako, Indonesia. The research was carried out using a randomized block design with application of Acaulospora sp from different area as treatment, namely: native Acaulospora, exotic Acaulospora and without Acaulospora. The results show that the application effect of native Acaulospora increased the number of lateral roots, percentage infected root, root length, root volume, root dry weight, and root:shoot ratio of Canavalia ensiformis. The native Acaulospora also acceleration of the adaptation process of Canavalia ensiformis in the land with high nickel concentration.

PROCESSES OF STERILIZATION AND ULTRA-HIGH TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND CARBOXYLIC ACID PROFILE IN BOVINE MILK

By Fadil G. Alswedi

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the certain of pasteurization and extreme High-temperature procedures on adjacent and physicochemical aggregation, microbiological factors and fatty acid side view in bovine milk. Pastuerized, sterilized and fresh milks were submitted at a factory works nearby from the university. Specimens were collected toward resolution, protein, moisture, lactose, total fat, total solids, free-fat, dry extract, urea, calcium, phosphorus, pH, acidity, density, fatty acid profile, total bacterial calculation besides somatic cell calculation. Sterile as well extreme-high temperature milks reserved lactose also protein gratified alike fresh milk. Sterilization besides pasteurization changed milk combination in some measure, terminate whole fat besides whole solids also cumulative urea. The procedures redesigned heart short-chain fatty acids (6:0, 8:0 in addition to 10:0). Great dimensions in stearic acid (18:0), palmitic acid (16:1) and meristic acid (14:0) were set up in wholly analyzed milks. Lack in extended outstandingly milk adaptations mixture also fatty acid summary show meander complete the procedures devoid of changing the milk dietary rate.

EFFECTIVENESS TEST OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATOR (PGR) ON GROWTH AND PRODUCTION OF RED ONION (Allium ascalonicum L.)

By Asrijal, Elkawakib Syam’un, Yunus Musa, dan Muh. Riadi

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Efforts to increase onion production are faced with higher prices of chemical fertilizers and residues in the soil. The growth regulator is a non-nutrient organic compound that in low concentration can encourage, inhibit or qualitatively alter the growth and development of the plant. PGR applications in plants may affect the orientation of asymilat transport, senator delays and cell enlargement. The effect of PGR application on a plant will be obvious if the condition of the plant is healthy, nutrient needs are met and good maintenance. The aim of this research is to get PGR from sweet corn, pulut corn, yellow corn, and white corn that can increase the growth and production of one of red onion plant varieties. The results showed that sweet corn PGR showed significant result both growth component and production component of onion plant. And red onion that has high production is red onion of Bima Brebes varieties.

QUALITATIVE DETECTION OF HIGH RISK HPV AND GENOTYPING ASSOCIATED CERVICAL ABNORMALITIES

By Tabark S. Jassim and Abdul Hussein M. AlFaisal

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Introduction: Change in cervix epithelial tissue as abnormal cells as dyskaryosis or dysplasia can be due to inflammation or infection. Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the main viral infection of the female reproductive system. The current study is aimed to detect the HPV genotypes that associate with cervical abnormalities. Materials and methods: Ninety subjects included 70 Iraqi patients with cervical abnormalities and 20 apparently healthy which were included in the work. Pap smears were taken from the cervix of the subjects, DNA was extracted, and HPV genotyping was done to all samples. Results: In general, our results showed that 42.86% of women had positive HPV infection and 57.14% negative HPV. The seventy cervical intraepithelial neoplasia biopsy that were obtained from patients classified histopathologically as: squamous cell Atypia 30 out of 70 (33.33 %), low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (CIN I) constituted 18 out of 70 (20.00%) where as the high grade (CINII &III) constituted 16 out of total 70 (11.11% and 6.67 %) respectively and squamous cell carcinoma 6 out of total 70 (6.67 %). According to cytology patients samples were classified as: 10 (11.11%) with non-specific cervicitis, 18 (20.00%) cases of LSIL, 16(17.78%) cases of HSIL, 20 (22.22%) cases of ASCUS and squamous cells Carcinoma 6 (6.67 %). Conclusion: The results showed that 30 of patients were positive to HPV. The common HPV genotype was HPV16, HPV-59 and HPV-56 followed by HPV types 66, 51, 58 and 68. Also multiple infections of viruses were observed in patients. It was found that variation in the results showed high significant on each histological grads examination.

CORRELATION BETWEEN BIOFILM FORMATION AND BACTERIOCIN PRODUCTION BY LACTOBACILLUS ACIDOPHILUS

By Jnan Jafr Baksh and Amal Aziz Kareem

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The present study was carried out to investigate the Correlation between biofilm formation and bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus acidophilus A total of 214 vaginal swab of healthy women without vaginitis and/or urinary tract infection were collected from hospitals in Baghdad city .Vaginal swabs of each women inoculated in MRS broth medium, after 24 h incubation in the presence of 5% CO2 the specimens were sub-cultured on MRS agar and 49 samples from 104 samples were Lactobacillus acidophilus, while negative growth were 110 samples. The first identification presented then using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers gene which showed that 11 isolates were Lactobacillus acidophilus carried bacteriocin gene also 11 L. acidophilus isolates characterized by their ability to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aurous , Pseudomonas aeroginosa , Escherichia coli through the production of bacteriocin and all Lactobacillus acidophilus isolates form biofilm at different levels (weak, moderate and strong) were produced bacteriocin. This study suggested highly significant difference and strong correlation (r= 0.914; P = 0.00; P<0.01) between biofilm formation and bacteriocin production.

THE ABILITY OF TRICHODERMA SP AND PLEUROTUS SP FOR THE DECOMPOSITION OF OIL PALM EMPTY BUNCHES

By Sukriming Sapareng, Ambo Ala, Tutik Kuswinanti, Burhanuddin Rasyid

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The empty bunches of palm can-not directly decompose into compost because it is still in the form of complex elements, so it must be degraded first, and the process of degradation naturally takes a very long time, for which the fungus used to accelerate the process of degradation. The fungus has a ligninolytic ability, namely the ability to dissipate enzymes that can degrade lignin. Materials used in this study include empty fruit bunches (EFB), bran, and dolomite lime. The ingredients were evenly mixed and then inoculated with the fungus in four treatments, which were without mushroom fungus, Pleurotus sp, Tramella sp, and Trichoderma sp. This study shows several attributes related to the quality of compost such as temperature, pH, macronutrient and C: N ratio. The treatment of Trichoderma sponge inoculation gives the best quality compared to others. The C / N ratio after 8 weeks of decomposition is 22.09. It can be concluded that the Trichoderma spray inoculation treatment can be a potential biodecomposer for EFB.

GENETIC DIVERSITY AND ALKALOIDS PROFILE EVALUATION OF CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS L. BASED ON RAPD MOLECULAR MARKERS AND RP- HPLC ANALYSIS

By Shurook M. K. Saadedin

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Catharanthus roseus is a medicinal plant, which main source of two antitumor terpeniods indole alkaloids (TIAs) vinblastine and vincristine. The aims of this study were to assess genetic diversity and alkaloids profiles using RAPD molecular markers and fast liquid chromatographic C18 column for the separation and identification of TIAs and their precursors for twelve C. roseus cultivars grown in Iraq. Genetic similarity between C. roseus cultivars ranged between 69% - 100%. Pacifica xp Burgundy Halo and Pacifica xp Cherry Red Halo had lowest genetic distance (0.0) with highest similarity value (100%). The quantification of Vincristine, Vinblastine and their precursors Vindoline and Catharanthine of the same two cultivars had almost the same alkaloids profile with slight difference in Vindoline percentage. The dendrogram assembled on the basis of RAPD band showed that the Iraqi cultivar was isolated from the rest eleven cultivars. This research was the first attempt linking between genetic diversity and (TIAs) vinblastine and vincristine content.

