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EDITORIAL BOARD

2018

THE STERATEGIC ROLE OF FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR-21IN OBESITY

By Mir Hassan Khoso1, Meng Fanrui1, Lubna Muhi Rasoul2, Wen Fei Wang1, Muneer Ahmed Khoso3, Yeboah Kwaku Opoku1, Amro Abdelazez4, Sajjad Hussain5, Deshan Li1*

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

Due to obesity many risk factors arise, such as Type 2 Diabetes, Impaired Glucose Tolerance dyslipidemia, hypertension and metabolic homeostasis and disorder. FGF21 is a key regulating endocrine, lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism. Fibroblast growth factor-21 improves glucose tolerance in obese mice, lowers serum free fatty acids (FFA) & results in weight loss. The FGF-21 in obese & diabetes rodent models create confirmatory metabolic variations which consist of dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and a decrease in body weight achieved by insulin sensitivity, glucose uptake in peripheral tissues, rise in energy consumption, fat usage, reducing the production of glucagon on the islet of alpha cells. However, FGF-21 rectifies several metabolic complications and has a promising strategic role in therapeutic aim for treatment of obesity, T2DM, dyslipidemia and other related metabolic complications

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CLOVES SEEDS OF Syzygium aromaticum and Cinnamon Cinnamomum verum BARK ESSENTIAL OILS

By Mohammed Al-janabi and ZainabYaseen

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

The study was conducted between January and June 2017 at the Biotechnology Research Center/Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq. The antibacterial activity of the clove and cinnamon plant essential oils were evaluated by the disc diffusion method against five pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus spp. and Acinetobacter spp. Sterile paper discs of 5 mm diameter were dipped aseptically in an appropriate concentration of essential oils and placed over Mueller–Hinton plates inoculated with pathogens. The best effect of the antibacterial activity of clove oil was observed on Acinetobacter spp. and the least was noted on Escherichia coli. Cinnamon essential oil showed the strongest antibacterial effect on all the five pathogens. On Escherichia coli, the zone of inhibition was 32mm at 1:2 dilution and minimum zone of inhibition was 28 mm at 1:8 dilution. On staphylococcus aureus as a representative of Gram-positive bacteria, the zone of inhibition was 30mm at 1:2 dilution and minimum zone of inhibition were 10 mm at 1:4 dilution. The antibiotics TS (Trimethoprim), T (Tetracycline), E (Erythromycin), CIF (Ciprofloxacin) FOX (Cefoxitin)), SAM (Ampicillin) and NA (Nalidixic) were used in this study to get some results for comparing their effect with the clove and cinnamon oils. The effect of the clove essential oil is higher than the effect of antibiotics used against the Acinetobacter spp. The results of this study confirm that cinnamon is more active than clove and more potent than all antibiotics used against all tested bacteria.

STUDY OF RATAGA BASIN VALLEY (WESTERN OF IRAQ) CRUSTING AND ERODIBILITY BY WIND AND WATER

By Farhan Muhammed Jasim*, Saifulddin Abedulrazaq Salim** and Husam Naji Mukhlif**

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

A field study was conducted in the area of Ratga Valley, western of Iraq, within longitudes (40º 46' 40" and 39º 36' 37" N) and latitudes (34º 17' 19" and 32º 41' 06" E) to investigate the degradation process of valley lands, depending on the topographic maps, satellite images and digital elevation model, the nature of region was defined as arid and semi-arid land. Results showed the existence seven series of soils within the study area. The Results showed that the values of wind soil Erodibility indicator were ranged between -0.250 and 0.393, (ARCGIS 9.3 software, used), when the soil area of low Erodibility was within the area of 2306 km2, while the soil mid and high Erodibility indicator was located in the area of 566 and 2748 km2, respectively. In the other hand, the area of soil that had low crusting was in the area of 3080 km2. The mid and low area categories were approached to 646 and 1894 km2 for mid and high class, respectively. Also, the areas categories of low, mid and high classes of water Erodibility was located in the area of 154, 1775 and 3691 km2, respectively.

TLR2 AND TLR4 AS A BIOMARKER IN ADULT AND CHILDREN IRAQI BACTERIAL SEPSIS SYNDROME PATIENTS

By Farah Q. Younis*, Ali Hussein. Alwan*, Neihaya H. Zaki*

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the possibility using of TLR2 and TLR4 gene expression as an early biomarkers for diagnosis bacterial septic syndrome in children and elderly. The causative agents of infection was determined by blood culture. TNF-?, IL-10, and sHLA-DR were measured by ELISA and TLR2, TLR4 expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. about 75 patients was diagnosed with sepsis syndrome included in this study . The age range of patients (13days-92years) with mean 56.3±13.9 and matched to 55 healthy volunteers. Depending on age, patients were divided into 4 age groups (group A <1 year, group B 1-13 year, group C 14-40 year and group D >40 year). The results indicated that the levels of TNF-?, IL-10 and sHLA-DR in all age groups were significantly increased except the level of TNF-? in group B compared with control groups. A positive correlation has observed between levels of TNF-? and sHLA-DR with patients age respectively. TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA expression was significantly increased in all age groups with significant difference between group A and groups D. TLR2 expression highly increases in G+ve infection while TLR4 expressed highly in G-ve bacteria. can be conclude that TLR2 and TLR4 expression in bacterial sepsis patients indicates the strong possibility of using them as biomarkers in the early diagnosis of bacterial sepsis syndrome, in children and elderly patients

STUDY LEPTIN AND TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS GENE POLYMORPHISMS ROLE IN SUSCEPTIBILITY TO AMEBIASIS

By Lazim H. K. Altaie1

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

Background: Amebiasis, is prevalent worldwide caused by Enatmoeba histolytica, Demographic risk factors for this disease are well-illustrated; however, genetic predisposing factors are poorly defined. Aims: it aims to assess the role of Gln223Arg variants in leptin receptor (LPTR) gene and Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile variants in toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) gene in the susceptibility to amebiasis in Iraqi patients. Subjects and Methods: a case/control study, included 150 patients with diarrhea were investigated by direct wet mount stained with Lugol’s iodine solution for E. histolytica. Forty-eight of those gave a positive- results and represented the cases. Other 50, family unrelated, sex-, age-, and geographical residence-matched apparently healthy individuals were chosen to represent the control group. DNA was extracted form blood samples from each participant. LEPR and TLR-4 gene fragments corresponding the three variants were amplified with specific sets of primers. The amplified genes were subjected to direct sequencing. Results: The variant Gln223Arg was found to be significantly associated with the susceptibility to amebiasis. Both AG and GG genotypes were more frequents in cases than controls with significant differences. This association was further confirmed in genetic model and allele analysis. In recessive model, the prevalence of AG+GG genotypes were significantly higher in cases than controls. Similarly, the minor allele (allele G) was more frequents among cases than controls with significant difference. Conclusion: These results suggest the role of Gln223Arg variant in LEPR gene in the susceptibility to infection with E. histolytica.

DETECTION AND INVESTIGATION OF AIR POLLUTION ON WORKERS' HEALTH IN BRICKS FACTORIES IN BAGHDAD AND NAJAF FACTORIES IN IRAQ:

By Assal Ghazi Alshammary

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

Air pollution increasing in last year's due to using classical treatment for environmental enhancement, these methods are the existence of brick factories used for building purposes, When using black oil directly with several mixtures of different organic compounds caused to many toxic gases after burning, with poisoning effect of the health of people who are directly treated with it and in special case for people living close to these factories, especially since the spread of these pollutants reach several kilometres away from factories.

EFFECTS OF CHEMOTHERAPY AND RADIOTHERAPY ON BLOOD COMPONENTS OF BREAST CANCER PATIENTS

By Baydaa T. Sih

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women worldwide. It can be treated with surgery combined with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This study aims to investigate the effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy on blood cell components of breast cancer patients who survived one of these therapies, in Al-Amal National Hospital for Cancer Management. Numbers of blood cells including white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC) and lymphocytes, and hemoglobin (HGB) concentration were measured in thirty-two women with eighteen of them treated with chemotherapy and the left treated with radiotherapy. The results showed that the counts of WBC, RBC and lymphocytes decreased faster in the patients treated with chemotherapy compared to that in the patients treated with radiotherapy, whereas HGB concentrations only slightly changed with both treatments, upon four cycles of each treatment. These results support that radiotherapy may cause less side effects on breast cancer patients compared to chemotherapy.

BIOINFORMATICS ANALYSES OF POLYMERASE (pol) GENE OF HBV GENOME OCCURRED IN BLOOD SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT REGIONS OF KSA

By Al Harthi J.H.a, Al-Yami M.R.b and Sadik A.S.a,c*

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

This study aimed to isolate of polymerase (pol) gene belonging to some hepatitis B virus (HBV) from some blood samples collected from different regions of KSA representing south, north, east, middle and west KSA. This was followed by determining the nucleotide sequences of this gene and carrying out some bioinformatics analyses on such genes. The presence of virus in some HBV-infected blood samples collected from different regions of KSA was serologically and molecularly confirmed by ELISA and Rt-PCR techniques. The nucleotide sequence of pol gene was determined and bioinformatically analyzed. Results showed that the nucleotide sequences of the partial sequences of the five HBV strains (LC152751.1, LC152752.1, LC152753.1, LC152757.1 and LC152759.1) were ranged from 600 to 899 nts and proved to be belonging to pol gene of HBV. Bioinformatics comparisons between the five HBV strains showed percent identities 92-98% and 80-95% at the levels of DNA and deduced amino acids, respectively, when compared to some overseas HBV strains recorded in GenBank. Types of domains (DNA_pol_viral_C and DNA pol viral-N) its accession (pfam00336 and pfam00242), super families (RT-like superfamily and cl02825) of the sequenced pol gene(s) were also addressed. Differences at the levels of DNA, encoding amino acids, i.e., open reading frames and domains super families between the strains under investigation and those similar in GenBank were determined.

