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EDITORIAL BOARD

2018

SOFT COMPUTING BASED INDUSTRIAL PROCESS: A REVIEW

By A. Agalya1 and B. Nagaraj2

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

This paper presents the survey on Soft computing algorithms like genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, bacterial foraging optimization techniques, Ant colony optimization and firefly algorithm. This optimization technique handles the uncertainty present in the real-world problem appreciably hence presently much research is being done on various areas covered by soft computing algorithms. The primary aim is to provide background information, motivation for applications and an exposition to the methodologies involved in the development of soft computing technologies in engineering. This paper covers the survey on the work that has been done in the field of soft computing algorithms in various industrial processes.

THE ATTITUDE OF SECOND YEAR PHARMACY STUDENTS TOWARD LECTURES, EXAMS AND ELEARNING

By Ahmed T Alahmar

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Objective: There is an increasing trend toward student cantered interactive e-learning methods and students’ feedback is a valuable tool for improving learning methods. The aim of this study was to explore the attitude of second year pharmacy students at University of Babylon, Iraq toward lectures, exams and e-learning. Materials and methods: Ninety pharmacy students were surveyed by paper questionnaire about their preference for lecture format, use of e-files, theoretical lectures versus practical experiments, lecture and lab time. Students were also asked about their predilection for Moodle-based online exams, diverse types of exam questions, exam time and other extra academic activities. Results: Students prefer to read lectures on paper (73.3%), use of PowerPoint file (76.7%), short lectures of less than 10 pages (94.5%), practical experiments (66.7%), lectures and lab time of less than two hours (89.9% and 96.6 respectively) and intra-lecture discussions (68.9%). Students also like to have paper-based exam (73.3%), short essay (40%) or MCQ (34.4%) questions and prefer to do extra activities like reports (22.2%), seminars (18.6%) and posters (10.8%). Conclusion: Second year pharmacy students have different attitudes toward traditional and electronic leaning and assessment methods. Using multimedia, e-learning and Moodle are increasingly preferred methods among some students

SYNTHESIS, INVESTIGATION, CHROMATOGRAPHY, THERMAL-BEHAVIOR OF (FIVE, SEVEN)- MEMBERED RING WITH AZO AND ANIL COMPOUNDS

By Nagham Mahmood Aljamali

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

This practical studying includes formation of a new Nitrogen-Cyclic compounds (five and seven membered ring) by azotation reaction and condensation reaction, then cyclization with diamine compounds (phenylene diamine, phenyl hydrazine) by some conditions with catalyst to formation di nitrogen cycle compounds. The structure of all formatted compounds was characterized by using many techniques (FT, IR, 1H. NMR, Mass Spectra, Chromatography-Measurement, Thermal-Measurements)) then studying of physical and chemical characterization and other chemical studies.

MUCOXIN ENHANCED TRANSCRIPTION AND PROTEIN EXPRESSION OF P53 IN BREAST CANCER CELL LINE T47D

By Muhartono*, Ermin R**, Bayu PDJ*

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Mucoxin is a type of acetogenin isolated from Rollinia mucosa leaves which is known to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. However, the mechanism of mucoxin in regulating and eliminating cancer cells was not clear. This study investigated the mucoxin effect on the transcriptional-translational and posttranslational processes of p53 gene in breast cancer cells line T47D. Breast cancer cells line T47D was divided into three groups referred to hours of assays, namely hour 24th, 48th, 72nd, where each group was given mucoxin with six difference doses, namely 0.1 ng/mL, 0.5 ng/mL, 1 ng/mL, 5 ng/mL and 10 ng/mL with three replicates. Transcription of p53 gene was assayed by quantitative PCR (qPCR), whereas the expresssion of p53 protein assayed by immunocytochemistry. Mucoxin enhance p53 gene and protein in all treatment group. p53 gene transcription increased significantly in 48 h, while expression of p53 protein increased significantly in 72 h. Conclusion: Mucoxin increased transcription of p53 gene and expression of p53 protein on cell line T47D.

SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND STUDY BIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF SOME NEW AZETIDINONE DERIVATIVES FROM AZO- SULPHADIAZINE

By Radhiyah A. Khdur* and Ezzat H. Zimam**

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

This research Involved synthesis of some new azetidinone Derivatives from Azo Compound[4-Amino-3--((4methoxy-2-nitrophenyl)diazenyl)-N-(Pyrimidine-2-yl)benzen-esulfonamide](N1)by two routsone of them Conversion the free amino group in an azo comp. to Schiff base, then formation of azetidinone derivatives by keten-imine reaction or Staudingers Cyclo addition .The other rout is the cyclization by reaction of the free amino group with Chloro acetyl chloride and Et3N to give ?-Chloroacetamide derivative then reaction with hydrazine hydrate to produce the hydrazinyl acetamide derivative. Then conversion to Schiff base and finally formation azetidinone derivative. Most of these derivatives were confirmed by "FT-IR,1HNMR and 13CNMR" spectra and by Mass spectrum for two prepared derivatives. the prepared compounds are tested as anticancer and antimicrobial activity against of bacteria and fungi.