CORRELATION BETWEEN PREDATOR GREEN LACEWING CHRYSOPERLA CARNEA (STEPHENS,1836) AND SEASONAL PRESENCE OF JASMINE WHITEFLY ALEUROCLAVA JASMINITAKAHASHI IN SOME CITRUS SPEACIES.

By M.S.H. Manjy, F.A. Sabit, B.M.Thakir, S.H. Sabr

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Seasonal presence of jasmine whitefly Aleuroclava jasmini Takahashi correlated to the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) were studied in 25000m² citrus of orchard (citrus, orange and clementine) During March 2014 to September 2015 at An Numaniyah city south of Iraq. The population density of jasmine whitefly showed a significant deference between the upper and lower height rate of trees125.1 and 90.8 nymph/1 cm2 leaf area, respectively. Statistical analyses showed highest population density rate on orange trees was 139.3 nymph/1 cm2 leaf area followed by citrus and clementine with 104.5 and 80.0 nymph/1 cm2, respectively. For the interaction, the highest population density rate was registered on orange with 164.4 nymph/1 cm2 at the lower height level. Effect of host correlated to season, orange registered the highest population density rates comparison citrus species with 214.4, 164.0 and 125.9 nymph/1 cm2. Compared to other seasons, population density rates were the highest in summer season with 281.9, 128.3 and 101.5 nymph/1 cm2. In addition, orange registered the highest population density rate comparison to other citrus species at summer season. The distribution of jasmine whitefly through the year, registered Population density 55, 25 and 20% respectively on summer autumn and spring seasons. The two insects were correlated in positive relationship. The lacewing population density reflected during the study period. The predator showed an obvious increase when scored 50.8 egg/ 160 leaves in March. Then the highest lacewing rate was registered in July with 250.6 egg per 160 citrus leaves. When jasmine whitefly population density decreased, the rate started to decrease and scoring 30.9 egg/160 leaves in November.

LEVELS OF SEROTONIN AND INTERLEUKIN 6 IRAQI AUTISTIC CHILDREN

By Jinan Abdul Satar Abdul Kareem, Amina N. Al-Thwani

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder specified by higher frequency of serotonin aberration, the inflammatory factors in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) that may predispose to the disorder attract a great attention, Therefore, the goal of this study was to estimate serotonin 5-HT and interleukin6 IL6 in sample of Iraqi autistic children. Thirty blood samples from autistic children were examined to measure the level of interleukin6 and serotonin compared with matched healthy control. Serotonin level and IL6 of autistic children was elevated when compared with healthy control.

BIOTECHNOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES STIMULATE THE PRODUCTION OF SUGARCANE AND USEFUL FOR ENHANCING OF PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS

By Sardar Khatoon Solangi, Altaf hussain Solangi, Nusrat Solangi

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

An experiment was designed to develop technological method through which formulate protocol for tissue culture in sugarcane. Shoot tips of Saccharum officinarum L. as explants of three varieties included NIA-2012, NIA-105 and Gulabi-95. The regeneration of regenrable type of callus (whitened and solid type) was using in a basic medium with ABK (Indol acetic acid) ( indol butric acid) cytokinin (kintin) added with different content of auxin (2, 4-D), (NAA) and picloram. Main analysis of variance was showing that all the traits are significant in NIA-2012 which fallowed by NIA-105. The best combination for the multiplication and shoot rising of sugarcane the plant growth hormone was used 2, 4-D and NAA. Root proliferated with the NAA at the concentrations of 3.0 mg/L was observed. However, the optimized protocol can be used for rapid in vitro mass multiplication of three sugarcane varieties related to the field parameter enhance production of sugarcane hence minimize the limitations sugarcane planting materials.

POSSIBLE IMPROVEMENT TOWARDS SALT TOLERANCE IN EMS MUTATED STRAWBERRY (Fragaria x ananassa Duth.) FESTIVAL CULTIVAR

By Hatem K. Abbas, Ali A. Mahdi Al-Salihy and Kadhim M. Ibrahim

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The present study was established to enhance NaCl tolerance in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Dutch) ‘Festival’ cultivar which is grown widely in Iraq and it is sensitive to salt stress, Leaf explants were treated with Ethyl Methane Sulfonate (EMS) to induce genetic variation and then used for callus induction and shoot regeneration under NaCl stress. Different concentrations of NaCl (0.0, 10, 25, 35 or 45 mM) were dissolved with irrigation water and added to the soil. Response to NaCl was evaluated after three months. Callus cultures were initiated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of ?-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 6- benzylaminopurine (BAP), 4 mg/L-1 NAA+1 mg/L-1 BAP. The regenerated shoots were inoculated on shoot induction medium containing 2 mg/L1 BAP + 0.5 mg/L-1 NAA then transferred to MS medium supplemented with IBA 1.0 mg/L-1 for rooting. Morphological parameters, number of leaves, plant height, vegetative area, number of flowers, number of fruits and weight of fruits were investigated compared with in vivo plants. Genetic variation based on RAPD- PCR technique was used to detect variability. The results showed a high reduction in shoots regeneration and rooting in response to increasing NaCl. Morphological characteristics decreased in response to increase NaCl concentrations as well. However, in vitro regenerated plants derived from leaf discs treated previously with EMS, exhibited better performance in these parameters than in vivo plants at high concentrations of NaCl. Using eight RAPD primers a total number of 15 unique bands resulted after EMS treatment in Festival, while 3 unique bands appeared under NaCl stress. This study revealed that EMS as a chemical mutagen is a promising in enhancing NaCl tolerance.

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE TREATMENTS ON PHYSIOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATION OF IN VITRO PHALAENOPSIS ‘FORTUNE SALTZMAN’ SEEDLINGS

By Jatuporn Anuchai and Ching-Hsiang Hsieh

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Phalaenopsis ‘Fortune Saltzman’ tissue culture seedlings were grown with 5 different day/night incubation temperatures (25/25ºC, 25/20ºC, 30/20ºC, 30/25ºC, and 35/25 º C). The seedlings used were clearly identified into three photosynthesis stages through CO2 rhythm detecting. In Stage I (21 days after planting, DAP) it showed a typical C3 plant carbon fixation pattern but when plants continued to grow to Stage II (45DAP) they exhibited similar type C3-CAM plants. After 120DAP, plants showed significantly decreased CO2 concentration at night, and showed a typical CAM plant carbon fixation pattern. The result showed that after 120 days, cultures with 30/20ºC and 30/25ºC incubation temperatures grew more stems and presented higher fresh weight and leaf lengths compared to the results of other treatments. Moreover, 30/25ºC treatment showed significantly higher responses in terms of dry weight, number of root, root length and number of leaf. The seedlings subjected to 30/25ºC treatment showed significantly higher levels of Rubisco enzyme activity than those subjected to the other treatments. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activities recorded during the night time in seedlings subjected to 30/25ºC incubation temperatures were also significant greater. Therefore, 30/25ºC treatment could advance growth of Phalaenopsis ‘Fortune Saltzman’ tissue culture seedlings faster and can be recommended for commercial production.