HERITABILITY ESTIMATES IN F2 SEGREGATING POPULATION IN HEXAPLOID WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)

By Shabana Memon1*, Naveed Iqbal1, Fareeha Zaman1, Sadaf Memon1, Manzoor Ali Abro2, Ghulam Hussain Jatoi2 and Abdul Razaque Mangi3

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

An investigation was undertaken to evaluate heritability and variability estimates among F2 populations of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Twenty-two wheat genotypes including twelve parents and ten F2 crosses were grown in the field according to Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The outcomes from the analysis of variance depicted that the genotypes, parents, crosses, and parents versus crosses were highly significant for flag leaf area, peduncle length, plant height, tillers plant-1 and grain yield plant-1. The mean performances of the parents and F2 populations for the traits studied revealed that the parent genotype Tufan performed best regarding flag leaf area-1, spikelets spike-1 and grain yield plant-1. Kiran-95 showed maximum peduncle length. and maximum tillers plant-1 were produced by TD-1. The cross-combination NARC-2011 x Tufan gave maximum values for flag leaf area, peduncle length, plant height. The overall performances of the F2 crosses for all the traits were way better than their parent genotypes. This suggests that these traits should be considered in selection program for breeding purposes. The results from the components of variance, i.e. phenotypic variance and genotypic variance revealed significant differences among the genotypes for all the traits. The phenotypic variance values were greater than the genotypic variance values indicating the much environmental impact on the expression of the traits studied. High heritability and genetic advance estimates were recorded in majority cases for flag leaf area, peduncle length, plant height, tillers plant-1, grains spike-1, seed index, and grain yield plant-1 Therefore, the cross combinations with high genetic variability and heritability must be considered in future breeding programs.

BIOINFORMATICS ANALYSES OF SURFACE PROTEIN GENE OF HBV GENOME OCCURRED IN BLOOD SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT REGIONS OF KSA

By Al Harthi J.H.a, Al-Yami M.R.b and Sadik A.S.a,c*

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

The major surface antigen (MSA) genes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) were PCR-amplified from different DNA templates of HBV-infected blood samples. On determination of nucleotide sequences these genes were subjected to some bioinformatics analyses at the levels of DNA, amino acids and putative domains. The lengths of partial nucleotide sequences and deduced amino acids in open reading frames (ORFs) of the HBV strains under investigation were 752 & 217, 838 & 257, 893 & 231, 665 & 148 and 840 & 183 nts for HBV strains LC152750.1, LC152754.1, LC152755.1, LC152756.1 and LC152758.1, with percent identities ranged from 94-99% & 86-99%, respectively, compared to HBV overseas related strains in GenBank. The ORFs and their amino acids of the partial sequences of HBV strains confirmed the dependence of these genes to MSA. Presences of general primers of MSA genes, and primers of each of PCR, sequencing and mutagenic were detected in the PCR-amplified sequences of HBV strains. The putative conserved domains of the five HBV strains of MSA genes were belonging to vMSA (Accession ?: pfam00695) domain which described as major surface antigen from hepadnavirus of the superfamily cl02933. Phylogenetic tree of the HBV P, S genes, partial sequence, and strains of this study confirmed that these genes were belonging to the MSA from hepadnavirus compared to the most related genes. Bioinformatics comparisons between the five HBV strains showed that they were closely related to each other, with 90-94%, nucleotides similarity.

OPTIMIZATION OF BACTERIOCIN PRODUCTION FROM Lactobacillus plantarum IN05 BY USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

By Monafathia1, Nisa Rachmania Mubarik2* and Widanarni3

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial compound. Response surface methodology (RSM) is a combination of statistical and mathematical techniques used to create model and to analyze a response that is influenced by several factors. The objective of this study was to determine the optimum condition using RSM to obtain optimal bacteriocin production from Lactobacillus plantarum. Activity test was performed using well diffusion agar method. The four experimental factors, i.e. glucose concentration, pH, temperature and concentration of yeast extract with 30 treatment. The results indicated that the optimum condition of bacteriocin production from L. plantarum IN05 showed optimum inhibition activity against Salmonella typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes, with the addition of 4 g/L glucose, 8.11 g/L yeast extract, pH of 5.3, and temperature of 30oC. The highest bacteriocin activities against S. typhimurium and L. monocytogenes were 3136 AU/mL and 2426 AU/mL, respectively.

MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF RUST RESISTANCE IN SELECTED SUGARCANE CULTIVARS

By Shafee Ur Rehman1*, Khushi Muhammad+1, Ezad Ali1, Muhammad Amir1, 2Muhammad Shahid Nadeem2

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

The present study aimed at to identify rust resistance based on DNA marker linkage among commercially sugarcane cultivar of Pakistan. Therefore primer were designed by using reported sequences of Resistance Gene analogues DNA and also universal Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA marker were select/picked from literature, initially, In selected rust resistant and susceptible sugarcane cultivar The Resistance Gene analogous marker shown 52 trackable loci and 76.92% polymorphism and the size of loci are between 100-200bp.While the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA primer shown 100% polymorphism and 50 trackable loci were recorded and the size of loci are between 200-3000bp, out of eleven primers seven primer produced fourteen specific loci in three sugarcane genotypes, and the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Polymerase chain Reaction is important use for identifying Saccharum. Spp. By exploiting bivariant data of two different kind of markers (RGA and RAPD), the homology tree was constructed using DNAMAN 5.2.2 software based on Nei’s genetic distance and two major discrete groups with different minor groups were recorded for six genotypes having different disease behavior. This research work will be helpful for identifying resistance and susceptible sugarcane cultivars.

DEVELOPMENT OF RAPID ANTIGEN DETECTION TEST FOR METHICILLIN RESISTANT Staphylococcus aureus INFECTION

By Haider F. Ghazi1, Atheer J. AL-Saffar2, Zainab K. Abdulla3,

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) detection is a challenge to any clinical microbiology laboratory and demands implementation of strict protocols for active screening. This study aims to determine the validity of rapid immunochromotographic (ICT) test for detection compared with the gold standard method. Duplicate swabs were collected from nasal or ear. First swab used for conventional culture and Cefoxitin disk sensitivity. From each culture positive, pure colony were obtained, DNA extracted and conventional polymerase chain reaction for mecA detection were done. The second swab was processed for lateral flow test that constructed in Department of Microbiology laboratory/College of Medicine/ Al-Nahrain University. Monoclonal capture antiPBP2a (test line) and goat anti-mouse IgG antibodies (control line) were applied on each nitrocellulose membrane. Gold-in-a-BoxTM conjugation kit (40nm. 15OD) conjugated monoclonal anti- PBP2a were adsorbed in conjugate pad. Then assembled in the test cassette. Serially diluted Methicillin resistance S. aureus (1-108cfu/ml) and Methicillin sensitive S. aureus also used in concentration 108 (cfu/ml). Bacterial cells treated with lysozyme for 30 minutes and distilled water were loaded on a strip and visually evaluated after 30 min. The minimum detection limit of the immunochromatography test was 103cfu/ml. Furthermore, based on comparison of 82 culture positive of different clinical swabs, the specificity and sensitivity of this assay were 100% and 97.1% respectively. While, in comparison with mecA PCR detection the specificity and sensitivity of this assay were 100% and 93.03% respectively. However, the procedure used in this study was less complicated and gives the results within 1hour. This study recommends using of Rapid pbp2a as a new tool for the detection of MRSA directly from clinical samples.

USE OF LASER IN TREATMENT OF PREMALIGNANT SKIN CONDITIONS

By Sahib Neamah Abdul-Wahid1, Kadhum Shabba2, Bushra Ghaly Yousif3, Arowa abdalhusain4, Nasser Ghaly Yousif5

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

There are various treatment procedures that are used the laser beam in the medical applications especially in the treatment of skin diseases. Some of them are utilized for cosmetic surgery, inflammatory tissue and some for premalignant skin conditions. According to the laser generation systems, there are several types of laser which are used in the medical application such as CO2, Er:YAG and the rest laser types. Almost, all of them are succeed in these applications and distinguished results are achieved. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using laser beam for treatment of the premalignant skin conditions within three types of laser have been used: CO2 laser, Er:YAG and Semiconductor laser (Diode laser). Different types of premalignant skin conditions such as Keratoacanthoma, Dysplastic nevus, Marjolin’s ulcer and Xeroderma pigmentosum have been treated in this paper by those laser types.

BIOACTIVITY STUDY OF NEW SYNTHESIZED METALLIC COMPLEXES OF AROYL HYDRAZONE LIGAND

By Marwan Mohammed Farhan

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

Synthesis of new Ligand has been prepared from aroyl hydrazone derivatives and characterize it spectroscopically (I.R., 1HNMR.). Synthesis of the four new complexes to Nuclear Metallic Cu (II), Hg (II), Cd (II), Zn (II) and prepared ligand and studying their characteristics them spectroscopically (I.R.,1H-NMR.) and the Molar Conductivity with the accurate quantitative elemental and metallic analysis of these Complexes. And studying bioactivities of the complexes which are prepared to explain the antibacterial activities (by using three genus of Pathogenic bacteria).

MACHINE LEARNING BASED IMAGE PROCESSING USING UNSUPERVISED APPROACH

By Dhanalakshmi Samiappan1, S. Latha2, Deepak Verma3, CSA Sri Harsha4, A. Sashank5

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

Enhancing the visual media for the purpose of better perception has been a research topic for years. It finds its secondary application in the recognition of objects, analysis of medical images accounting the astronomical data and so on. The disintegration of an image based on its meaningful components plays a key role in many image processing applications like filtering, interpolation, image enhancement, feature variation, etc. the solution to this vary from basic segmentation techniques to advanced methods like fuzzy logic and machine learning. Through this paper, we present a novel method of image processing using machine learning algorithms. We also conduct experiments with preliminary image processing techniques and provide comparable performance measures to illustrate the success of our approach.