MONITORING, CONTROLLING AND PROTECTION OF CONVEYOR MECHANISM USING PLC

By A.Sathish Kumar1*, A.Ananthi christy1 , Arul Mecloy Lobo3, S.Rajasomashekar4

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Conveyor systems in thermal power stations cater the need of fuel flow from mines to thermal power stations for power generation. Conveyors are seen virtually in the coal handling plant (CHP) that are having number of conveyors. The conveyor system has many combinational conveyor sequences. The control systems used for these conveyors are important for the safe operation the plants. In order to ensure the safe belt conveyor operation a reliable, centralized monitoring and controlling is necessary. The conveyor scheme operational system has enormous control components to achieve a starting logic, stopping logic, tripping logic. The control components are mostly electromagnetic relays, timers and indicating lamps etc. Also the system has many other indicating, sensing components for its monitoring and protection purpose. The system has limitation for future modification due to the complexity of hard wired circuit. In order to overcome the above complexity problem and achieve better optimized result, PLC is proposed to control the conveyor system. PLC is automatic controller device which minimizes more number of requirements of electromagnetic relay, timers etc. and it can be programmed to accept the operational logic in a minimal time.

EFFECT OF DIODE LASER-ACTIVATED ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS (LAAAS) ON PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

By 1Suzan Saadi Hussian, 2Mahasin F. Hadi Al-Kadhemy, 3Saja Ali Ibrahim 4Nihad Khalawe Tektook

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Laser-activated antimicrobial agents (LAAAS) are drugs that have no antimicrobial activity in the dark but can be activated by laser of an appropriate wavelength. The effect of photosensitizers (silver nanoparticle, Methylene blue Dye) was studied by the presence and absence of laser on two types of gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria. The work was in several stages where the first stage was without the use of laser, which is divided in turn to the effect of dye only, the effect of nanoparticles only, the joint effect of dye and nanoparticles. The second phase was on the same format used previously but added to the effect of low power diode laser. Our results showed that the effective antibacterial of silver nanoparticle; (methylene blue) and combined between them were differenced, P. aeruginosa more sensitivity than Staphylococcus aureus, so AgNPs was more effective against gram positive bacteria than gram negative bacterial strain.

STUDY OF SOME LIVER FUNCTIONS PARAMETERS IN THALASSAEMIC PATIENTS IN AL-NAJAF PROVINCE

By Karrar Saleem Zayed

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

The current study was carried out in Al-Zahra Hospital in Al-Najaf province during the period from 2017/1/3 till 2017/9/15. The study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of major thalassemia disease on liver function criteria (ALT, AST, ALP and bilirubin) in a number of patients. Forty-eight major thalassaemic patients in both gender (24 males and 24 females) participated in the study, their ages ranged from (2-19) years divided into three groups (8/group) according to the ages (2-7, 8-13, 14-19) years. Also contribute thirty health individuals divided into 15 males and 15 females as a control subjects, their age ranged from (2-20) years. Results of this study revealed that the thalassaemia disease in patients with both gender and ages causes a significant elevation of ALT, AST, ALP and bilirubin levels. On the other hand, the results showed no apparent difference in these parameters when compared between males and females. So, the study was suggested that thalassaemia may be causes lesions in liver tissues indicated by elevation of serum liver function criteria levels.

MICROBIAL TEST OF FORMAZAN COMPOUNDS AGAINST TYPES OF BACTERIA

By Nagham Mahmood Aljamali* and Dhuha Rahi Kashash

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Formazane compounds have wide medical and pharmaceutical applications , for this reason the present paper to complete our work (first paper- in first reference) ,which involved studying of microbial behavior on types of bacteria and effect of formazan compounds ( carban ion - imine- azo ) against resistant of bacteria ,effect of compounds on DNA and wall of bacteria cell by using diameter of inhibition (mm) as parameter of compounds activity ,effect of types of substitution which linked with formazan compounds on bacteria.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE DISPARITIES OF NATIONALITY/ETHNICITY AND OTHER RISK FACTORS FROM ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS FOR PREVALENCE DIABETES TYPE 2 FOR PATIENTS FROM BAGHDAD PROVINCE

By Qater Al-Nada Ali Kanaem Al-Ibady

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

MThe present study was carried out to determine the ethnicity, age groups, and the gender as a risk factors to determination and prevalence type two diabetes mellitus by many methods such as biochemistry and hematological parameters such as measuring the levels of HDL and LDL in 85 patient (46 males and 39 females), whose injury with diabetic from type two, compared with 39 control (26 males and 13 females) . which for ages between 19 and ?61 years old, which injury with this disease. This study was performed during the period from beginning in November 1/11/2016 to January 30/1/2017 from Al-Kandy Hospital and Medicinal City Hospital. This study showed no found relationship between the diabetes and the genders. Also, this study recorded no significant correlation between the sex and infected with diabetes mellitus type two under the probability (P> 0.05). Also, the results showed significant differences (p<0.05) for the relationship between the age and diabetic patients, then the type 2 diabetes mellitus, mean was most prevalent in older adults, especially in the age groups (50-60) years old. In this study showed no found relationship between the diabetes and the ethnicity. Also, this study recorded no significant correlation between the nationality and infected with diabetes mellitus type two under the probability (P> 0.05). Whilst this study showed no found relationship between the diabetes and HDL Levels. Also, this study recorded no significant correlation between HDL Levels and infected with diabetes mellitus type two under the probability (P> 0.05). Finally, this study recorded no significant between the diabetes and the LDL Levels and infected with diabetes mellitus type two under the probability (P> 0.05). Also, this study recorded no significant correlation between the smoking and infected with diabetes mellitus type two under the probability (P> 0.05). While by reading the results, its clear that the proportion of nonsmokers were 60 (48.4%), but the ratio of smokers was 25(20.2%) from the total cases 85(68.5%). This study recorded high significant correlation between blood pressure and infected with diabetes mellitus type two under the probability (P> 0.0001). This table demonstrated the number and percentage of diabetic patients whose infected with hypertension were 47(37.9%), compared with noninfected, which were 38(30.6%). Also, this study recorded high significant correlation between body mass index and infected with diabetes mellitus type two. Therefore, the frequency of overweight category was 61(49.2%), compared with another category.