BETA LACTAMASE SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERNS AND PREVALENCE OF ESBL GENES IN UROPATHOGENIC Escherichia coli

By Kais Kassim Ghaima, Inass Mahmood Abid Kamal

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Escherichia coli is one of the main causes of urinary tract infections (UTIs). The pathogenic isolates are becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics especially beta-lactam by their ability to produce extended-spectrum betalactamases (ESBLs). The aim of this study was to isolate E. coli from UTIs, and detection the antimicrobial resistance and its association with ESBL genes. CHROM agar Orientation medium was used for rapid detection of E. coli from urine specimens. According to phenotype of ESBL detection by Double Disk Synergy Test (DDST), eighty-four of E. coli isolates were ESBL producing. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for detection betalactamase genes (blaCTX-M, blaTEM and blaSHV). The percentage of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates was 57.5 %. The most frequent gene was blaTEM (82.1 %) followed by blaSHV (67.9 %) and blaCTX-M (34.5 %) genes. The most common ESBL genotype among our isolates was blaSHV and blaTEM (33.3 %). E. coli isolates that able to produce ESBL were susceptible to Meropenem and Imipenem, 94.1 % and 90.5 % respectively, and showed 100 % resistance to Amoxicillin, Cefotaxime and Cephalexin. The negative ESBL isolates exhibited high resistance to Amoxicillin and Cephalexin, and high sensitive to other antibiotic in comparison with the positive ESBL isolates. In conclusion, the most effective antibiotics against ESBL-producing uropathognic E. coli were carbapenems. The cephalosporins resistance is mainly due to ESBL production, where TEM-type gene was the most frequent among our local isolates. Study on ESBL producers among E. coli strains helps to control drug resistance cases and choose the right antibiotics for therapy of UTI.

PROTECTIVE ROLE OF LACTOBACILLUS ACIDOPHILUS IN HYPOTHALAMUS- PITUITARY- ADRENAL (HPA) AXIS PERFORMANCE IN HEAT STRESSED RATS

By Majida Abdulkhaliq Jaafar Alqayim1 and Zahraa Khudiar Handel

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The present study was undertaken to study the protective role of Lactobacillus acidophilus against deleterious changes of Hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in heat stress, adult female (n=24) Albino Wister rats were divided into four equal groups; 1st control (C) group maintained at (22-25?C), 2nd (HS) group exposed to high ambient temperature (35 - 40?C) for 6 hours daily, 3rd (HS-LBA). group administered L acidophilus (5 × 108 CFU) and exposed to heat stress, 4th (LBA) group administered L. acidophilus (5 × 108 CFU). Results revealed that heat stress disorders of, hyperthermia, anxiety and decreased relative growth rate RGR were ameliorated by administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Further-more, the typical biomarkers for hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis hyper sensitivity and sympathetic system activity (cortisole, adrenocorticotropic, adrenalin, & noradrenalin) were elevated in HS group, and return to semi normal level in HS-LBA and LBA groups. Analysis of brain tissue and duodenum sections showed marked inflammatory and irregularity of histopathological changes. These changes disappeared in groups with L. acidophilus. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated for the first time that L. acidophilus improves deleterious deviation in HPA axis hypersensitivity and sympathetic system activity caused by heat stress. These changes confirmed the success of heat stress resistance through a positive role of L. acidophilus in gut-brain-axis. This study demonstrated for the first-time efficacy of L. acidophilus in reducing heat stress effects mediated by gut-brain axis.

EFFECT OF L-PHENYLALANINE ON THE PRODUCTION OF SOME ALKALOIDS AND STEROIDAL SAPONINS OF FENUGREEK COTYLEDONS DERIVED CALLUS

By Saeb Aboud Hassan, Emad Hamdi Jassim

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The aim at this study is to increase some alkaloids and steroidal saponins in Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Callus initiation was carried out culturing cotyledons of the fenugreek on MS medium achieved by 1.0 mg/l?¹ 2, 4D and 0.4 mgl?¹ kinetin. The best medium to maintain callus was MS medium accomplished by 0.5 mg/l?¹ 2, 4-D and 0.5 mg/ l?¹ kinetin. Callus formation was allowed to take place for thirty days in the dark at 25±2 °C. Callus was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methanol callus extract showed high concentrations of some alkaloids and steroidal saponins compared to the methanol extract of cotyledons. For increasing, the concentration of secondary metabolites, L-phenylalanine was added at concentrations 0, 100, 200 or 300 mg/l?¹. L-phenylalanine at 200 mg/l?¹ led to significant increase in diosgenin, choline and trigonelline reaching177.82, 415.12 and 1815.53 µg/ ml?¹ per 100 mg fresh weight of callus respectively, L-phenylalanine at 100 mg/l?¹ increased smilagenin, tigogenin and carpaine reached 259.52, 122.87 and756.72 µg/ ml?¹ per 100 mg respectively.

GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHEAT AS AFFECTED BY PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA AND PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER

By Niaz Ali Sial, Shafique Ahmed Abro, Muhammad Abbas, Muhammad Irfan and Nizamuddin Depar

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Use of biological alternatives to synthetic fertilizers has radically increased due to the high costs and environmental concerns associated with later ones. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) have gained importance as supplements to phosphate (P) fertilizers for eco-friendly crop production. A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different P fertilizer rates and PSB on the growth and yield of wheat. Treatments comprised of control (without P application), 25, 50 and 75 kg P2O5 ha-1, and inoculation of PSB (Bacillus polymyxa) @ 25 mL kg-1 wheat seed. The experiment was laid-out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. The results showed that application of 75 kg P2O5 ha-1 resulted in maximum plant height (68.29 cm), number of spikelets per spike (18.67) and grain yield (8.51 kg plot-1) and was statistically superior to all other treatments except 50 kg P2O5 ha-1. The highest number of grains per spike (50), yield of main spike (2.49 g), grain yield plant-1 (2.93 g) and 100-grain weight (3.77 g) were also recorded in plots fertilized with 75 kg P2O5 ha-1. Generally, higher bacterial count was observed at 0-15 cm soil depth compared to the lower soil depth (15-30 cm) after three weeks of sowing and at crop harvest. Furthermore, the yield and yield contributing attributes recorded from PSB inoculated plots were statistically identical to those of 25 kg P2O5 ha-1 plots. Hence it can be concluded that PSB inoculation can contribute to wheat yield potential to some extent in resource poor farming system.

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA PRODUCING BIOPLASTIC (POLYHYDROXY ALKANOATE) FROM VEGETABLE OIL WASTES

By Iman H Gatea, Alaa S Abbas, Ameena G Abid, Amal A Halob, Sana K Maied and Azhar S Abidali

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The current study aimed isolation and characterization of local bacterial isolates capable of production Poly hydroxy alkanoate (PHA) using oil residues as a single carbon source. Many polluted environmental sites were used as sources of isolation of bacterial isolates. The collected samples were processed by serial dilution followed by spread plating in nutrient agar plates to get isolated colonies. Bacterial isolates were tested for (PHA) granules production using Sudan blank and Nile blue stains, nine of fifty isolates could produce PHA. Production of the polymer of bacterial isolates was found to be ranging from 21% - 57 % (w/w) of the biomass. The highest PHA yield was observed in Pseudomonas putida SD12, which was diagnosed according to diagnostic methods, i.e., colony morphology, gram staining, and then was confirmed by new gram-negative identification card (Vitek 2 NGNC). PHA accumulating was 2.80g/L, amounting to 57.20% (w/w) of cell dry weight. Waste frying oil was the best source of carbon which gave better results for PHA production than pure oil. PHA production was 2715 ppm with comparison of 1223 mg /3mlwhen used pure oil as a carbon source when incubated at 30°C after 48 hours.