ASSESSMENT OF TOTAL ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY, INTERFERON- GAMMA AND INTERLEUKIN-6 IN IDIOPATHIC INFERTILE MEN

By Madha Mohammed Saleh1, Estebraq Al -Wasiti2, Adnan Nafil Muslim3, Nasser Ghaly Yousif 4*

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

Infertility is an overall issue that portrayed by multifactorial etiology including physiological, hereditary, irresistible, ecological factors and in addition autoimmunity. The goal of this investigation is the connection between the aggregate cell reinforcement limit level with specific cytokines; interleukin-6 (IL6) and interferon gamma (IFN-?) levels in fundamental liquid and blood of idiopathic Infertility and ripe male relationship with original liquid level. Blood and fundamental liquids were gathered from 70 guys with idiopathic Infertility and 20 males with demonstrated Infertility and were broke down for the level of TAC, IL-6, IFN-? and original liquid quality. Fundamental TAC levels were p<0.05 and lower in those with idiopathic Infertility. A negative relationship was seen between sperm quality parameters and TAC levels in idiopathic Infertility men. A fascinating noteworthy height in serum and semen IFN-? level was recognized in idiopathic Infertility men. Furthermore, altogether lifted serum and semen IL-6 level was likewise seen in a gathering of idiopathic Infertility men. Inconclusion, TAC level has a critical negative impact on sperm quality and subsequently adds to male Infertility. Novel cytokine miniaturized scale designs for patients with various sorts of Infertility may be proposed and hence, cytokine level estimation of IL-6 and IFN-? in fundamental plasma is recommended to be incorporated into assessment of particular kinds of male Infertility.

TANDEM RECOMBINANT PLASMID CONSTRUCTION AS POSITIVE CONTROL FOR PIK3CA H1047R DETECTION BASED ON SYBR GREEN I qPCR

By Nahdaturrugaisiyah1,2,+, Azamris3, Bugi Ratno Budiarto1, I Made Artika2, Desriani1,*

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

PIK3CA H1047R mutation is found in breast cancer in high frequency and its detection could be applied as prognosis and predictive factor for trastuzumab therapy. qPCR is one of the simplest and robust method for PIK3CA H1047R detection. Provision of positive control for PIK3CA H1047R detection based on qPCR will support data analysis efficiently and avoid false negative result. In this research, we constructed a tandem recombinant plasmid (pGEM-tandPIK3CA) as positive control for Tm Shift SYBR Green I qPCR-based of PIK3CA H1047R detection system by ligating wild-type and PIK3CA H1047R fragments tandemly into pGEM-T Easy. The tandem plasmid was confirmed by restriction, DNA sequencing and qPCR. As a result, pGEMtandPIK3CA has been successfully constructed and confirmed. Statistical analysis shows high repeatability and reproducibility with % CV of <25%. The main advantage of this tandem positive control is its ability to serve as positive control for both wild-type PIK3CA and PIK3CA H1047R simultaneously, therefore improving the efficiency of the detection system.

ELECTROCHEMICAL POLYMERIZATION OF (N-CREATININYL MALEAMIC ACID) COATED LAYER ON STAINLESS STEEL SURFACE AND STUDY ITS ANTI-CORROSION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY

By Khalil S. Khalil, Khulood A. Saleh, Muna I. Khalaf

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

Electrochemical polymerization of N-Creatininyl maleamic (NCM) acid was carried out on stainless steel plate electrode in a protic medium of monomer aqueous solution using electrochemical oxidation procedure in electrochemical cell. Fourier Transform Infrared FT-IR Spectroscopy has examined the structure of synthesized polymer. The anti-corrosion action of polymer was investigated on stainless steel in 0.2M Hydrochloric acid solution at temperatures range (293-323) K. by electrochemical polarization method. In addition, reinforce the anticorrosion of coating polymer by nanomaterial (TiO2) or (ZnO bulk and nano) by adding these nanomaterials to monomer solution. The results of the experimental study showed that the corrosion current density increases with increasing temperature in the range (293-323) K and the protection efficiency of polymer decrease with temperature increase. Kinetic and thermodynamic of activation parameters Ea, A, ?H* and ?S* have been calculated for the corrosion process of S-steel in 0.2M HCl solution in the presence and absence polymeric coating. Furthermore, were studied the effect of the preparing polymer on some strain of bacteria.

STUDY ON PERFUNCTORY PROPERTIES OF M30 GRADE OF CONCRETE WITH E-PLASTIC WASTE FIBER

By 1D. Prasannan, 2S. Deepashri

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

The wastage of e- plastic waste fiber can be reduced by adding in concrete. It gives high tensile strength upto optimum mixture of e-plastic waste in concrete. In this project describes the compressive strength, tensile strength and flexural strength of concrete containing with different proportion of E-plastic waste fiber like 1%, 2% and 3% and it is compared with conventional concrete. The test result shows that a significant improvement in compressive strength was achieved in the E-plastic waste fiber concrete compared to the M30 grade of concrete. Due to increase in strength of concrete we can reduce e-waste and increase the resources conservation.

CYTOGENETIC ACTIVITY AND ANTIOXIDANT ROLE OF FLAXSEEDS (LINUM USITATISSIMUM L.) EXTRACT IN MALE ALBINO RATS TREATED WITH CYPROTERONE ACETATE

By Maysaa Adil Hadi*, Nuha Yaarub Al-Harbi, Fawaz Ali Abbas Mahmoud

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

Objectives Investigation the cytogenetic activity and antioxidant role of methanolic extract of flaxseeds in male albino rats treated with cyproterone acetate. Methods The first part contains a phytochemical analysis of flaxseeds 20% methanolic extract include: Thin layer chromatography (TLC), determination of active compounds, and antioxidant activity of flaxseeds extract. The second part was experimental groups include 35 rats divided randomly into 7 groups: first and second groups treated with distilled water (D.W) and corn oil respectively as control groups, cyproterone acetate (CPA) (10 mg/kg/day) group, flaxseeds extract (250 and 500 mg/kg/day) respectively, and groups treated both CPA with flaxseeds extract with the same doses above respectively. After 50 days, the cytogenetic study including mitotic index (MI) and chromosomal aberrations (CA) of bone marrow cells in addition to the levels of DNA fragmentation in both white blood cells (WBC) and testes tissues was assessed. Results Presence of some phytochemical and antioxidant compounds in 20% methanolic extract of flaxseeds. CPA group had a significant increase (P?0.05) in MI and CA compared to both D.W and corn oil control groups and has a high level of DNA fragmentation in both WBC and testes tissue. In contrast, flaxseeds extract alone or with CPA did not induce a significant difference in MI and CA but it considered as significant decreasing (P?0.05) when compared with CPA group. Furthermore, both groups treated with flaxseeds 250 and 500 mg/kg/day alone did not record any fragmentation of DNA of WBC but caused fragmentation of DNA of testes tissue. While a decreased level of DNA fragmentation of WBC and testes tissue was noted in CPA with flaxseeds treated groups when compared with the CPA group. Conclusions The methanolic extract of flaxseeds had a cytogenetic activity to suppresses mitogenic and genotoxic effects of CPA via its antioxidant properties.

OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESS PARAMETERS AND SCALE-UP OF XYLANASE PRODUCTION USING CORN COB RAW BIOMASS BY MARINE BACTERIA BACILLUS SUBTILIS LBF M8 IN STIRRED TANK BIOREACTOR

By Heskia Kereh1, Nisa Rachmania Mubarik1, Rendi Palar2, Pugoh Santoso2,Yopi2

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

Optimization parameter for production several xylanases have already been studied, but only a few derived from marine bacteria especially Bacillus sp. Focus on this research is optimation of process parameters for xylanase production and scale-up production in stirred tank bioreactor using corn cob raw biomass as a substrate. Maximum xylanase production was obtained at 1,5% corn cob concentration, pH medium 6, temperature fermentation 30?C, and agitation rate 200 rpm. For production using agricultural waste, production with corn cob (2,963 U/mL) is higher than rice straw (1,938 U/mL) and sugarcane bagasse (1,728 U/mL). Optimization process parameters increased xylanase activity from 1,864 U/mL at 96 h to 2,963 U/mL at 24 h incubation. The scale-up of the fermentation process up to 2 L stirred tank bioreactor with the optimum condition at flask scale, significantly increased xylanase activity to 3,519 U/mL.

STUDY OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES ON M25 GRADE OF CONCRETE BY REPLACING OF DEMOLISHED CONCRETE WASTE INSTEAD OF COARSE AGGREGATE

By 1D. Prasannan* and 2S. Deepashri

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

The hardened Concrete waste can be reused in concrete for achieving the economical construction. In this paper, describes the reuse of demolished concrete in concrete instead of coarse aggregate. Such reusing not only helps conserve natural resources, but also helps to reduce the cost of construction. The demolished concrete was used to replace upto 10% of coarse aggregate. The tests were carried out in laboratory to evaluate the strength properties of normal concrete by using this demolished concrete as coarse aggregate. These tests included workability, unit weight, compressive strength, flexural strength and split tensile strength. Test results give significant strength improvement in concrete.

THE SIDE EFFECT OF NORISTERAT INJECTION IN SOME BIOCHEMISTRY PARAMETERS IN AL-DIWANIYA CITY

By Ali Noory Fajer*, Haider Khabt Aboud**, Noor Essam Abdul Rezaq ***

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

The present study aims to investigate the side effect of the injection by Noristerat on some biochemistry parameter in women in Al-Diwaniya city by evaluate oxidative stress and antioxidant level and change in lipid profile in women that using contraceptive by injection Noristerat. The results show that there is a significant increase in cholesterol, LDL and T.G, and a significant decrease in HDL in women who use contraception when compared with the group of women who do not use contraception. Also, the result points that there is increase significant in TOs and decrease significant in SOD, Cat, C.K and GSH in women who use contraception (Noristerat) when compared with the group of women without treatment contraception.