APPLICATION OF FIBER OPTIC FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY METHOD FOR DETECTION OF Fusarium verticillioides and Penicillium oxalicum ON MAIZE SEED

By Sri Endah Nurzannah*1, Bonny Poernomo Soekarno1, Efi Toding Tondok2, Akhiruddin Maddu3

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Maize as food crop provides high economic value in Indonesia and other countries. Maize production is still low caused plant diseases. Fusarium verticillioides and Penicillium oxalicum are two of fungi that infect maize in storage. One of potential technology can be developed as detection method is fiber optic fluorescence spectroscopy. The research aimed to develop an alternative detection method more rapid, accurate, and simple for seed-fungi based on secondary metabolites. This research covered the preparation of pure isolates of the fungal, calibration of fiber optic fluorescence spectroscopy, detection of fungal on maize seed, fungal secondary metabolite analysis by Py-GC-MS, and data analysis by Spectrasuite Ocean Optics. Fiber optic fluorescence spectroscopy was able to detect fluorescence emission of a metabolite fungal after maize seeds were incubated for 24 hours. Metabolite of F. verticillioides and P. oxalicum produces fluorescence at 505 nm and 552 nm.

VITRO STUDY OF THE ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF ALHAGI MAURORUM AND TAMARIX APHYLLA EXTRACTS AGAINST SOME PLANT PATHOGENIC FUNGI.

By Emad Abd Atia Alrabaea

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

The antifungal activity of Alhagi maurorum and Tamarix aphylla extracts was tested for inhibiting the growth of Fusarium oxysporum, causing tomato wilt disease, Pythium aphanedrmatuim, causing cucumber seedling damping off, and Alternaria solani causing early blight of tomato under in-vitro condition. The T. aphylla extracts of 40% had the highest effect against F. oxysporum, P. aphanedrmatuim and A. solani (47.19, 41.25 and 47.85% respectively), while A. maurorum extract had less effect against F. oxysporum, P. aphanedrmatuim and A. solani as compared to Tamarix aphylla extracts. The high antifungal activity of both plants extracts leads to the possibility of using the plant extract eco-friendly to avoid environmental pollution which is caused by fungicides.

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM THE RICE CROP IN LOWER SINDH

By Sadam Hussain Bhutto1, Javed Asghar Tariq2, Rehana Naz Syed1 and Ghulam Hussain Jatoi13

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Bacterial leaf Blight (BLB) considered as the most important disease among various potential diseases of rice in Pakistan. The first and most important step for its management is the characterization and identification of associated pathogen. For this purpose, survey of three districts were made to collect disease samples. BLB were found to prevail in all the served area with varying severity. Bacterial strains were isolated from these samples by direct plating method. Isolated culture was purified and characterized. Their colonies were found to be small, medium and large; their shape was irregular, circular and filamentous on Nutrient Agar (N.A) media. The elevation of bacterial colonies was found to be raised and convex and their edges were undulate and entire. The color of most of the colonies was pale yellow and yellow and some were found off white, reddish and creamy and surface of most of the colonies was smooth.

EFFECT OF SUPERCYREN PESTICIDE IN THE HEART AND EYE TISSUES OF MICE

By Sabah A. Hameid, A. Rahman and Jehan M. Rajab

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Organophosphorus insecticides constitute a large family of pesticides and they are used widely for controlling pests in the household, agricultural and urban environment, the present study aims to study effect of supercyren pesticide in the heart and eye tissues of mice . about Thirty albino male mice divided into three groups treated orally with supercyren pesticide in dose (ze, o,10, 20 mg /kg). After 30 days of the experiment the troponin protein was measured in blood samples of three groups for one month. For histological study samples of the heart , retina and cornea were collected and prepared with paraffin technique and stained with Hand E stain. The blood samples were negative for troponin protein in the control group and were positive at doses of (10mg and 20mg). The histological sections showed some changes in the heart and eyes with dose )10 and 20 mg/ kg (. The present study concluded harmful effects of various concentrations of supercyren in some body organs.