EXPLORING NATURAL COMBINATION FOR IDENTIFICATION OF UPREGULATED NITROGEN FIXING BACTERIA IN GLYCINE MAX: AN IN VIVO, IN VITRO AND IN SILICO APPROACH

By Sadam D.V. Satyanarayana, M.S.R. Krishna and Pindi Pavan Kumar

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Understanding the concept of symbiosis in a more localized natural selective way and optimizing for the yielding advantages of confined geography is the prime objective of the study. Precisely the aim is to isolate and identify crop specific Rhizobium strains for Glycine max using physical, biochemical and in silico techniques from Bhadrachalam forest lands. Randomly collected soil samples from 45 different locations across Bhadrachalam forest were sown with soybean in triplets. The basic parameters like Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potassium (NPK) and levels of micronutrients for all the soil samples were identified to be similar. Out of 45 samples in triplets, top five growth supporting soils were taken for further investigation. Organisms from the root nodules of these five plants were screened and pure cultures were maintained. Log phase cultures in broth form were inoculated on the seeds sown in sterile soils with respective controls. Tremendous improvement in the growth parameters were observed in results when compared with controls. The polyphasic analysis discovered that the contributing organisms were Bradyrhizobium icense, Bradyrhizobium paxllaeri, Bradyrhizobium canariense, Sinorhizobium xinjiangense, Bradyrhizobium betae sp. Pure forms of these Rhizobial species have shown elevated rate of plant growth in in vitro fallowed by field experiments in low vegetative agriculture soils of the same geography. Out of these five species the Bradyrhizobium icense, which was the best plant growth supporting for Glycine max has been studies further to explore the Nif genes responsible for plant growth and Nitrogen fixation. The in slico analysis of Nif A protein revealed the underlying precursors of indole acetic acid (IAA) production and nitrogenase activity. This novel method of soil selection may be adopted for easy identification of Rhizobial species, specific for not only for Glycine max but also for various other legume crops from respective geographies.

COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF ANTIOXIDANT VITAMINS E AND C

By Ahmed Mahdi Saeed, Abbas Shebeeb Al-kadumi and Noor Jassem Mohammed Ali

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Determination of vitamin E (Tocopherol) and vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) by reduction ferric to ferrous ion, which was determined through reaction with potassium dichromate in acidic media using visible spectrophotometry was investigated in this research. The method was based on the use of sodium nitro prusside as a newly reagent source for ferric ion. The colour solution gave a maximum absorption at 564.4 nm, which was applied to the determination method. Conditions optimization was conducted through study different parameter such as volume of reagent, time, acid volume, temperature. The obtained results revealed that the value of R2 was (0.99991) for both vitamins, detection limit (0.10 and 0.07), the quantitative limit (0. 33 and 0.21), the linear ranges (0.5 – 30 and 0.25 – 50) ?g / mL, R.S.D (2.88 and 1.62) for vitamin E and C respectively. Results showed that the newly developed methods could be applied to determine vitamin E and C in their pure state and in pharmaceuticals with high accuracy and low cost without need any complicated treatments. Method accuracy was validated by recovery percentage mean (100.02 and 99.92 %) for vitamin C and E respectively.

DETERMINATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN SOIL AT AL-NAHRAWAN BRICKS FACTORY

By Thamera K. M. Al-Rudaini and Israa M.H. Almousawi

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The concentration of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in soil samples at AL-nahrawan bricks factory. The measured period was two seasons' summer and winter. The soil samples collected from surface and depth chosen site and analyzed by GC apparatus. The most abundant compounds in the summer season were naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, pyrene and benzo [a] anthracene, while in the winter were naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorine, benzo [k] fluoranthene, benzo [a] pyrene. The concentrations of 16 PAH in the summer were higher than in the winter season.

ESTIMATION OF ATPASE ACTIVITIES AND EXTRACELLULAR ION CONCENTRATIONS OF (NA+, K+, CL-AND CA+2) AFTER IRRADIATION OF BLOOD SAMPLES WITH LASER 532NM AND LASER 650NM

By Sadiq Hassan, Dakhel Ghani and Mustafa Muhamma

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The present study was conducted to explain how light energy of laser can be affected of ion pumps (ATPase) and concentrations of available ions across cellular membranes. A whole blood samples were collected and divided into three groups, the first group was remained without irradiation to serve as a control group and to perform comparisons between irradiated and non-irradiated samples, The second group was subdivided into two subgroups. The first subgroup was irradiated with laser 532nm, 4mw for 10 minutes and the second subgroup was irradiated with 650nm, 135mw for 10 minutes , there after these samples were used to determine the activities of ATPase and the obtained results showed a remarkable increase in the ATPase activities of irradiated blood samples when compared with non-irradiated blood samples .The results showed increased activities of ATPase in laser 650nm via increase concentrations of in organic phosphate (pi) resulted from hydrolysis of ATP to ADP. Three group of samples was also subdivided into two subgroups. The first subgroup was consequently irradiated with laser 532nm, 4mw for 5 and 10 minutes. The second subgroups was also consequently irradiated with laser 650nm, 4mw for 5 and 10 minutes. After irradiation, the samples were used to determine the common available ions (Na+, K+, Cl- and Ca+2). Results of Na+ showed a progressive decrease in both irradiated blood sample (532nm, 650nm) when compared with non-irradiated samples. On the other hand, results of the other ions (K+, Cl-, Ca+2) showed a remarkable increase in all irradiated of blood- samples in a comparison with control group. The low levels of Na+ were found to be associated inversely with increase wave length of laser especially at 650nm. On the other hand, the decrease in concentration of ion (Ca+, K+, Cl-) were directly proportional with wave length of laser beam. In conclusion, the data obtained from this study indicated that light energy can be exert photo-biostimulation, in particular, on ATPases enzymes and increases their activities through increase the final product of inorganic phosphate (pi). At the same time, the laser energy can be affect ion channels responsible for distribution of ions across cell membranes and enhances the movement of ions across cellular membranes too much when blood samples become irradiated with laser energy. The aim of this study involved to determine the effects of two types of laser (532nm and 650nm) with 4mw and 135mw on adenosine triphosphatase enzymes (ATPases) activities and then after estimation of some available ions to explain the effects of light energy on membrane potential (ion distributions).

SOME BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AGAINST XANTHOMONAS ORYZAE PV. ORYZAE CAUSE BACTERIAL LEAF BLIGHT OF RICE

By Sadam Hussain Bhutto, Javed Asghar Tarique, Jamal-U-Ddin Hajano, Rehana Naz Syed, Ghulam Hussain Jatoi, M. Ismail, Qurban Ali Rattar and Zeeshan Ghulam Nabi Gishkori

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

In current studies enzymes production and antibiotics sensitivity of some strains of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae tested in in-vitro conditions. Results of biochemical tests like catalase, amylase (starch hydrolysis) and growth on Yeast Dextrose Calcium Carbonate Agar (YDCA) varied among the isolates. The results regarding catalytic and amylase activity showed that out of 19 isolates, 18 isolates (95%) were Catalase positive and 1 isolate (5%) Catalase negative. 16 strains (84%) were amylase positive and 4 strains (21%) were amylase negative. SHB-5, SHB-12, SHB-116 showed maximum inhibition zone against streptomycin where as SHB-18, SHB-19 showed minimum inhibition.