MATERNAL IMMUNITY RESPONSE AND LARVAL GROWTH OF ANTI CYHV-3 DNA VACCINATED COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO) AT DIFFERENT PRE-SPAWNING TIME

By Ardana Kurniajia, Sri Nuryatia*, Sri Murtinib, Alimuddina**

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate maternal immunity response of common carp broodstock and their progenies. Vaccination of broodstock was performed by injecting GP25 plasmid as anti-CyHV-3 DNA vaccine at 30, 45 and 60 days pre-spawning (dps). Three fish were used for each treatment. Triplicates challenge test at 7, 14, 21 and 28-dayold progenies were performed for 21 days by 1hour immersion of 10-3 CyHV-3 filtrate dilution. Serum was collected six times from broodstock, and four times from larvae. The result showed that vaccination could induce the immune response of broodstock. Leukocytes count, and phagocytic activity of the vaccinated broods were significantly higher than that of control (P<0.05) at 30 days post vaccination (dpv). Furthermore, broodstock vaccination at different pre-spawning time allowed different immunity response in their larvae. Vaccination at 60 days prespawning (dps) had the highest antibody titer in eggs and larvae and offered higher protection on the larvae against CyHV-3 infection. Growth of larvae from vaccinated broodstocks was significantly higher than that of control (P < 0.05). This study indicated that broodstock vaccination at a proper pre-spawning time improves its immunity and protection capability is transferred to their immature immunity larvae against pathogens infection.

ANTIBIOGRAM STUDY AND PREVALENCE OF PSLÁ GENE AMONG BIOFILM PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA PRODUCERS ISOLATED FROM SOME CLINICAL SPECIMENS IN THI_QAR PROVINCE

By Mohammed A.S. Issa1*, Kais Kassim Ghaima2, Manal Bady Saleh2, Mohammad I. Nader1

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

One of the major causes of hospital-acquired contagion due to the rising antibacterial resistance is opportunistic Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biofilm formation is an important virulence factor increase the pathogenicity infectious of P. aeruginosa, since sessile bacteria are protected in an extracellular matrix of a polysaccharide. The expression of expolysaccharide (EPS) manufacturing locus (pslÁ gene) can be significant for biofilm formalization by P. aeruginosa. The goal of this research estimate antibiotics resistance pattern and apportionment of the pslÁ gene among biofilm construction P. aeruginosa isolates collected from different infections sources. There were 113 infection samples collected as swabs and sputum from burns, post-surgical wounds, ear (otitis media), and respiratory tract. They cultured on different selective and differentiation media, next to P. aeruginosa identification by traditional bacteriological, API 20E strip, and molecular PCR technique by 16S rRNA. The antibiogram of isolates achieved by exposed to ten antibiotic items with disk diffusion method according to standard protocol of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Biofilm formation was detected qualitatively and quantitatively by 96-well microtiter plate test (MPT). Genotypic prevalence of pslÁ gene among the isolates performed via monoplex thermocycler of PCR technique. Of 113 different infection specimens there were 109 gave positive growth. Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were allocated to; 13/31 (35.5 %) burns, 8/26 (30.7 %) wounds, 11/29 (34.5 %) otitis, and 7/23 (30.4 %) sputum. Of 39 there was 23 multidrug resistance (MDR), 5 pandrug resistance (PDR) and the rest multidrug sensitive (MDS). The highest resistance was against Ticarcillin, Netilmicin, Piperacillin, and Ticarcillin/clavulanic acid while Amikacin, Meropenem, and Ciperofloxacin more effective with all isolates except burn isolates. The quantitatively of biofilm formation by MPT appeared 17 (43.6 %), 9(23.1 %), 7 (18.0 %), and 6 (15.4 %) were strong, moderate, weak, and non- biofilm producers. The prevalence of biofilm pslÁ gene was in 35 (90.0 %) isolates. All strong biofilm and 4 non-biofilm producers harbored target gene, while 1 moderate, 1 weak, and 2 non- biofilm producers not harboring pslÁ. All PDR and most MDR isolates were strong biofilm formation. P. aeruginosa is still developing the resistance to most antibiotics especially with strong biofilm formation isolates mostly of pslÁgene harboring which increasing the concern and difficulty of bacterial infections treatment. Therefore, the need to find new strategies for healing is urgent.

SHOT COMMUNICATION: SUPPLY CHAIN DESIGN WIH FIXED CHARGE AND DEDICATED FACILITIES

By Anand Jayakumar Aa, Krishnaraj Cb, Raghunayagan Pc

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

In this article we design a supply chain with fixed charge and dedicated facilities. The data is collected from a pump manufacturing industry. A mathematical model is created and the model is optimized using LINGO package. The result is discussed with the management and readied for implementation.

QUALITY OF SILAGE MADE FROM A COMBINATION OF CORN STRAW AND PEANUT STRAW AND ITS EFFECTS ON BALI CATTLE PERFORMANCE

By Syamsul Bahri1,2, Sitti Nurani Sirajuddin3, Syamsuddin Hasan3, Asmuddin Natsir3*

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

This experiment aimed to study the nutrient quality of the silage made from a combination of corn straw and peanut straw and the silage effects on the feed consumption, average daily gain, and feed efficiency of bali cattle. Twelve heads of bali cattle were randomly assigned to the experimental diets according to the completely randomized design, consisted of four treatments and three blocks giving a total number of the experimental unit of 12. The treatments were R0 = Corn straw silage, R1 = Silage consisted of 60% corn straw + 40% peanut straw), R2 = Silage consisted of 50% corn straw + 50% peanut straw, and R3 = Silage consisted of 40% corn straw + 60% peanut straw. In addition to the experimental diets, each animal was given 2 kg concentrate/d. The silage was provided ad libitum and drinking water was freely available. The results of the study indicated that chemical and physical characteristics of the silages were not different. The silage pH ranged between 3.2 -4.2 and it was considered as optimum pH. Other characteristics such as odor, color, compare, and the existence of fungi were found similar. In terms of bali cattle performance, the cattle fed on ration R2 had a better performance (feed consumption, average daily gain, and feed efficiency) compared to the cattle fed on either R0, R1, and R3. In conclusion, silage made with a combination of 50% corn straw and 50% peanut straw was the best combination compared to other treatment combination.

SERUM TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ? AND INTERLEUKIN-10 ASSAY IN NASSIRYHIAN IRAQI PATIENTS WITH HYPOTHYROIDISM

By Alia E. Mahmood Alubadi1, Majida Ghazi Magtooph2, Aysar Isam Mahmood3, Eman Natiq Naji1, Meroj A. Jasem1, Zainab Hashim Sharhan1

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

Tumor Necrosis Factor ? and Interleukin-10 are inflammatory cytokines has a significant role in the pathogenesis of immunological inflammatory processes at multiple levels. The study was performed on 80 Iraqi patients attended Endocrine and diabetic Medical center in Nassiryhia, with hypothyroidism and 23 healthy adults were enrolled. All subjects were (20-53) years old. Thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4), concentrations were (1.62 ± 0.399) vs (1.98 ± 1.119) nmol/l, (104.55 ± 48.27) vs (92.03 ± 13.71) nmol/l not significant increase in patients than in control respectively, while thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations were (17.63 ± 29.16) vs (2.138 ± 1.09) µIu/lP (0.013*) significant increase in patients than in control. This study supports the fact that some cytokines may play a role in hypothyroidism, so there are a Significant increase of TNF-? and IL-10 concentration in patients when compared with the healthy controls (p<0.001 for both) (Mean ± standard deviation) (277.5±253.1), and (214 ±168.3) pg/ml and (7.34±3.3) and (4.75±0.62) respectively. This finding may indicate that hypothyroidism might influence cytokine production in these patients.

GRANULAR SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR AND PHOTO-FENTON PROCESSES FOR TREATMENT OF CATTLE MANURE WASTEWATER

By A. Matinfar1, G. D. Najafpour*1, M. Mohammadi1

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

In this study, the photo-Fenton process was followed an aerobic granular sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The combined system was used for cattle manure wastewater treatment. In biological stage, the granulated SBR was resistant against feeding shocks, when imposed by substrate with food to microorganisms (F/M) ratio of 1.6. The bioreactor was operated at three different HRTs. Kinetic studies showed the most efficient performance was HRT of 32 h, rather than 24 and 48 h. Fenton and photo-Fenton (ph-F) reactions were individually performed as a polishing stage. The optimized ratios of H2O2/COD (1.5:1) and Fe2+/H2O2 (1:10 M/M) were defined. In ph-F reactions, the impacts of UV-C and solar lights were evaluated, where the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies noticeably enhanced to 82.8 and 85.3%, respectively. The best COD, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and total phosphorus (TP) removals for the combined SBR and ph-F systems were 97, 98.5 and 99%, respectively. For the first time, the feasibility of combined aerobic granular SBR and ph-F process for cattle manure wastewater treatment and recycling water were successfully investigated.

ESTIMATION OF PAX8/PPAR FUSION GENE BY FISH TECHNIQUE IN FOLLICULAR THYROID LESIONS

By Ban J. Qasim*, Alaa G. Hussein*, Wijdan B. Abid**, Buthinah I. Hameed***

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to detect PAX8/PPAR G gene rearrangement by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, the present study is the first time in Iraq used this technique to detect fusion gene in follicular thyroid lesions, follicular carcinoma (FC) follicular variant papillary of carcinoma (FVPC), follicular adenoma (FA) and follicular hyperplasia. A total of 120 paraffin block were included in the study, 30 blocks were (FC), 30 blocks were (FVPC). 30 blocks were (FA), 30 blocks were blocks thyroid follicular hyperplasia.20 blocks endocervical epithelium.20 paraffin blocks of colonic epithelium. The clinicopathological parameters were obtained from patients’ admission case sheets and pathology reports (age, gender). The description of measures regarding fluorescent instu hybridization of PAX8/ PPAR G fusion gene there was significantly highest in follicular carcinoma, followed by follicular variant of papillary carcinoma, then follicular adenoma and lastly by follicular hyperplasia The area under the curve for all three markers was >0.8.The p-value was highly significant for all three markers (P<0.001). Cutoff values that predict malignant thyroid follicles lesion were as following: score of >1 for Galectin-3 marker, score of >2 for HBME-1 marker and number of positive cells per 50 of >13 (>26%) for PAX8 /PPAR G fusion gene marker. The sensitivities for the three markers were 100.00 %, 90.00 % and 66.67 %, respectively, whereas the specificities were 88.30 %, 98.33 % and 100.00 % respectively.