SYNTHESIS AND STUDYING OF LIQUID CRYSTALLINE APPLICATIONS OF NEW OXADIAZOLE COMPOUNDS VIA (POLARIZED OPTICAL AND DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY)

By Nagham Mahmood Aljamali*, Sajida Hadi Ridha and Noorhan Ali Hamza

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

In this paper, we completed via synthesis eight compounds as a liquid crystalline derivative which involved (imine group, amide or to amid group) in same compound which containing terminal group like (OR, NH2, COOH, OCH3) in their structures. Studying of terminal effect in their structures on liquid crystalline behavior. All reactions are followed by paper chromatography (TLC) and all the prepared crystalline have been characterized by using many techniques represented by (1H.NMR-spectra,13C.NMR- spectra, (C.H.N)- Micro elemental analysis, FT.IR- spectra), melting points and chemical-physical properties with studying of liquid crystalline applications by using polarized optical microscopy (POM) with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) which showed liquid crystal phase in their liquid crystalline.

TLR2 AND TLR4 AS A BIOMARKER OF BACTERIAL SEPSIS SYNDROME IN ADULT AND CHILDREN PATIENTS IN IRAQ

By Farah Q. Younis, Ali Hussein. Alwan, Neihaya H. Zaki

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate the using of Toll-like receptors (TLR2 and TLR4) gene expression as an early biomarkers for diagnosis of bacterial septic syndrome in children and elderly. The causative agents of infection were determined by blood culture. Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-?), Interleukin 10 (IL-10), and Soluble Human Leukocyte Antigen - antigen D Related (sHLA-DR) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and TLR2, TLR4 expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. We included 75 patients was diagnosed with sepsis syndrome.The age range of patients (13 days-92 years) with mean 56.3±13.9 and matched to 55 healthy volunteers. Depending on age, patients were divided into 4 age groups (group A <1 year, group B 113 year, group C 14-40 year and group D >40 year). The results indicated that the levels of TNF-?, IL-10 and sHLADR in all age groups were significantly increased (P<0.05) except the level of TNF-? in group B (P=0.123) compared with control groups. A positive correlation has observed between levels of TNF-? and sHLA-DR with patients age (P-value=0.044 and P-value= 0.00013),respectively. TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA expression was significantly increased in all age groups with significant difference between group A and groups D. TLR2 expression highly increased in G+ve infection, while TLR4 expressed highly in G-ve infection. We conclude that TLR2 and TLR4 expression in bacterial sepsis patients indicates the strong possibility of using them as biomarkers in the early diagnosis of bacterial sepsis syndrome, in children and elderly patients

EFFECT OF MEDIUM, TEMPERATURE AND pH, ON IN-VITRO GROWTH OF Botryodiplodia theobromae ISOLATED FROM GUAVA

By Adnan Baloch1+2, Shah Dad2, Rehmat Ali Baloch1, Ghulam Hussain Jatoi2+3, Muhammad Anwar1, Zaheer Uddin Babar Bhatti2

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Botryodiplodia theobromae is a major reason for bringing huge economic losses to the crop production in tropical and subtropical regions. In this study outcomes of media, temperature and pH were evaluated on mycelial colony growth of the fungus. Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) and Czepak Dox Agar (CDA) were suitable for the growth of fungus colony. The highest growth was seen on PDA. The fungus grew best at 25-30°C. The fastest growth was observed at 30°C. There was no growth at 10°C. pH 7 and 8 were the most optimum for the fungus growth whereas, the minimum growth was obtained at pH 4.

A LYTIC PODOPHAGE SPECIFIC TO FISH PATHOGENIC EDWARDSIELLA TARDA

By Parichat Phumkhachorn*, Pongsak Rattanachaikunsopon

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

A lytic bacteriophage specific to Edwardsiella tarda, a fish pathogen, was isolated from fish culturing pond water. The bacteriophage, designated P8, was highly specific to the species E. tarda. It was tolerant to high temperature up to 70°C and to pH from 4 to 11. As studied by transmission electron microscope, the bacteriophage was a short-tail bacteriophage. The genome of bacteriophage P8 was found to be double stranded DNA, indicated by its sensitivity to EcoRI. Based on its morphology and genome, bacteriophage P8 was classified as a podophage. Five major proteins of bacteriophage P8 (70, 45, 35, 37 and 23 kDa) were detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This study shows that bacteriophage P8 had specificity, host range and stability favoring its use as a therapeutic agent against E. tarda infection in aquaculture.

THE EFFECT OF WATER EXTRACT OF SOME PLANTS, GROWTH REGULATOR (DIMILLIN) AND METABOLIC PRODUCTS OF RHIZOPUS SP ON GRYLLODES AIGILLATUS

By Esraa fadel wathah and Rasha Muzahim Hatem

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

This research aimed to investigate the activity of the Ricius Communis, Dodonia sp. and Syzygium Aromaticum extract plants, growth regulator(Dimillin) and fungal suspension of Rhizopus sp. on both Nymph and adult stages of Gryllodes sigillatus insect. The excellence of Rhizopus sp. fungal suspension had been noticed in nymph stage destruction, in which it reached 96.82% in 100% concentration after 6days from the treatment, while the effect of Dimillin reached 90.22% in the same concentration. As for the extract plants the R. communis followed by Dodona sp. and Syzygium S. S. aromaticum were more effective in spraying than in feeding, in which they reached 87.22%, 75.12% and 69.13% successively through spraying, while they reached 64.2%, 53.4% and 48.1% successively respectively through feeding. In adult stages the mortality proportion of the fungus reached 81.14% in 100% concentration. The growth regulator hadn’t any mortality proportion in adults, in nymphs the R. communis plant is the most effective through spraying in which it reached 72.4% in 40% concentration after 6 days from the treatment.