CORRELATION BETWEEN BOD5 AND COD FOR AL- DIWANIYAH WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS TO OBTAIN THE BIODIGRABILITY INDICES

By Ahmed Makki Al-Sulaiman and Basim Hussein Khudair

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The present study aims to establish an empirical correlation between biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the sewage flowing in Al-Diwaniyah wastewater treatment plant. The strength of the wastewater entering the plant varied from medium to high. High concentrations of BOD5 and COD in the effluent were obtained due to the poor performance of the plant. This was observed from the BOD5 /COD ratios that did not confirm with the typical ratios for the treated sewage. Regression equations for BOD5 and COD removal percentages were suggested which can be used to evaluate rapid effluent assessment after the treatment processes or optimal process control to improve the performance of wastewater treatment plants. The average Biodegradability indices (B.I) of Al-Diwaniyah wastewater plants was found to be 0.69. The equations relating the percentage removal of BOD5(y) with influent BOD5(x), y= 0.044x + 80.66 and the percentage removal of COD (y) with influent COD (x), y= 0.045x + 55.15 were found with high correlation R2 =0.72 and 0.86 respectively.

PURIFICATION BY ION EXCHANGE CHROMATOGRAPHY AND ENZYME CHARACTERIZATION OF POTENTIAL DE-HAIRING ALKALINE PROTEASE FROM BACILLUS CEREUS LS2B

By Yendri Junaidi, Ambar Partiwiningrum, Yuny Erwanto, Jamhari1, Lies Mira Yusiati, Takashi Hayakawa, Tomoyuki Nakagawa, Nanung Agus Fitriyanto

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Objective: Effort to develop an environmental-friendly oriented method of animal leather tanning, especially dehairing process, becomes a concern of this research. The aim was to purify the alkaline protease from Bacillus cereus LS2B using a set of methods including ion exchange chromatography with DEAE Sepharose matrix. The enzyme was considered for having a significant potential in the de-hairing process in tanning industries. Method: The step of alkaline protease enzyme purifications including enzyme productions, ammonium precipitation, membrane dialysis and ion exchange chromatography was performed in this research. The total proteins and specific activity of every fractionation resulted from ion exchange chromatography were measured in this research. Identification of molecular weight by SDS-PAGE of each fraction and measurement of optimum pH and temperature of the purified enzyme was also described. Result: The data showed that there was difference enzyme activity in every fraction obtained from the chromatography indicated the position of the enzyme. Alkaline protease from Bacillus cereus LS2B purification using ion exchange chromatography with DEAE Sepharose matrix has resulted in 35 fractions, with each fraction containing about 1.5 ml enzyme. The research was performed with a flow rate of 1.5 ml min-1. Each enzyme fraction has different specific activity. The highest activity is shown at the 15th fraction that confirmed 64.4 U/mg. The balance condition between protein concentration and specific activity was observed at the 21st fraction (45.5 U/mg). The 21st fraction was become interesting due to the total of enzyme protein was almost same as the total enzyme activity. The correlation was considered becomes one of the indications of the effectiveness and efficiency of an enzyme purification. The result of SDS-PAGE determination showed that the 15th fraction has 3 bands of protein enzyme with a molecular weight of 72 kDa, 20 kDa, and 13 kDa. The 21st fraction has smaller protein bands, which are observed 20 kDa and 13 kDa. Conclusion: Each fraction has dominant pure protein molecule around 20 kDa. Moreover, it is assumed that the molecular weight of alkaline protease enzyme specific protein of Bacillus cereus LS2B is 20 kDa. Optimal temperature and pH of the purified enzyme were 40°C and pH 8, respectively.

A NEW COMPOSITE COATING FOR 316 L STAINLESS STEEL IMPLANT

By Ahmed Salah Hameed

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Stainless steel (SS) is a biomaterial used widely in dental and medical fields. It is a bio-tolerant material and more susceptible to infection and corrosion. To overcome these problems SS can be coated with hydroxyapatite crystals combined with titanium. Infection resistance can be imparted by incorporating antimicrobial agent such as silver. A composite coating HA-Ti with Ag at 13wt% was prepared for SS using pulse laser technique and compared with HA and HA-Ti coatings. The coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopyenergy dispersive spectroscopy. The antibacterial action was investigated against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in vitro. The corrosion behavior of the coatings was studied in Hank's balanced solution using computerized potentiated. The results revealed that the composite coating HA-Ti-Ag was uniform and thin (1.6 µm). This coating reduced the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and improved the corrosion resistance of SS. SS coated with (HA-Ti-Ag) coating can be used in dental and orthopedic surgery.

INDUCTION OF GENETIC VARIATION IN TWO VARIETIES OF WHEAT BY ELECTRIC AND HEAT SHOCK

By Laith M.J. Al-Shamma and Mohammed M. H.

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The aim was to study the effect of electric shock (ES) and heat shock (HS), yield, yield components for two varities of wheat (Triticum aestivun L.). Seeds of two varities were germinated to initial appearance the radical of 2-5 mm length, some of the seedling treatment for different periods with electric current (220 AC) used were ( 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mins.). While heat shock treatment for another seedling with heat shock at(35°C,40°C and 45° C) for one hour and then the seedling were transferred to the cold shock condition (7°C) for three hours. Factorial experiment was used (RCBD) with 3 replications for each treatment. Heat shock at 45 oC gave a significant increases in weight of (1000)grain was 37.4 (g), While heat shock at 40oC treatment gave highest grains number per spike was 83.1. The highest average spike number /m2 was 340.3, grain yield was 8.94 (ton.ha-1) when seeds treatment with electric shock for (5 mins.). An increase of the grain yield (37 %). Which the latter was no significant differences with heat shock at 40 oC. Baghdad 1 variety gave the spike have highest number of spikelet is19.5, quantity of grain in spike 73.5, grain yield 7.89 (ton.ha-1). While Babylon 113 variety superimposes in asspike number/m2 301.28. Significant differences also showed for the interactions between varieties and treatments in most of the studied traits, ( Baghdad 1 at Hs 40 oC) gave highestgrain number per spike 93.6, grain yield was 10.59 (ton.ha-1), whereas (Babylon 113 for Es 5 minutes) gave highest value of nd spike number /m2385.3.

PREVALENCE OF CHOLELITHIASIS IN IRAQI PATIENTS WITH HEPATITIS B INFECTION

By Ali Abdul Hussan, Athraa Zaidan Hassan, Luma Ghaeb Al- Saadi, Istabreq Muhammed Ali Salman

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Liver Cirrhosis is a strong and a common?known risk factor for Cholelithiasis. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of cholelithiasis in patients with hepatitis B virus infection and determine gall stone and their association with hepatitis B virus infection in Iraqi patients. Patients and Methods: study? involved 131 patients with chronic liver disease according to clinical, laboratory? and Ultrasonographic findings. in addition, 45-individual with no evidence with hepatitis B virus infection as control groups alkaline phosphatase (ALP), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) were analyzed. ELISA test used to detect hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and sonography? was done to determine presence or absence of gallstones. Results: The results showed that Hepatitis B (HBV) was present in 77.8% with a highly significant? difference (p<0.001) between patient groups when compared? to control groups. Also, increase in Alkaline phosphates in 31.2% with highly significant difference (p<0.001) between patient groups and control group. The prevalence of cholelithiasis was 79.4% as significantly higher (P<0.001) in the patients subjects as compared with control subject. In this study was observed that 33.3% of the patients infected with hepatitis B virus were show increase in alkaline phosphates. Statistically highly significant association was found between abnormal increase in alkaline phosphates and hepatitis B virus positive results (P<0.001). In study appeared that 82.4% of the patients infected with hepatitis B infection (84 of 102 cases) were positive for stone formation (cholelithiasis) as Highly significant association between HBV status and gallbladder stones (P<0.001). Conclusion: Cholelithiasis? tends to? occur more frequently? in patients with hepatitis B virus infection. There is a strong? association? between HBV infection and gallstones. So, HBV infection is definitely ?a risk factor? for gallstone disease.