EFFECT OF EFFLUENT IN CONTINUOUS TYPE ANAEROBIC DIGESTION

By A.Vijin Prabhu1*, S. Antony Raja1, C. Lindon Robert Lee1, P. Jeba2

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

The anaerobic digestion (AD) of biomass feed materials like Prosopis juliflora pods (PJP), dry leaves (DL), water hyacinth (WH), and cow manure was investigated in a batch and continuous type of digestion. The daily biogas yield and the composition of biogas and the cumulative biogas yield were evaluated for each experiment. The batch experiment was conducted to find the hydraulic retention time of the feed materials. The continuous digestion was conducted under three different phases. The first phase was batch digestion for startup the experiment, the second phase was to continuously feed the materials without microorganism and the third phase was continuously fed the materials with the effluent filtrate. For an HRT of 50 days, the average biogas production of 13.2 l/day was shown by the batch experiment. The average biogas production of 19.7 l/ day was shown by the continuous type of digestion third phase in 40 days. Moreover, it showed the highest biogas composition (CH4:75.73% and CO2:24.08%). However, the second phase performed worst in the average biogas production (9.4 l/day) in 20 days and the biogas composition (CH4:69.58% and CO2:29.06%). After stabilization (from the 15th day) of the third phase, experiment feed materials with effluent filtrate gave the maximum average biogas yield (23.2 l/day). Overall these studies show that the addition of effluent filtrate with the feed material can be a promising technique for improving biogas production.

LARVICIDAL AND ADULT ATTRACTANT EFFICIENCY OF THE EDIBLE MUSHROOM PLEUROTUS PULMONARIUS ON AEDES AEGYPTI AND CULEX SITIENS (DIPTERA, CULICIDAE) MOSQUITOES

By Tanawat Chaiphongpachara*, Siriluck Jittrabiab and Duangporn Nacapunchai

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

Mosquito-borne diseases, including malaria, filariasis, Japan encephalitis, chikungunya, dengue fever, yellow fever and other viral diseases, are major public health issues worldwide, especially in tropical and sub-tropical areas. The commercially available edible mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) (Indian oyster) has been reported to contain octenol. Thus, we assessed the larvicidal and adult female attractant activity of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex sitiens Wiedemann of this mushroom. We examined 5 P. pulmonarius extract concentrations for larvicidal tests (120, 12, 1.2, 0.12 and 0.012 mg/L) and 3 concentrations for adult mosquito attraction (100, 10, and 1 mg/L). The results showed that P. pulmonarius extract did not kill Ae. aegypti larvae but had a minimal larvicial effect on Cx. sitiens. While P. djamor extract attracted adult female Ae. aegypti and Cx. sitiens mosquitoes, especially at the 10 mg/L concentration, but no significantly mosquitoes of both species were attracted by the extract compared to octenol. However, this mushroom extract attracted more than 50% of Ae. aegypti adults.

SERUM CONCENTRATION OF CU, ZN AND SE IN MALIGNANT AND BENIGN PROSTATIC LESIONS

By Raid Jasim M. Al-Timimi

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of death among cancer in men. Trace elements are involved in many vital functions. Fluctuations in serum levels of these elements may reflect the occurrence and/or severity of PCa.This prospective case/control study aimed to assess the serum concentration of Cu, Zn and Se in patients with PCa (newly diagnosed and longstanding) and with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The study recruited 60 patients with PCa (30 newly diagnosed and 30 longstanding patients) and 30 patients with BPH. Other 30 healthy men were randomly selected to be a control group. Sera were separated from blood samples which were collected from each participant. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to measure serum concentration of the studied trace elements. The newly diagnosed patients with PCa showed significantly (P<0.05) higher serum concentration of Cu (3.14±1.1 µg/ml) than each of longstanding group (1.48±0.91 µg/ml), BPH (0.96± 0.17µg/ml), and controls (1.1±0.23 µg/ml), while there were no significant differences between different groups regarding Zn concentration. In newly diagnosed patients, Se concentration was 58.2± 6.12 ng/ml) which is significantly lower than other groups (P<0.05). In longstanding patients, the concentration was relatively high (98.4± 12.38 ng/ml) and differed significantly from patients with BPH (72.4± 8.11 ng/ml) and non-significantly from controls (108.1±15.34 ng/ml) These results indicate that serum levels of Cu and Se undergo a marked change in newly diagnosed patients with PCa, and thus could be used as additional marker for this malignancy.

NUMERICAL INTEGRATION OVER ARBITRARY TETRAHEDRAL ELEMENT BY TRANSFORMING INTO STANDARD 1-CUBE

By T. M. Mamatha and B. Venkatesh

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

In this paper, we are using two different transformations to transform the arbitrary linear tetrahedron element to a standard 1-Cube element and obtain the numerical integration formulas over arbitrary linear tetrahedron element implementing generalized Gaussian quadrature rules, with minimum computational time and cost. We also obtain the integral value of some functions with singularity over arbitrary linear tetrahedron region, without discretizing the tetrahedral region into P3 tetrahedral regions. It may be noted the computed results are converging faster than the numerical results in referred articles and are exact for up to 15 decimal values with minimum computational time. In a tetrahedral sub-atomic geometry, a focal particle is situated at the middle with four substituents that are situated at the sides of a tetrahedron. The bond edges are cos?1(??) = 109.4712206...° ? 109.5° when each of the four substituents are the same, as in methane (CH4) and in addition its heavier analogs. The impeccably symmetrical tetrahedron has a place with point amass Td, yet most tetrahedral particles have brought down symmetry. Tetrahedral atoms can be chiral. Mathematically the problem is to evaluate the volume integral over a arbitrary tetrahedron transforming the triple integral over arbitrary linear tetrahedron into the integrals over a standard 1-cube using two different parametric transformations.

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EFFECT OF AZATHIOPRINE ON LIVER, INTESTINE AND SPLEEN OF ALBINO MICE

By Dina Khudhair Hussein Ali*

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

This study was carried out to study the effect of azathioprine drug on some histological structure in albino mice. sixty adult female albino mice (20mice/group), were used in this study, the average body weights are 30-32 gm. two doses of azathioprine (50 mg/kg/b wt. and 100 mg/kg/b wt.) were given by the oral route daily for 40 days to the second and third group respectively, while control group was given normal saline. The histopathological examination of the treated animal for liver showed congestion with dilation of portal vein, Dilation of sinusoids and Mono-nuclear cell aggregation for the second group while for the third treated group showed small granulomatous lesion of mononuclear cells, Enlargement and proliferation of kupper cells, Severe necrosis. Sever vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes. The histopathological section of spleen was showed Infiltration of megakaryocyte for the second group while for the third group showed hypertrophy of central arteriole with dilation and infiltration of mono-nuclear cell mainly macrophage and plasma cell in red pulp. The histological changes in intestine tissue of the treated animals showed vacular degeneration of epithelial cell with hyperplasia of goblet cell which produce allots of mucin for the second group while for the third group showed infiltration of mononuclear cells between glands. From this study we concluded that there was harmful effect of azathioprine on different tissues of the experimental animal dependent on increasing dose of this drug.

BEHAVIOURIAL STUDY ON RC BEAM WITH SEA SHELL AS A FINE AGGREGATE SUBJECTED TO REVERSE CYCLIC LOADING

By S. Veeradhithyan1 and S. Deepa Shri2

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

Concrete is the widely used material after water in the world. The word concrete denotes the coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, water and cement. There are several researches going on in the present world in the field of concrete technology. This project aims to find a solution for the exploitation of river sand and to replace with the other abundant and cost-effective material as the fine aggregate for the betterment of our society and the construction Industry. The viability of using grinded sea shell as the fine aggregate are investigated in the project. The grinded sea shell is replaced in the place of river sand in the percentage of 20,40%,60%,80%,100%. There is promising increasing in the strength of the specimen in all the percentage when compared to that of the conventional. The maximum strength is obtained for the replacement of 80%. The further investigation is carried with the aid of RC Beam subjected to Reverse cyclic loading. The optimum percentage (80% Sea shell + 20% river sand) is found out and the beam is cast and subjected to loading and the corresponding deflection is noted down. The parameters like ultimate load carrying capacity, energy absorption, ductility factor, stiffness and the maximum deflection is studied.

TOXICITY OF Salvia officinalis EXTRACTS AGAINST Lymnaea auricularia THE INTERMEDIATE HOST OF FASCIOLIASIS CYCLE DISEASE IN IRAQ

By Mohammed J. Al-Obaidi, Ali H. Abbas, Mohammed Y. Abd Al-Hussain

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

The objective of the present study is to determine the acute toxicity of aqueous extracts of Salvia officinalis against the snail Lymnaea auricularia, which is considered as the intermediate snail host of Fascioliasis. About 720 snails were used for the experiments. The LD50, LD100 and Dose-Response relationships of S. officinalis against the snail L. auricularia was calculated. The S. officinalis extracts concentrations were found to be potent against L. auricularia. The results of 96 hr-LD50 and LD100 of S. officinalis extract against the target snail were 6.6±1.1 and 18.4±3.4 g/L respectively. It was observed that the toxicity of different preparation for snails was both time and dose-dependent. The study suggested that the aquatic extract of S. officinalis could be used as a control substance for the target snail.

AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION AND COMPARISON OF PMEDM WITH CONVENTIONAL EDM PROCESS

By M. Rajesh1*, M. Sudhahar2 and P. Vijayakumar1

Vol-15 No-3

Abstract

This present experimental work is to find out the optimize input process parameters of powder mixed electrical discharge machining (PMEDM)on OHNS-O2 with graphite powder. Taguchi design is used to found out the optimized value and to analyze the experiments. Analysis were done to investigate the effects of the process parameters viz. pulse on time (Ton) , pulse off-time (Toff)& current and concentration of the Sic powder in IPOL dielectric (C) and its effects on material removal rate (MRR), surface roughness (Ra),and process parameters were optimized for high MRR, low Ra and machining timing using Taguchi function approach of MINITAB software.optimal factor for Surface Roughness was obtained, and conventional EDM process is undergone for the obtained surface roughness factor.Both process Roughness value are compared and found that the PMEDM process is better than conventional EDM process.