MEDICAL IMAGE CLASSIFICATION FOR DISEASE DIAGNOSIS BY DBN METHODS

By Arunkumar, R and Nagaraj Balakrishnan

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

A radical deep learning-based feature extraction approach for disease diagnosis is discussed in this paper. This approach focusses on the development of automatic screening system which is capable of diagnosing diseases such as collateral disease, retinal disease, drain, heart diseases etc. Some of these diseases shares common characteristics, which makes their classification difficult. In an effort to subdue the aforementioned problem, DBN (Deep Belief network) in association with a multi class SVM classifier is utilized. The main contribution of this work is the reduction of complexity in the process of finding the significant features and thus reducing its dimensions to classify the nature of the disease. The paper depicts efficient feature extraction methods for diagnosis of retinal diseases.

STUDY THE EFFECT OF Citrus aurantium LEAVES WATER EXTRACT COPER NANO PARTICLES ON THE 3th, 4th LARVAE AND PUPA OF Culex pipiens

By Rasha Sattam Hameed, RajwaHasen Essa, Sundus Hameed Ahmed and Isam Hussain AlKarkhi*

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Our study is conducted to evaluate the effect of Citrus aurantium leaves coper nanoparticles. Characterization of coper nanoparticles was performed using UV, FTIR. The diameter of coper nanoparticles was distributed in the range of 2 to 12 nm. Using different concentration ?s of Citrus aurantium leaves extract, coper sulfate and nanoparticles (100, 200, 300ppm). The result of our study showed that the higher concentration 300ppm of nanoparticles gave a higher mortality percentage on 4th larvae 100% followed with 3th 89.3% and the pupa gave 83.3% respectively, thus introduced to use Citrus aurantium leaves coper nano particles as a Culex pipiens, management agent.

THE EFFECT OF ORGANIC MEDIUM USE IN FORMULATION OF TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM AND PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS IN VIABILITY AND DECOMPOSITION OF CACAO POD HUSKS WASTE

By Suherah1*, Tutik Kuswinanti1,2**, Ade Rosmana1,2, Burhanuddin Rasyid1,3

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Biomass waste can be processed into high nutritious organic fertilizer and improve soil structure. This study aims to assess viability of Trichoderma harzianum TH03 and Pleurotus ostreatus PO2 isolates that propagated in different growth mediums: rice, corn and sawdust medium, followed by formulation in powder form and stored in different packaging after 2-24 weeks of storage periods under room temperature. This study used Completely Randomized Design with two factors : mediums and packaging types with three replications. The highest viability was observed in T. harzianum TH03 derived from rice medium and P. ostreatus PO2 from corn medium. Aluminum foil and plastic bag provided highest viability on P. ostreatus PO2 and T. harzianum TH03. P. ostreatus PO2 and T. harzianum TH03 treatment was appropriate with mature compost criteria. The lowest C/N content was found in cacao pod husk waste treated with T. harzianum TH03 (4.85%) whereas the control (23.20%). The nutrient of the compost treated with P. ostreatus PO2 is higher than control.

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS WITH VERTICAL HANDOFF PREDICTION BASED ON USER BEHAVIOUR

By Sasikala, E., Radha R., Sharanya S. and M. Gayathri

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Wireless Data Network governed by radio waves deploys wireless medium for data communication. Mobility is the major challenge in integrating the wireless nodes. Handoff in mobile nodes demand uninterrupted data transmission while preserving the network integrity. Handoff process consumes lot of network resources, increases the network traffic and is also susceptible to data loss. Handoff prediction will foresee the handoff that is likely to occur in future so that the handover operations are done beforehand. This paper gives general overview of the vertical handoff prediction using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Association Rule Mining (ARM). The proposed methodology uses ANNs to determine whether a handoff is necessary with the current network parameters, which is confirmed by Apriori algorithm. A detailed comparison is given between the ANN-Apriori and Support Vector Machine (SVM)-Apriori hybridization. The results indicate that the former performs better than the latter in terms of accuracy in prediction handoff.

CYTOMEGALOVIRUS ANTIBODIES AMONG PREGNANTLADIESAT KAMAL ALSAMARRAI HOSPITAL IN BAGHDAD CITY/IRAQ

By Mastafa Heilo Jabber Al-musawi

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is asymptomatic, and the essential CMV disease during pregnancy is connected with various difficulties such as intrinsic contortions, intrauterine fetal demise and later squealsas visual deficiency and deafness. This study aims to investigate the Frequacy of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) among pregnant women in Kamal al-Samarrai Hospital between the period August and October 2015. The cross-sectional study was done in Kamal al-Samarrai Hospital; serum was taken from pregnant patients, who were examined for cytomegalovirus IgG and IgM antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent measure (ELISA).Age range of selected patients was between 20 and 40 years. A group of 132 pregnant patients was incorporated into this study, 29 of them with abortion history. The results show that Out of 132, 124(93.2%) were positive for IgG,8(6.0%) were negative, 7 (5.3%) were positive for both IgG and IgM and8 (6.0%) were negative for both antibodies. The present results concluded that The Frequency of CMV demonstrated high prevalence of IgG among the patients and low of IgM, thus, there is a necessity for voluntary screening to early detection of CMV infection to avoid the effects on the fetus and maternal health.