SECURED SMART HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM BASED ON USER BEHAVIOUR USING INTERNET OF THINGS

By Kiruthiga N, Lokitha Karthi R, Ramya B

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The “Smart Home” can be defined as the idea of what a home could be that is not under the control of human beings over the electrical appliances all the time. In earlier days, home automation technology was considered to be extremely expensive but in the past few years the cost has been reduced and the demand has increased. The significant outcome is that there is danger in connecting anything to the internet, hence this results in lack of security in the automation system. Our approach is to meet the security issues in home automation by creating a smart home automation system where the data about the devices inside a home are collected and the collected data will be secured using privacy preserving algorithms that includes User behavior algorithm and blow fish algorithm. Therefore, the system can allow the appliances to get turned on or off automatically.

GENOTYPING OF VAGINOLYSIN GENE OF GARDNERELLA VAGINALIS ISOLATED FROM PRETERM LABOR PATIENTS IN HILLA CITY

By Ilham A. Bunyan, Lamees A. Abdul-Lateef, Azal Alaa Al-Rubaeaee

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The present study aims to detection Genotyping of vaginolysin gene for Gardnerella vaginalis which isolated from preterm labor patients by PCR-RFLP in Hilla cityIn this study, 150 clinical sample were collected from patients with preterm labor submitted to Al-Hilla Teaching Hospital and Babylon Maternity and pediatric hospital. After extraction of DNA from high vaginal swabs, the DNA was subjected to PCR- RFLP method for identification of G.vginalis. results show It was found only (20%) of bacteria was give positive result. However, vagainolysin were carried out using specific primer and the result shows that 12 samples were positive amplification 1551bp then products were digested with EcoR I the results showed that vagainolysin exhibited three fragment 1000, 717, 100 bp respectively, assertion that G.vaginalis have four Genotyping this improving that it is had more virulent .

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ZATARIA MULTIFLORA BOISS. ESSENTIAL OIL ENCAPSULATED IN NANOLIPOSOME IN BROTH MEDIA AND MINCED BEEF

By Kianoush Khosravi-Darani, Omid Zahed and Sheida Aarabi

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Natural herbal antioxidants as additives in food and biological systems are interesting but their application in food formulations is problematic due to low dispersion in aqueous phase and susceptibility to oxidation. Encapsulation is a solution to increase water solubility protection from environment as well as masking odor and taste of new additives. In this study, liposome-encapsulated Zataria multiflora boiss was produced by heating method and encapsulation efficiency was optimized. Then antioxidant activity of free and encapsulated essential oil was compared using radicals 2-'2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in minced beef. Results showed that the most important parameter affecting the microencapsulation efficiency is phosphatidylcholine. The most suitable encapsulation was achieved in condition includes phosphatidylcholine (2.5% w/w), ratio of essential oil to phosphatidylcholine (0.81% w/w), temperature (35°C) and time (42 min). In these conditions, the encapsulation efficiency reached to 54.4 %. Antioxidant activity of liposomal essential oil was significantly higher than free oil. The sensory evaluation of minced meat containing encapsulated essential oil was significantly higher than control (including free essential oil) (p?0.01) (p. Minced meat containing 0.05% and 0.1 % w/w encapsulated essential oils showed suitable overall acceptance.

SURFACE IMPROVEMENT AND MODIFICATION OF PDMS.SIO2/PES MEMBRANE FOR ETHANOL/WATER SEPARATION IN MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR

By Amirhossein Farahi, Ghasem D. Najafpour, Aliasghar Ghoreyshi

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

An ethanol selective composite membrane consists of dense and hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as active layer on polyethersulfone (PES) as support layer was successfully fabricated. In order to improve membrane's ethanol selectivity, SiO2 was coated on the surface of composite membrane. For SiO2 coating, the composite PDMS surface was modified by corona treatment at corona time of 6 min and corona input power of 360 W. As a result, the ethanol separation factor has significantly increased (from 6.9 to 10.5 for total flux of 510 g/m2.h). The ethanol separation factor using PDMS/PES modified surface membrane was improved by 52%. In the next step, the performance of the fabricated PDMS.SiO2/PES membrane was examined in membrane bioreactor (MBR). Based on obtained data, bioethanol concentration in conventional fermentation was 18.9 g/l while bioethanol concentration in broth of MBR and cold trap were 23.54 and 195.4 g/l, respectively. In addition, the cell concentration at conventional fermentation was 12.3 g/l. The cell concentration in MBR using the PDMS fabricated membrane has reached to 16.1 g/l. Therefore, the modified fabricated composite PDMS.SiO2/PES membrane was quite effective for ethanol separation. The fabricated composite PDMS membrane was much superior than the commercial PDMS membrane.

ANTAGONISTIC ACTIVITY OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES SYNTHESIS BY FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM AGAINST CANDIDA SPP.

By Ghufran Khalid Rahi and Hamzia Ali Ajah

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Background and Objective: Candida infections are one of the most commonly occurring fungal infections in human. Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are a new kind of material with several applications, such as antimicrobial against bacteria, fungi and viruses. The current education remained achieved to appraise the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Fusarium oxysporum against Candida spp. Methods: Ag-NPs synthesis from F.oxysporum extracellularly and characterized by UV-Visible spectral analysis, X-ray Diffraction Analysis (X-RD), Atomic force microscopy(AFM) and Fourier Transform Infrare Spectroscopy (FTIR),effect of Ag-NPs at concentrations (10, 25, 50,100µg/ml) against 7 isolates of Candida spp. by 2 way: agar plate well diffusion assay and Cell Proliferation Assay (MTT). Results: Ag-NPs shown extreme absorbance peak on 418nm in UV–Visible Spectral. Since the X-RD design showed the presence three peaks, Strong diffraction peaks were: 38.19 º (111), 48° (200) and 67° (220). The AgNPs surface morphology revealed from AFM images show, size diameter 73.73 nm, Roughness average (Ra) and Root mean square (Sq) of was 14.7 nm, 18.2 nm, respectively. The FTIR spectrum of biosynthesized Ag-NPs showed six distinct peaks, 3711.87, 1699.18, 1108.81, 834.71, 446.70 and 419.33 cm-1. And altogether Candida spp. isolates remained vulnerable towards Ag-NPs and inhibition rate increases with the increase of concentration. Conclusion: Biological synthesis of Ag-NPs using F.oxysporum have potent antimicrobial action in contradiction of Candida lambica, C.famata, C.glabrata, C.albicans, C.tropicalis, C.sphaerica and C.krusei.

AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON FRICTION STIR WELDED ALUMINUM ALLOY (AA6063-O) JOINTS USING VERTICAL MILLING MACHINE

By T. Pradeepkumar, V. Kalaiyarasan, P. Vijayakumar

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

In this work, an experimental investigation and analysis had been made to study the mechanical and micro-structure behaviors of single sided friction stir welded (FSW) aluminum alloy 6063-O joints. Friction stir welding was performed in vertical milling machine using cylindrical profiled AISI H13 Tool steel. The welding had been performed against four input process parameters including Tool Rotational Speed, Weld Traverse Speed, Tool Tilt Angle and Tool Pin Diameter. Taguchi L9 orthogonal array is the technique used to reduce the number of experimental runs to 9. Micro hardness was taken to measure the strength of the weld. The grey relational analysis was performed against micro-hardness to find out the influence of the process parameter. Microstructure was studied using the optical microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy separately. The microstructures were taken in both advancing and retreating sides of the weld. From the microstructure analysis, weld zones namely Heat Affected Zone and Thermo-Mechanically Affected Zone and Stir Zone were studied.