IDENTIFICATION OF Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major BY REAL-TIME PCR USING ITS1 and KDNA GENES IN BAGHDAD

By Nada Noori Younis and Amina N.AL-Thwani

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by Leishmania spp, this disease is a problem in Iraq. The purpose aims of the study is using a Qualitative - Real-time PCR (Q-R.T) to diagnosis compared with traditional methods to investigation of Leishmania species in Baghdad. Total 75 suspected patient with CL from both sex was enrolled in the present work study during the period between March / 2016 to March / 2017 who attended, AL-Yarmook, ALKaramaa Al-Kadhimiya, Al-Kindi, Teaching Hospitals in Baghdad, all the demographic feature of the diseases, were recorded. The direct Microscopic examination was carried out by direct smears using Giemsa stain, aspiration fluid from lesions were cultured on Novy–MacNeal–Nicolle (NNN) medium and used R T-PCR for detection of internal transcribed spacer1 (ITS1) and Kinetopast (KDNA) genes. The results revealed that 43% of cases were positive by Microscopic examination while 16% by culture and 91% by R.T- PCR positive for kDNA gene , 60% for (ITS1) gene , it was found , 62% were typed as L. tropica and 38% of isolates were typed as L.major . Highly Significant (P<0.01) correlation was observed between diagnosis methods.

THE EFFECT OF APPLICATION ACAULOSPORA SP ON THE ROOT GROWTH OF CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS L AT NICKEL POST-MINE LAND

By Muhammad Akhsan Akib, Kahar Mustari, Tutik Kuswinanti, Syatrianty Andi Syaiful.

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Plant root growth is greatly influenced by the chemical properties of the soil; therefore, excessive heavy metals content in the soil will affect plant root growth. The aim of this research was to study the effect of Acaulospora sp as biological agents on the root growth of Canavalia ensiformis at nickel post-mining land in Sorowako, Indonesia. The research was carried out using a randomized block design with application of Acaulospora sp from different area as treatment, namely: native Acaulospora, exotic Acaulospora and without Acaulospora. The results show that the application effect of native Acaulospora increased the number of lateral roots, percentage infected root, root length, root volume, root dry weight, and root:shoot ratio of Canavalia ensiformis. The native Acaulospora also acceleration of the adaptation process of Canavalia ensiformis in the land with high nickel concentration.

PROCESSES OF STERILIZATION AND ULTRA-HIGH TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND CARBOXYLIC ACID PROFILE IN BOVINE MILK

By Fadil G. Alswedi

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the certain of pasteurization and extreme High-temperature procedures on adjacent and physicochemical aggregation, microbiological factors and fatty acid side view in bovine milk. Pastuerized, sterilized and fresh milks were submitted at a factory works nearby from the university. Specimens were collected toward resolution, protein, moisture, lactose, total fat, total solids, free-fat, dry extract, urea, calcium, phosphorus, pH, acidity, density, fatty acid profile, total bacterial calculation besides somatic cell calculation. Sterile as well extreme-high temperature milks reserved lactose also protein gratified alike fresh milk. Sterilization besides pasteurization changed milk combination in some measure, terminate whole fat besides whole solids also cumulative urea. The procedures redesigned heart short-chain fatty acids (6:0, 8:0 in addition to 10:0). Great dimensions in stearic acid (18:0), palmitic acid (16:1) and meristic acid (14:0) were set up in wholly analyzed milks. Lack in extended outstandingly milk adaptations mixture also fatty acid summary show meander complete the procedures devoid of changing the milk dietary rate.

EFFECTIVENESS TEST OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATOR (PGR) ON GROWTH AND PRODUCTION OF RED ONION (Allium ascalonicum L.)

By Asrijal, Elkawakib Syam’un, Yunus Musa, dan Muh. Riadi

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Efforts to increase onion production are faced with higher prices of chemical fertilizers and residues in the soil. The growth regulator is a non-nutrient organic compound that in low concentration can encourage, inhibit or qualitatively alter the growth and development of the plant. PGR applications in plants may affect the orientation of asymilat transport, senator delays and cell enlargement. The effect of PGR application on a plant will be obvious if the condition of the plant is healthy, nutrient needs are met and good maintenance. The aim of this research is to get PGR from sweet corn, pulut corn, yellow corn, and white corn that can increase the growth and production of one of red onion plant varieties. The results showed that sweet corn PGR showed significant result both growth component and production component of onion plant. And red onion that has high production is red onion of Bima Brebes varieties.

QUALITATIVE DETECTION OF HIGH RISK HPV AND GENOTYPING ASSOCIATED CERVICAL ABNORMALITIES

By Tabark S. Jassim and Abdul Hussein M. AlFaisal

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Introduction: Change in cervix epithelial tissue as abnormal cells as dyskaryosis or dysplasia can be due to inflammation or infection. Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the main viral infection of the female reproductive system. The current study is aimed to detect the HPV genotypes that associate with cervical abnormalities. Materials and methods: Ninety subjects included 70 Iraqi patients with cervical abnormalities and 20 apparently healthy which were included in the work. Pap smears were taken from the cervix of the subjects, DNA was extracted, and HPV genotyping was done to all samples. Results: In general, our results showed that 42.86% of women had positive HPV infection and 57.14% negative HPV. The seventy cervical intraepithelial neoplasia biopsy that were obtained from patients classified histopathologically as: squamous cell Atypia 30 out of 70 (33.33 %), low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (CIN I) constituted 18 out of 70 (20.00%) where as the high grade (CINII &III) constituted 16 out of total 70 (11.11% and 6.67 %) respectively and squamous cell carcinoma 6 out of total 70 (6.67 %). According to cytology patients samples were classified as: 10 (11.11%) with non-specific cervicitis, 18 (20.00%) cases of LSIL, 16(17.78%) cases of HSIL, 20 (22.22%) cases of ASCUS and squamous cells Carcinoma 6 (6.67 %). Conclusion: The results showed that 30 of patients were positive to HPV. The common HPV genotype was HPV16, HPV-59 and HPV-56 followed by HPV types 66, 51, 58 and 68. Also multiple infections of viruses were observed in patients. It was found that variation in the results showed high significant on each histological grads examination.

CORRELATION BETWEEN BIOFILM FORMATION AND BACTERIOCIN PRODUCTION BY LACTOBACILLUS ACIDOPHILUS

By Jnan Jafr Baksh and Amal Aziz Kareem

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The present study was carried out to investigate the Correlation between biofilm formation and bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus acidophilus A total of 214 vaginal swab of healthy women without vaginitis and/or urinary tract infection were collected from hospitals in Baghdad city .Vaginal swabs of each women inoculated in MRS broth medium, after 24 h incubation in the presence of 5% CO2 the specimens were sub-cultured on MRS agar and 49 samples from 104 samples were Lactobacillus acidophilus, while negative growth were 110 samples. The first identification presented then using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers gene which showed that 11 isolates were Lactobacillus acidophilus carried bacteriocin gene also 11 L. acidophilus isolates characterized by their ability to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aurous , Pseudomonas aeroginosa , Escherichia coli through the production of bacteriocin and all Lactobacillus acidophilus isolates form biofilm at different levels (weak, moderate and strong) were produced bacteriocin. This study suggested highly significant difference and strong correlation (r= 0.914; P = 0.00; P<0.01) between biofilm formation and bacteriocin production.

THE ABILITY OF TRICHODERMA SP AND PLEUROTUS SP FOR THE DECOMPOSITION OF OIL PALM EMPTY BUNCHES

By Sukriming Sapareng, Ambo Ala, Tutik Kuswinanti, Burhanuddin Rasyid

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The empty bunches of palm can-not directly decompose into compost because it is still in the form of complex elements, so it must be degraded first, and the process of degradation naturally takes a very long time, for which the fungus used to accelerate the process of degradation. The fungus has a ligninolytic ability, namely the ability to dissipate enzymes that can degrade lignin. Materials used in this study include empty fruit bunches (EFB), bran, and dolomite lime. The ingredients were evenly mixed and then inoculated with the fungus in four treatments, which were without mushroom fungus, Pleurotus sp, Tramella sp, and Trichoderma sp. This study shows several attributes related to the quality of compost such as temperature, pH, macronutrient and C: N ratio. The treatment of Trichoderma sponge inoculation gives the best quality compared to others. The C / N ratio after 8 weeks of decomposition is 22.09. It can be concluded that the Trichoderma spray inoculation treatment can be a potential biodecomposer for EFB.

GENETIC DIVERSITY AND ALKALOIDS PROFILE EVALUATION OF CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS L. BASED ON RAPD MOLECULAR MARKERS AND RP- HPLC ANALYSIS

By Shurook M. K. Saadedin

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Catharanthus roseus is a medicinal plant, which main source of two antitumor terpeniods indole alkaloids (TIAs) vinblastine and vincristine. The aims of this study were to assess genetic diversity and alkaloids profiles using RAPD molecular markers and fast liquid chromatographic C18 column for the separation and identification of TIAs and their precursors for twelve C. roseus cultivars grown in Iraq. Genetic similarity between C. roseus cultivars ranged between 69% - 100%. Pacifica xp Burgundy Halo and Pacifica xp Cherry Red Halo had lowest genetic distance (0.0) with highest similarity value (100%). The quantification of Vincristine, Vinblastine and their precursors Vindoline and Catharanthine of the same two cultivars had almost the same alkaloids profile with slight difference in Vindoline percentage. The dendrogram assembled on the basis of RAPD band showed that the Iraqi cultivar was isolated from the rest eleven cultivars. This research was the first attempt linking between genetic diversity and (TIAs) vinblastine and vincristine content.