THE CYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF PURPLE NUTSEDGE (Cyperus rotundus L.) TUBER ESSENTIAL OIL ON THE HELA CERVICAL CANCER CELL LINE

By Susianti Susianti1, Yanwirasti Yanwirasti2, Eryati Darwin3, Jamsari Jamsari4

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Many problems in cancer therapy have prompted researchers to explore natural materials to discover new anticancer substances with higher efficacy and more minimal side effects. Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) is one of the potential medicinal plants being studied as an anticancer substance. A variety of studies have been conducted on the use of the purple nutsedge tuber as an anticancer substance, but not about the effects of its essential oils on cervical cancer. The method used in this research was a cytotoxic test on HeLa cervical cancer cells using an MTT assay. The cells were incubated with purple nutsedge essential oil in a 96-well plate with eight series of doses (3.9-500 ?g/ml), and each dose was performed three times. After the absorbance of the cells was measured using an ELISA reader, the percentage of cell viability was calculated for each dose, followed by the calculation of the inhibitory concentration 50% rate (IC50) using probit regression analysis. This research conclude that purple nutsedge essential oil IC50 on HeLa cells is 35.062 + 11.258?g/ml. This indicates that there is a cytotoxic effect of purple nutsedge essential oil on the HeLa cervical cancer cell line.

SMART REAL TIME RESCUE SYSTEM FOR FISHERMEN SMART REAL TIME RESCUE SYSTEM FOR FISHERMEN

By Nagaraj Balakrishnan, Reshmi S., Arunkumar, R. and M.S. Pradeepraj

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

In India, fishermen being caught and imprisoned or even killed is a common news that come across. Technology has developed so far and yet we fail to secure our borders and people. As a means of their livelihood they sail into the deep sea and most of them have conventional fishing boats with no modern technological provisions. The countrys sea borders are not recognizable for the common fishermen. This paper proposes an eminent alert system for fishermen as they cross the border and the location of the fishing boat is indicated using GPS. Additionally, an IoT gateway system is used to send information about a fisherman to coastal guard system on the seashore indicating that the fishing boat has crossed the maritime border using internet. Thus, costal guards in the seashore can assist and provide additional help to those fishermen from anywhere. Staying in the memory line of the lost lives of Indian fishermen, this device has been implemented to help others not to navigate beyond the maritime border. On the whole, it is a honest attempt to build a cost effective alert system for fishermen.

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MONOAMINE OXIDASE A (MAOA) GENE POLYMORPHISM AND VIOLENT BEHAVIOR

By Mohammed Abdullah Jebor Ahlam Gareeb

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Practical portrayal thinks about uncovered that transcriptional action of the human monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) quality is balanced by a polymorphic redundant arrangement situated in 1.2 kb upstream of the ATG codon. To research the conceivable impact of the allelic variations of the MAOA quality in the hereditary inclination to forceful conduct, a case-control affiliation investigation of 31 mental patients and 26 solid controls was directed. Factual examination demonstrated no noteworthy contrasts in allele or genotype frequencies amongst control and patient gatherings. These discoveries recommend that either high or low action alleles of the MAOA-uVNTR 30-bp polymorphism are not related with standoffish conduct in mental patients.

EFFECTS OF FEED SUPPLEMENTATION OF Nodulisporium sp. KT29 INDUCED BY Vibrio harveyi CELLS ON PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE OF PACIFIC WHITE SHRIMP Litopenaeus vannamei CULTURED UNDER MARINE CULTURE SYSTEM

By Teuku Reza Efianda1, Dinamella Wahjuningrum*2, Kustiariyah Tarman3,4, Munti Yuhana2, Irzal Effendi2,4, Fazril Saputra5

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

This current study aimed to investigate the effects of Vibrio harveyi induced Nodulisporium sp. KT29 administration on enhancement of bioactive compound concentration, surface of intestinal structure, and production performance of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) cultured in the sea. The post larvae (PL) 10 of L. vannamei was cultured at density of 1000 shrimp/m3 for 30 days in the sea. Completely randomized design was arranged, consisting of 3 treatments with three replications, i.e C (control 0 mL/kg), NP (Nodulisporium sp. KT29 without induction of V. harveyi 20 mL/kg), NK (Nodulisporium sp. KT29 with induction of killed Vibrio harveyi 20 mL/kg), NL (Nodulisporium sp. KT29 without induction of living V. harveyi 20 mL/kg). The results revealed that NK treatment showed the best effects on rising concentration of bioactive compounds, production performance, and improving the density of shrimp intestinal structure compared to control.

COMPARISON OF TWO WAYS OF THE METALS PROTECTION AGAINST CORROSION CAUSED BY OF DESULFOVIBRIO DESULFURICANS

By Karamysheva N.N.1, Semenov A.M.2*, Vasilyev D.A.1, Morozov A.V.1, Ignatov A.L.1

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

The introduction simultaneously with the technological water during oil production the suspension of specific phage which attacks on Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and carry out the lyses the bacteria, allows protecting the metal from biocorrosion instead of the use of traditional chemical protectors.