PATTERN CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUES FOR THE CLASSIFICATION OF CUTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

By S. Samundeswari1,2*, V. Ramalingam1, B. Latha2 and S. Palanivel1

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-lupus (SLE-Lupus) is the prototype of multiorgan autoimmune rheumatic disorders with life threatening systemic manifestations and there is no gold standard test for the diagnosis of SLE. Pattern classification techniques are used to classify the images of SLE and their performances are evaluated. A total of images of 400 patients (200 SLE and 200 normal) are collected from various hospitals available in Tamilnadu state of India, for this experimental study. Features are extracted from these images based on color histogram and texture. Two different classifiers are considered in this study, namely, multilayer perceptron and support vector machines. Experimental results show that the multilayer perceptron model provides higher accuracy of 86.25% than other model, support vector machine for SLE identification.

BIOREMEDIATION OF DIESEL BY SOIL FUNGI

By Jasim. H. Naama* and Noor A. Alhusainy

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The study attempts to bioremediation of diesel as petroleum contaminants using fungi isolated from soil of different sites in Baghdad . The three isolated fungi: Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida nonsorbophila and zygosaccharomyces bailii were identified by molecular classification (PCR) and selected for bioremediation experiments that were more predominant in the soil .The fungi tested to biodegradation of diesel in solid medium (PDA) , liquid medium (MSM) and in soil. Results of PDA experiments showed A. fumigatus was resistant to diesel fuel in 5% concentration, the colony diameter reached up to 7.1cm after 14 days. Lowest diameter 1.4 cm appeared in Z. bailii after 28 days.Regarding MSM experiment, A. fumigatus showed highest bioremediation 69.50% after 28 days in 10g/L diesel, while C. nonsorbophilii showed high biodegradation 69.0% after 28 days. To test the ability of mix fungi in MSM media, mix A. fumigatus with Z. bailii showed higher degradation 59.8% in 10g/L diesel after 28 days. While at used three fungi (A.fumigatus+ C.nonsorbophilii+ Z.bailii) showed less degradation 48.0% in 10g/L diesel after 28 days.Experiments of diesel biodegradation in soil after 60 days incubation, A. fumigatus recorded high percentage of remediation 97.70% ,while 97.20% recorded by C. nonsorbophilii. , and 94.80% by Z. bailii that was not different significance among them, but significantly higher than the minimum bioremediation of the three fungal mixture (90.70%).The study concluded that A. fumigatus could be used in bioremediation being better than the rest of the fungi on diesel pollutant biodegradation in solid, liquid and soil medium.Ability of mixed fungi to diesel biodegradation was less than using alone depended on competition and antagonisms between the fungi in the growth medium.

EFFECTIVENESS & ECONOMY OF SAWDUST WOOD ADSORBENTS IN REMOVING ANIONIC DYES OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

By Haider T. Naeema and Ali A. Hassan

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Adsorption of methyl orange (MO) from the aqueous solution on a low-cost adsorbent made of sawdust wood (SW) is studied experimentally. In the current research, a comparative study has been conducted between the natural sawdust wood (SW) and the activated sawdust wood (ASW). Conditions of experimental study were included the followings: 10 ppm of methyl-orang, pH=6 and a dosage in the range of 0.5 - 2 gm for different sizes of sawdust. During the study, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy-(FTIR) as well as (UV/V) is spectroscopy techniques were used. Results obtained indicate that the removal efficiency of methyl orange at 25 ± 3 C exceeded 38.7%. A good fit for equilibrium data was obtained as per Langmuir model (R2> 0.99). Maximum adsorption capacity of MO on ASW is 1.8 mg g-1. Results analysis of the activated sawdust waste show more a potential effectiveness as cheap adsorbent for the dyes removal from industrial wastewater.

OPTIMIZATION OF THE PROCESS CONSTRAINTS IN SPARK EROSION MACHINING OF ALUMINIUM ALLOY AA 6061 HYBRID COMPOSITES USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK

By C.Velmurugan, S. Thirugnanam, P. Maithili, R. Ranjithkumar

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The foremost objective of this research work is to implement Artificial Neural Network (ANN), to improve spark erosion machining performance of aluminum alloy AA 6061 hybrid composites by controlling the process constraints, which is suitable for bio medical applications. Aluminum composites are mostly used to replace the conventional materials attributable to their less weight, notable wear and corrosion resistances. These composites are used in automotive, aerospace, electronics and bio medical applications. Machining of aluminium composites using conventional machining technique is one of the major challenges because of the presence of hard particles in aluminium matrix. Unconventional machining techniques have been preferred for machining aluminium composites to enhance better surface quality. In the present study the composite specimen was processed through stir casting and machining was carried out using spark erosion machining, by varying four process constraints with the application of design of experiments. ANN trained with multi-layer feed forward through the error backpropagation training algorithm, was used to model the network and predict the material removal rate (MRR) of the composite. The outcomes exposed that the projected values found from the ANN model were in good agreement with the investigational values and to study the machining characteristics of composites, the model could be effectively applied.

STAINING OF LEISHMANIA DONOVANI PROMASTIGOTES BY NATURAL FLOWER DYES

By Sura Basil Kamal

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

There are many synthetic dyes used to stain leishmania parasite for the purpose of diagnosis and the most famous are geimsa stain and leishman stain. Due to the damage caused by the use of synthetic dyes, including large environmental pollution and harmful toxic side effects this study came for the purpose of obtaining alternative dyes for the staining of the parasite from natural sources available, cheap and easy to obtain. The water extract of kujarat flowers Hibiscus sabdariffa and the alcoholic extract of Damask rose Rosadamascena and China rose Hibiscus rosa sinensis were prepared and used in staining the Leishmania donovani promastigotes and compared with geimsa stain. The three natural flower extracts gave a good capability in staining the promastigote of Leishmania donovani.

SECURE DATA SHARING IN A CLOUD ENVIRONMENT BY USING BIOMETRIC LEAKAGERESILIENT AUTHENTICATED KEY EXCHANGE

By S. Balakrishnan, J. Janet, K.N. Sivabalan

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Cloud (Distributed) computing is an outline for giving handling organization through the web on intrigue and pay per utilize access to a pool of shared resources for be systems, stockpiling, servers, administrations and applications, without physically securing them. Authenticated key exchange (AKE) traditions (conventions) allow two social affairs passing on finished an inconsistent framework to develop an ordinary mystery key. They are among the most by and large used cryptographic traditions as a piece of training. Remembering the ultimate objective to oppose key-spillage assaults, a couple of spillage versatile AKE traditions have been proposed starting late in the limited spillage show. The spillage strong check (validation) and data (key) organization structure which can be seen as an obvious response for secure cloud (circulated) capacity. In this paper, we propose a Biometric Leakage-Resilient Authenticated Key Exchange (BLR-AKE) convention for giving secure information sharing. A promising approach to develop such a convention is to utilize a Biometric scheme as an authentication system. Cloud client need to do with Biometric framework is just to information his/her own thumb impression. In the event that it is right, the recouped information keys are naturally reserved into the memory amid the decided era. Furthermore, the client can transform this parameter at his/her will.

A CLUSTER BASED INTRUSION DETECTION TECHNIQUES FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

By A. Sunitha nandhini and T. Rajesh kumar

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

An inventive application for different condition in light of remote sensor systems is being produced in the business part. Discovering strings and blocking them without influencing the system is basic without expanding the overheads and vitality. In the proposed calculation called CTACK (Cluster trust based affirmation) for WSN depends on number of dynamic effective conveyances and Kalman Filter is utilized to anticipate the hub trust. In view of the trust estimation of whole course, affirmation is started on chosen bundles to diminish the control overhead. It is watched that bundle conveyance proportion enhances notwithstanding when vindictive hubs are distinguished and keep away from them in the course disclosure process.