CORRELATION BETWEEN PREDATOR GREEN LACEWING CHRYSOPERLA CARNEA (STEPHENS,1836) AND SEASONAL PRESENCE OF JASMINE WHITEFLY ALEUROCLAVA JASMINITAKAHASHI IN SOME CITRUS SPEACIES.

By M.S.H. Manjy, F.A. Sabit, B.M.Thakir, S.H. Sabr

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Seasonal presence of jasmine whitefly Aleuroclava jasmini Takahashi correlated to the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) were studied in 25000m² citrus of orchard (citrus, orange and clementine) During March 2014 to September 2015 at An Numaniyah city south of Iraq. The population density of jasmine whitefly showed a significant deference between the upper and lower height rate of trees125.1 and 90.8 nymph/1 cm2 leaf area, respectively. Statistical analyses showed highest population density rate on orange trees was 139.3 nymph/1 cm2 leaf area followed by citrus and clementine with 104.5 and 80.0 nymph/1 cm2, respectively. For the interaction, the highest population density rate was registered on orange with 164.4 nymph/1 cm2 at the lower height level. Effect of host correlated to season, orange registered the highest population density rates comparison citrus species with 214.4, 164.0 and 125.9 nymph/1 cm2. Compared to other seasons, population density rates were the highest in summer season with 281.9, 128.3 and 101.5 nymph/1 cm2. In addition, orange registered the highest population density rate comparison to other citrus species at summer season. The distribution of jasmine whitefly through the year, registered Population density 55, 25 and 20% respectively on summer autumn and spring seasons. The two insects were correlated in positive relationship. The lacewing population density reflected during the study period. The predator showed an obvious increase when scored 50.8 egg/ 160 leaves in March. Then the highest lacewing rate was registered in July with 250.6 egg per 160 citrus leaves. When jasmine whitefly population density decreased, the rate started to decrease and scoring 30.9 egg/160 leaves in November.

LEVELS OF SEROTONIN AND INTERLEUKIN 6 IRAQI AUTISTIC CHILDREN

By Jinan Abdul Satar Abdul Kareem, Amina N. Al-Thwani

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder specified by higher frequency of serotonin aberration, the inflammatory factors in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) that may predispose to the disorder attract a great attention, Therefore, the goal of this study was to estimate serotonin 5-HT and interleukin6 IL6 in sample of Iraqi autistic children. Thirty blood samples from autistic children were examined to measure the level of interleukin6 and serotonin compared with matched healthy control. Serotonin level and IL6 of autistic children was elevated when compared with healthy control.

BIOTECHNOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES STIMULATE THE PRODUCTION OF SUGARCANE AND USEFUL FOR ENHANCING OF PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS

By Sardar Khatoon Solangi, Altaf hussain Solangi, Nusrat Solangi

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

An experiment was designed to develop technological method through which formulate protocol for tissue culture in sugarcane. Shoot tips of Saccharum officinarum L. as explants of three varieties included NIA-2012, NIA-105 and Gulabi-95. The regeneration of regenrable type of callus (whitened and solid type) was using in a basic medium with ABK (Indol acetic acid) ( indol butric acid) cytokinin (kintin) added with different content of auxin (2, 4-D), (NAA) and picloram. Main analysis of variance was showing that all the traits are significant in NIA-2012 which fallowed by NIA-105. The best combination for the multiplication and shoot rising of sugarcane the plant growth hormone was used 2, 4-D and NAA. Root proliferated with the NAA at the concentrations of 3.0 mg/L was observed. However, the optimized protocol can be used for rapid in vitro mass multiplication of three sugarcane varieties related to the field parameter enhance production of sugarcane hence minimize the limitations sugarcane planting materials.

POSSIBLE IMPROVEMENT TOWARDS SALT TOLERANCE IN EMS MUTATED STRAWBERRY (Fragaria x ananassa Duth.) FESTIVAL CULTIVAR

By Hatem K. Abbas, Ali A. Mahdi Al-Salihy and Kadhim M. Ibrahim

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The present study was established to enhance NaCl tolerance in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Dutch) ‘Festival’ cultivar which is grown widely in Iraq and it is sensitive to salt stress, Leaf explants were treated with Ethyl Methane Sulfonate (EMS) to induce genetic variation and then used for callus induction and shoot regeneration under NaCl stress. Different concentrations of NaCl (0.0, 10, 25, 35 or 45 mM) were dissolved with irrigation water and added to the soil. Response to NaCl was evaluated after three months. Callus cultures were initiated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of ?-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 6- benzylaminopurine (BAP), 4 mg/L-1 NAA+1 mg/L-1 BAP. The regenerated shoots were inoculated on shoot induction medium containing 2 mg/L1 BAP + 0.5 mg/L-1 NAA then transferred to MS medium supplemented with IBA 1.0 mg/L-1 for rooting. Morphological parameters, number of leaves, plant height, vegetative area, number of flowers, number of fruits and weight of fruits were investigated compared with in vivo plants. Genetic variation based on RAPD- PCR technique was used to detect variability. The results showed a high reduction in shoots regeneration and rooting in response to increasing NaCl. Morphological characteristics decreased in response to increase NaCl concentrations as well. However, in vitro regenerated plants derived from leaf discs treated previously with EMS, exhibited better performance in these parameters than in vivo plants at high concentrations of NaCl. Using eight RAPD primers a total number of 15 unique bands resulted after EMS treatment in Festival, while 3 unique bands appeared under NaCl stress. This study revealed that EMS as a chemical mutagen is a promising in enhancing NaCl tolerance.

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE TREATMENTS ON PHYSIOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATION OF IN VITRO PHALAENOPSIS ‘FORTUNE SALTZMAN’ SEEDLINGS

By Jatuporn Anuchai and Ching-Hsiang Hsieh

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Phalaenopsis ‘Fortune Saltzman’ tissue culture seedlings were grown with 5 different day/night incubation temperatures (25/25ºC, 25/20ºC, 30/20ºC, 30/25ºC, and 35/25 º C). The seedlings used were clearly identified into three photosynthesis stages through CO2 rhythm detecting. In Stage I (21 days after planting, DAP) it showed a typical C3 plant carbon fixation pattern but when plants continued to grow to Stage II (45DAP) they exhibited similar type C3-CAM plants. After 120DAP, plants showed significantly decreased CO2 concentration at night, and showed a typical CAM plant carbon fixation pattern. The result showed that after 120 days, cultures with 30/20ºC and 30/25ºC incubation temperatures grew more stems and presented higher fresh weight and leaf lengths compared to the results of other treatments. Moreover, 30/25ºC treatment showed significantly higher responses in terms of dry weight, number of root, root length and number of leaf. The seedlings subjected to 30/25ºC treatment showed significantly higher levels of Rubisco enzyme activity than those subjected to the other treatments. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activities recorded during the night time in seedlings subjected to 30/25ºC incubation temperatures were also significant greater. Therefore, 30/25ºC treatment could advance growth of Phalaenopsis ‘Fortune Saltzman’ tissue culture seedlings faster and can be recommended for commercial production.

BETA LACTAMASE SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERNS AND PREVALENCE OF ESBL GENES IN UROPATHOGENIC Escherichia coli

By Kais Kassim Ghaima, Inass Mahmood Abid Kamal

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Escherichia coli is one of the main causes of urinary tract infections (UTIs). The pathogenic isolates are becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics especially beta-lactam by their ability to produce extended-spectrum betalactamases (ESBLs). The aim of this study was to isolate E. coli from UTIs, and detection the antimicrobial resistance and its association with ESBL genes. CHROM agar Orientation medium was used for rapid detection of E. coli from urine specimens. According to phenotype of ESBL detection by Double Disk Synergy Test (DDST), eighty-four of E. coli isolates were ESBL producing. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for detection betalactamase genes (blaCTX-M, blaTEM and blaSHV). The percentage of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates was 57.5 %. The most frequent gene was blaTEM (82.1 %) followed by blaSHV (67.9 %) and blaCTX-M (34.5 %) genes. The most common ESBL genotype among our isolates was blaSHV and blaTEM (33.3 %). E. coli isolates that able to produce ESBL were susceptible to Meropenem and Imipenem, 94.1 % and 90.5 % respectively, and showed 100 % resistance to Amoxicillin, Cefotaxime and Cephalexin. The negative ESBL isolates exhibited high resistance to Amoxicillin and Cephalexin, and high sensitive to other antibiotic in comparison with the positive ESBL isolates. In conclusion, the most effective antibiotics against ESBL-producing uropathognic E. coli were carbapenems. The cephalosporins resistance is mainly due to ESBL production, where TEM-type gene was the most frequent among our local isolates. Study on ESBL producers among E. coli strains helps to control drug resistance cases and choose the right antibiotics for therapy of UTI.

PROTECTIVE ROLE OF LACTOBACILLUS ACIDOPHILUS IN HYPOTHALAMUS- PITUITARY- ADRENAL (HPA) AXIS PERFORMANCE IN HEAT STRESSED RATS

By Majida Abdulkhaliq Jaafar Alqayim1 and Zahraa Khudiar Handel

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The present study was undertaken to study the protective role of Lactobacillus acidophilus against deleterious changes of Hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in heat stress, adult female (n=24) Albino Wister rats were divided into four equal groups; 1st control (C) group maintained at (22-25?C), 2nd (HS) group exposed to high ambient temperature (35 - 40?C) for 6 hours daily, 3rd (HS-LBA). group administered L acidophilus (5 × 108 CFU) and exposed to heat stress, 4th (LBA) group administered L. acidophilus (5 × 108 CFU). Results revealed that heat stress disorders of, hyperthermia, anxiety and decreased relative growth rate RGR were ameliorated by administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Further-more, the typical biomarkers for hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis hyper sensitivity and sympathetic system activity (cortisole, adrenocorticotropic, adrenalin, & noradrenalin) were elevated in HS group, and return to semi normal level in HS-LBA and LBA groups. Analysis of brain tissue and duodenum sections showed marked inflammatory and irregularity of histopathological changes. These changes disappeared in groups with L. acidophilus. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated for the first time that L. acidophilus improves deleterious deviation in HPA axis hypersensitivity and sympathetic system activity caused by heat stress. These changes confirmed the success of heat stress resistance through a positive role of L. acidophilus in gut-brain-axis. This study demonstrated for the first-time efficacy of L. acidophilus in reducing heat stress effects mediated by gut-brain axis.