DEVELOPMENT OF DETECTION METHOD FOR SEED-BORNE PATHOGENIC FUNGI ON RICE SEED USING FIBER OPTIC FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY

By Giska Fauzia1, Bonny Poernomo Soekarno1, Titiek Siti Yuliani1, Akhiruddin Maddu2

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Aspergillus flavus, Bipolaris oryzae and Fusarium semitectum are fungi that infect rice crop both in field and storage. Seed health testing is conducted in order to prevent or to minimize risks caused by seed-borne pathogens. One of potential technology which can be developed as detection method is fiber optic fluorescence spectroscopy. The research aimed to develop an alternative detection method more rapid, accurate, and simple for seed-borne fungal pathogen based on secondary metabolites by using fiber optic spectroscopy fluorescence. This research covered: preparation of pure isolates of A. flavus, B. oryzae, and F. semitectum; calibration of fiber optic fluorescence spectroscopy and fungal secondary metabolite analysis by Py-GC-MS; and detection of A. flavus, B. oryzae and F. semitectum on rice seed. The data were analyzed by Spectrasuite Ocean Optic software. Fiber optic fluorescence spectroscopy was able to detect fluorescence emission of fungal metabolites after rice seed were incubated for 24 hours. Each fungus produced specific secondary metabolite when exposed to violet or ultraviolet light which has specific fluorescence emission. A. flavus produced aflatoxin B1 at 440 nm, B. oryzae produced ophiobolin A at 534 nm, and F.semitectum produced beauvericin at 510 nm.

USE NANOTECHNOLOGY IN CAPSULATION OMEGA-3 FATTY ACID TO IMPROVE ITS THERMAL STABILITY AND USE IT TO ENRICH PASTEURIZED MILK

By Emad Kais Slewa1 and Azhar J. AL – Mowsowy2

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

The study involved the encapsulation of Alpha-Linolenic Acid (ALA) to increasing its thermal stability and making it more resistant to oxidation and lipolysis and use it to enrich pasteurized milk. The Nano Capsules of AlphaLinolenic Acid (NC-ALA) were prepared using the emulsion-diffusion method, by adding acetone organic solvent containing Poly Lactic Acid (PLA) and ALA to the water phase containing the stabilizer Twain 20. NC-ALA was produced in irregular colloids shapes and nanoparticles ranging from 68.4 to 302.6 nanometers (nm) and the highest ratio was in the suspension at 143.9 nm and its zeta potential was -38.67 mV. Concentrates 5, 10 and 30 mg of NCALA and Non-Capsulated ALA (Non-C-ALA) were used to enrich 1 kg of raw milk to prepare pasteurized milk treatments M1, M2, M3, M4, M5 and M6. Mc treatments was left without addition. The results showed that the treatments supplemented with NC-ALA were less developed in the ratio of titration acidity and Peroxide Values (POV) from Non-C-ALA treatments. The PLA coat had a significant role in the protection of ALA against lipolysis by formation of a protective layer protects the ALA from the activity of lipases enzymes, and the addition of ALA to milk was determined the growth of microbial in it. The results of the sensory evaluation showed that M1 and M2 supplemented with 5 and 10 mg of NC-ALA respectively maintained their sensory characteristics during the storage period, with a total grade of 20 of 24 at the end of the storage period which was 7 days at temperature 6±1 ºC, indicating that the capsulated of ALA and its addition to pasteurized milk before the pasteurization process helped preserve it for a longer period without affecting in its various qualities.

MARASMIELLUS PALMIVORUS AS A NEW CAUSAL AGENT OF REED WILT DISEASE IN IRAQ

By Hassan A. Tamur1, Liqaa Y. Mohsin2, Jawad K. Abood Al-Janabi3 and Zahraa, A. N. Al-Yassiry4

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Background: Reed plants are widely distributed in Iraq and responsible to invade irrigation channels and drainage systems. Aim: The present study was designed to identify and characterize the causal agent of reed wilt disease. Methods: Disease symptoms, characteristics and growth pattern of causal agent were investigated. Results: Reed wilt disease has been observed during the survey which was held at the end of October 2016. The percent of natural infection of this disease was found in the range of 7-18%, the causal agent was identified as Marasmiellus palmivorus based on macro and microscopic characteristics. Microscopic observation of M. palmivorus revealed the engendered white cottony mycelia turned to creamy with clamp connection. Radial growth of this fungus was greatly varied according to the type of additives supplemented in the growth media and results were as following: M. oleifera (7.8 cm) > wheat (7.7cm) > Reed (7.4 cm) > millet (6.8 cm) > Caladium (6.7 cm) > PDA (5.86 cm) > onion (2.94 cm). Conclusion: The results of present study concluded that M. palmivorus was recorded as the causal agent of wilt disease on reed plant for the first time in Iraq and possibly for other countries as far as we know. Also, this fungus could be act as bio-herbicidal against reed plants, but more attention should be paid to this point.