EFFECT OF OZONATED WATER TREATMENT ON CLINICAL SIGNS, SURVIVAL RATE AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS IN COMMON CARP, CYPRINUS CARPIO L. INFECTED WITH SAPROLEGNIA SPP.

By Sabah M. Hamad and Sana'a A. Mustafa

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Present study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of Ozone and formaldehyde (as a reference treatment) on controlling Saprolegniasis in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Saprolegnia spp. were isolated on special culture media for fungi from 50 infected specimens of fishes were identified as Saprolegnia spp. Viable fungal suspension of Saprolegnia was determined and adjusted at a concentration of 2×104 zoospores l-1 . To control this fungus, a total of 120 common carp weighing 80±10g were randomly distributed into six replicated groups (10 fish/replicate) and were treated as follows; C-: control healthy without treatment; C+: control infected with Saprolegnia spp. without treatment; T1, T2 and T3: fish were infected with Saprolegnia spp. and treated with Ozone 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 mg/l per hour respectively; T4: fish were infected with Saprolegnia spp. and treated with formalin 0.15 ml/ l for 30 min for 3 successive days. Clinical signs and survival rate were studied. After 14 days of treatment with Ozone, samples were collected from fish for histopathological studies. Among the Ozone treatment 0.50 mg/l showed highest survival rate (90%), survival rate of the control group (without disinfectant) was 20%. Histopathological studies revealed significantly increased (p<0.05) percentage of gill epithelial proliferation and epithelial lifting, also fusion of the secondary lamellae, in fish from ozonated groups relative to C+ and C- groups. However, there were no significant differences in histopathology frequency/severity among the ozonated groups (T1, T2, T3 and T4). Skin of C+ group exhibited severe histopathological alterations including sloughing, erosion and ulcerative of epidermis penetrating up to dermal tissue. While Ozone treatment groups showed increase number of mucous cells and MNCs infiltration. Ozone appears to be a valuable disinfectant against Saprolegnia infection; at the dose of 0.50 mg/l. In conclusion, the results indicated the efficacy of Ozone as antifungal in controlling Saprolegnia infection. Thus, Ozone could be used as potential and promising alternatives to chemotherapeutics compounds in aquaculture, to achieve sustainable, economic, and safer fish production.

IDENTIFICATION OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR VARIATION INDUCED BY GAMMA IRRADIATION ON MUSA CV. PISANG TANDUK (AAB)

By Ferid Abdulhafiz Kemal, Fatimah Kayat and Suhana Zakaria

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The Banana and plantain improvement through conventional breeding method has been very slow mainly due to narrow genetic variability, sterility and polyploid nature of most banana cultivars. Thus, mutation breeding is a promising tool to create new cultivars for the improvement of banana. Therefore, gamma treated banana plantlets were subjected to acclimatization under nursery and several study was conducted. Morphological study on the growth of mutated plantlets showed that, 10 Gy induced a significant stimulation effect on root length, leaf length and leaf width compared to non-treated banana. In the meanwhile, 30 Gy treatment induced dwarf plant. IRAP molecular analysis revealed that, the total of 37 DNA bands position were detected, out of them 20 were polymorphic, producing 54% polymorphism. The highest IRAP bands were detected using primer Sukkula LTR with a maximum number of polymorphic bands, whereas primer LTR 6149, Sukkula LTR/LTR 6149, Sukkula LTR/3'LTR and Sukkula LTR/5'LTR1 yielded monomorphic bands. Hence, in overall application of 10 Gy of ? induced the significant higher phenotypic and genotypic variation. Therefore, the current research was conducted to study the effect of gamma radiation on the morphological and genetic variation in ? irradiated banana plant.

COMPARISON BETWEEN EFFECT OF GENERAL AND SPINAL ANESTHESIA ON APGAR SCORES IN THE NEONATES DELIVERED BY ELECTIVES CESAREAN SECTIONS

By Enas Ibrahim Mehdi, and Zinah Majid Mnati

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Delivering of the pregnant woman by the caesarean section, become increasingly common, caesarean section deliveries account for (25 to 30) % (range 1.8-40.5 %) of deliveries nationally and internationally, despite that most patients undergoing cesarean section included healthy and young; who represent a more risk groups of patients. Selection of an appropriate anesthesia (either general anesthesia or regional which include spinal or epidural) for cesarean section has studied for a longtime and depend on several factors. This, study was conducted to comparing effect of both spinal and general anesthesia on the newborn fetus by caesarean section through monitoring of Apgar score of the newborn. A prospective randomized study, 60 pregnant women (36-40 weeks gestational age) planned for elective caesarean section were divided into two group as ( A&B) groups, (group A 30 cases) receiving general anesthesia, (group B 30 cases) receiving spinal anesthesia, after the delivery of fetus Apgar score was recorded at 1st, 5th and 10th minute, with proper resuscitation was done if needed. Apgar score was statistically higher scores at 1st, 5th minutes in general anesthesia compared to spinal anesthesia. Neonatal Apgar score of whose mother receiving spinal anesthesia was better than neonate, who mother receiving general anesthesia.

INDUCED RESISTANCE IN CUCUMBER AGAINST RHIZOCTONIA DAMPING-OFF DISEASE USING A BIOTIC AND BIOTIC AGENTS

By Aalaa K. Hassan, Hurria H. Al-Juboory and Neran S. Aljarah

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of three control agents, Preservepro,Biaclean , and Biohealth, separately or in combination, for inducing systemic resistance in cucumber plants against Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of root rot disease . It was found that the three agents induced significant reduction in pre and post emergence damping off and in disease severity compared with control. The applications of these agents in combination were found to be more efficient in reducing pre and post emergence damping off and in disease severity that attained to 0.00, 3.33, 1.33% and 3.33, 3.70, 4.00% and 3.33, 13.70, 13.33% with Preservepro + Biaclean, Preservepro + Biohealth, Biaclean +Biohealth respectively, compared with 3.33,13.70,14.67% and 6.67, 24.81, 25.33% and 13.33, 15.74, 24.0% with Preservepro, Biaclean, Biohealth respectively when applicated separately at 25 ml/pot (50mg/L), 2.5 g/Kg soil and 600 ml/Kg respectively and with 40.00, 39.50 and 72.00% in control. The reduction in disease incidence and severity was found associated with increases in root and foliage dry weights and in peroxides antioxidant enzyme in cucumber plants. These results may be promising in IPM program to manage root rot disease.

HISTOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF SPINAL CORD IN QUAIL COTURNIX COTURNIX (LINNAEUS, 1758)

By Asmaa Basheer Abed, Nahla A. Al-Bakri, Wijdan Basheer Abid, Mohammad Oda Selman

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The study is done in the period between (February 20 and October 20) by using ten adult quail Coturnix coturnix (Linnaeus, 1758). The sections are preparing by paraffin method then stain in Harris haematoxylin-eosin. The histological aspects of spinal cord in quail (Coturnix coturnix) the white matter is in the outer part, while the gray matter is arranged in from of X represents its internal part, the dorsal region is called the dorsal horns while the ventral region is called the ventral horns and the central canal cavity, the spinal cord areas appeared as follows: The medial column, column of von Lenhossek, lateral column, dorsal magnocellular column and marginal paragriseal, columns are also called Hoffmann’s nuclei.