STUDY THE VIRULENCE FACTORS AND PATTERNS OF ANTIBIOTICS RESISTANCE IN ACINETOBACTER BAUMANNII ISOLATED FROM HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS IN BAGHDAD CITY

By Nihad Khalawe Tektook

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic nosocomialamultidrug resistance( MDR) pathogen, so arising largely infections by this bacteria specially in immuno-compromised patients and ability to survive in hospital environments and it became important human pathogen so , virulence factor and antibiotic resistance are playing important role in infections but few studies in Iraq about this bacteria there for present study aimed to study the virulence factors among Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from Hospitalized patients among hospitals in Baghdad city and evaluate the antibiotics resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii isolate. Thirty-nine isolate of Acinetobacter baumannii were isolated during period March to October 2015 from various clinical source from laboratories of bacteriology in different hospitals of Baghdad city then diagnosis and identification by classical methods and vitek 2system, and study virulence factors as form Biofilm; Capsule formation; Pellicle assay; hemolysin production and various enzymes so evaluated the antimicrobial resistance for twelve different antibiotics. Acinetobacter baumannii was more isolated from Wound and Burn swab(38.5%) so (28.2%) isolated from both Urine and sputum , whilst (5.1%) form blood, and high percentage of Acinetobacter baumannii (43.5%) in age group(40-60) years, whilst only (2.5%) in age less than 20 years, as well as high percentage (59.4%) founded in males, Also biochemical test were positive for catalase and citrate, while negative for each of Oxidase, indole , Urease , Lactose fermentation , motility and hemolysin , also all isolate were positive for gelatinase and 21 isolate positive for Protease whilst 29 isolate positive for both Lipase and Capsule as well as 18 isolate positive for Lecithinase and 38, 33 isolate positive for heamolysin production and Pellicle assay respectively . so 32 of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were positive for biofilm formation, also current study appearance all Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were found resistant to ampicillin, Cefoxitin and tetracycline (100%), whilst low resistance to Imipenem and Piperacillin 58.9, 15.4% respectively. High percentage of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from burn swab, whilst low percentage from blood so high percentage isolated from age group (40-60) years and frommales patients more isolate compared to females .as well as Acinetobacter baumannii isolates have multiple virulence factors that apparent all Acinetobacter baumannii isolates have gelatinase activity whilst varied result other factors, and highest resistance of isolates to Ampicillin, Cefoxitin and Tetracycline.

THE RELATION BETWEEN HYPERTENSION AND ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME GENOTYPE IN IRAQI

By Israa Adnan Ibraheam*, Tsahel Hamed Al-dulaimi*, Sabreen Kamal Abd alameer*, Zainab Khudhur Ahmad Al-Mahdi**, Hawraa Wahab Aziz*, Amal Raqib Shimran*

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

The source of most common chronic condition attributed to high blood pressure or hypertension, which affect about 20%–30% of the adult males and female’s population. The present study is aimed to determine the association, of angiotensin converting enzyme genotype with Iraqis’ hypertensive patients. The study was carried out on 30 Iraqi patients having hypertension and 30 healthy subjects as control. Blood samples were collected from both patients and the healthy subjects, DNA from the patients and control specimens were isolated, Detecting of ACE insertion deletion genotype was done by polymerase chain reaction. The results show association between ACE genotype with hypertension DD genotype was increase in patients than control. The present study reported the relation between angiotensin converting enzyme genotype among Iraqis’ hypertensive patients.

STABILITY OF SARDINE (SARDINELLA SP.) OIL SOFT GEL THROUGH SALT SOLUTION AND CITRIC ACID DEGUMMING METHOD

By Sugeng Heri Suseno*, Dian PC Hulu, Stephanie Bija, Nadia Fitriana, Ernawati

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

The stability of sardine (Sardinella sp.) oil soft gel during storage was analyzed through salt and citric acid degumming process. Soft gel was capsulated with 0.05% mix tocopherol and stored for 16 days at 40°C according to schaal oven test method. The stability of soft gel during storage was determined by its FFA, PV, AV, Totox and clarity value. Sardine oil soft gel prepared through salt degumming treatment met the IFOS standard for FFA, PV, AV and Totox value up to 16th, 12nd, 14th and 10th day of storage respectively. Soft gel produced through citric acid degumming treatment reached the IFOS limit for FFA, PV, AV and Totox value in order on the 10th, 2nd, 2nd and 4th day of storage. Salt degumming treatment performed better results in maintaining fish oil soft gel stability compared to citric acid degumming. One-day storage using Schaal Oven Test method equals to 15 days storage at room temperature

FOREIGN GROWTH HORMONE GENE TRANSMISSION AND EXPRESSION IN F1 TRANSGENIC BETTA FISH (Betta imbellis)

By Eni Kusrini12, Alimuddin2*, Muhammad Zairin Jr2, Dinar Tri Soelistyowati2

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

The economical value of betta fish (Betta imbellis) is mostly determined by its body color and size. The present study was conducted to evaluate PhGH transmission, mRNA expression level and production performance of the first generation of transgenic betta (F1). Three males and three females of transgenic F0 were mated with nontransgenic to produce F1 generation, and three pairs of non-transgenic betta as control were used. PhGH transgene transmissions were analyzed using PCR method, mRNA expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and production performance was evaluated based on the fertilization level, hatching level, body length and weight. The percentage of F1 transgenic fish carrying PhGH gene was 62.5±5.89%, and mRNA expression varied amongst F1 transgenic fish. Fertilization (FR: 91.7±7.5%) and hatching rates (HR: 91.3±9.4%) of transgenic fish were higher than those of non-transgenic (FR: 70.0±10.0%; HR: 70.8±4.5%). At five-months-old, the mean body weight of males and females of transgenic F1 were 1.47 and 1.76 times higher, whereas body length were 1.32 and 1.25 times higher than those of non-transgenic fish, respectively.