EFFECT OF L-PHENYLALANINE ON THE PRODUCTION OF SOME ALKALOIDS AND STEROIDAL SAPONINS OF FENUGREEK COTYLEDONS DERIVED CALLUS

By Saeb Aboud Hassan, Emad Hamdi Jassim

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The aim at this study is to increase some alkaloids and steroidal saponins in Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Callus initiation was carried out culturing cotyledons of the fenugreek on MS medium achieved by 1.0 mg/l?¹ 2, 4D and 0.4 mgl?¹ kinetin. The best medium to maintain callus was MS medium accomplished by 0.5 mg/l?¹ 2, 4-D and 0.5 mg/ l?¹ kinetin. Callus formation was allowed to take place for thirty days in the dark at 25±2 °C. Callus was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methanol callus extract showed high concentrations of some alkaloids and steroidal saponins compared to the methanol extract of cotyledons. For increasing, the concentration of secondary metabolites, L-phenylalanine was added at concentrations 0, 100, 200 or 300 mg/l?¹. L-phenylalanine at 200 mg/l?¹ led to significant increase in diosgenin, choline and trigonelline reaching177.82, 415.12 and 1815.53 µg/ ml?¹ per 100 mg fresh weight of callus respectively, L-phenylalanine at 100 mg/l?¹ increased smilagenin, tigogenin and carpaine reached 259.52, 122.87 and756.72 µg/ ml?¹ per 100 mg respectively.

GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHEAT AS AFFECTED BY PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA AND PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER

By Niaz Ali Sial, Shafique Ahmed Abro, Muhammad Abbas, Muhammad Irfan and Nizamuddin Depar

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Use of biological alternatives to synthetic fertilizers has radically increased due to the high costs and environmental concerns associated with later ones. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) have gained importance as supplements to phosphate (P) fertilizers for eco-friendly crop production. A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different P fertilizer rates and PSB on the growth and yield of wheat. Treatments comprised of control (without P application), 25, 50 and 75 kg P2O5 ha-1, and inoculation of PSB (Bacillus polymyxa) @ 25 mL kg-1 wheat seed. The experiment was laid-out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. The results showed that application of 75 kg P2O5 ha-1 resulted in maximum plant height (68.29 cm), number of spikelets per spike (18.67) and grain yield (8.51 kg plot-1) and was statistically superior to all other treatments except 50 kg P2O5 ha-1. The highest number of grains per spike (50), yield of main spike (2.49 g), grain yield plant-1 (2.93 g) and 100-grain weight (3.77 g) were also recorded in plots fertilized with 75 kg P2O5 ha-1. Generally, higher bacterial count was observed at 0-15 cm soil depth compared to the lower soil depth (15-30 cm) after three weeks of sowing and at crop harvest. Furthermore, the yield and yield contributing attributes recorded from PSB inoculated plots were statistically identical to those of 25 kg P2O5 ha-1 plots. Hence it can be concluded that PSB inoculation can contribute to wheat yield potential to some extent in resource poor farming system.

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA PRODUCING BIOPLASTIC (POLYHYDROXY ALKANOATE) FROM VEGETABLE OIL WASTES

By Iman H Gatea, Alaa S Abbas, Ameena G Abid, Amal A Halob, Sana K Maied and Azhar S Abidali

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The current study aimed isolation and characterization of local bacterial isolates capable of production Poly hydroxy alkanoate (PHA) using oil residues as a single carbon source. Many polluted environmental sites were used as sources of isolation of bacterial isolates. The collected samples were processed by serial dilution followed by spread plating in nutrient agar plates to get isolated colonies. Bacterial isolates were tested for (PHA) granules production using Sudan blank and Nile blue stains, nine of fifty isolates could produce PHA. Production of the polymer of bacterial isolates was found to be ranging from 21% - 57 % (w/w) of the biomass. The highest PHA yield was observed in Pseudomonas putida SD12, which was diagnosed according to diagnostic methods, i.e., colony morphology, gram staining, and then was confirmed by new gram-negative identification card (Vitek 2 NGNC). PHA accumulating was 2.80g/L, amounting to 57.20% (w/w) of cell dry weight. Waste frying oil was the best source of carbon which gave better results for PHA production than pure oil. PHA production was 2715 ppm with comparison of 1223 mg /3mlwhen used pure oil as a carbon source when incubated at 30°C after 48 hours.

EXPLORING NATURAL COMBINATION FOR IDENTIFICATION OF UPREGULATED NITROGEN FIXING BACTERIA IN GLYCINE MAX: AN IN VIVO, IN VITRO AND IN SILICO APPROACH

By Sadam D.V. Satyanarayana, M.S.R. Krishna and Pindi Pavan Kumar

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Understanding the concept of symbiosis in a more localized natural selective way and optimizing for the yielding advantages of confined geography is the prime objective of the study. Precisely the aim is to isolate and identify crop specific Rhizobium strains for Glycine max using physical, biochemical and in silico techniques from Bhadrachalam forest lands. Randomly collected soil samples from 45 different locations across Bhadrachalam forest were sown with soybean in triplets. The basic parameters like Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potassium (NPK) and levels of micronutrients for all the soil samples were identified to be similar. Out of 45 samples in triplets, top five growth supporting soils were taken for further investigation. Organisms from the root nodules of these five plants were screened and pure cultures were maintained. Log phase cultures in broth form were inoculated on the seeds sown in sterile soils with respective controls. Tremendous improvement in the growth parameters were observed in results when compared with controls. The polyphasic analysis discovered that the contributing organisms were Bradyrhizobium icense, Bradyrhizobium paxllaeri, Bradyrhizobium canariense, Sinorhizobium xinjiangense, Bradyrhizobium betae sp. Pure forms of these Rhizobial species have shown elevated rate of plant growth in in vitro fallowed by field experiments in low vegetative agriculture soils of the same geography. Out of these five species the Bradyrhizobium icense, which was the best plant growth supporting for Glycine max has been studies further to explore the Nif genes responsible for plant growth and Nitrogen fixation. The in slico analysis of Nif A protein revealed the underlying precursors of indole acetic acid (IAA) production and nitrogenase activity. This novel method of soil selection may be adopted for easy identification of Rhizobial species, specific for not only for Glycine max but also for various other legume crops from respective geographies.

COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF ANTIOXIDANT VITAMINS E AND C

By Ahmed Mahdi Saeed, Abbas Shebeeb Al-kadumi and Noor Jassem Mohammed Ali

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Determination of vitamin E (Tocopherol) and vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) by reduction ferric to ferrous ion, which was determined through reaction with potassium dichromate in acidic media using visible spectrophotometry was investigated in this research. The method was based on the use of sodium nitro prusside as a newly reagent source for ferric ion. The colour solution gave a maximum absorption at 564.4 nm, which was applied to the determination method. Conditions optimization was conducted through study different parameter such as volume of reagent, time, acid volume, temperature. The obtained results revealed that the value of R2 was (0.99991) for both vitamins, detection limit (0.10 and 0.07), the quantitative limit (0. 33 and 0.21), the linear ranges (0.5 – 30 and 0.25 – 50) ?g / mL, R.S.D (2.88 and 1.62) for vitamin E and C respectively. Results showed that the newly developed methods could be applied to determine vitamin E and C in their pure state and in pharmaceuticals with high accuracy and low cost without need any complicated treatments. Method accuracy was validated by recovery percentage mean (100.02 and 99.92 %) for vitamin C and E respectively.

DETERMINATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN SOIL AT AL-NAHRAWAN BRICKS FACTORY

By Thamera K. M. Al-Rudaini and Israa M.H. Almousawi

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The concentration of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in soil samples at AL-nahrawan bricks factory. The measured period was two seasons' summer and winter. The soil samples collected from surface and depth chosen site and analyzed by GC apparatus. The most abundant compounds in the summer season were naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, pyrene and benzo [a] anthracene, while in the winter were naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorine, benzo [k] fluoranthene, benzo [a] pyrene. The concentrations of 16 PAH in the summer were higher than in the winter season.

ESTIMATION OF ATPASE ACTIVITIES AND EXTRACELLULAR ION CONCENTRATIONS OF (NA+, K+, CL-AND CA+2) AFTER IRRADIATION OF BLOOD SAMPLES WITH LASER 532NM AND LASER 650NM

By Sadiq Hassan, Dakhel Ghani and Mustafa Muhamma

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The present study was conducted to explain how light energy of laser can be affected of ion pumps (ATPase) and concentrations of available ions across cellular membranes. A whole blood samples were collected and divided into three groups, the first group was remained without irradiation to serve as a control group and to perform comparisons between irradiated and non-irradiated samples, The second group was subdivided into two subgroups. The first subgroup was irradiated with laser 532nm, 4mw for 10 minutes and the second subgroup was irradiated with 650nm, 135mw for 10 minutes , there after these samples were used to determine the activities of ATPase and the obtained results showed a remarkable increase in the ATPase activities of irradiated blood samples when compared with non-irradiated blood samples .The results showed increased activities of ATPase in laser 650nm via increase concentrations of in organic phosphate (pi) resulted from hydrolysis of ATP to ADP. Three group of samples was also subdivided into two subgroups. The first subgroup was consequently irradiated with laser 532nm, 4mw for 5 and 10 minutes. The second subgroups was also consequently irradiated with laser 650nm, 4mw for 5 and 10 minutes. After irradiation, the samples were used to determine the common available ions (Na+, K+, Cl- and Ca+2). Results of Na+ showed a progressive decrease in both irradiated blood sample (532nm, 650nm) when compared with non-irradiated samples. On the other hand, results of the other ions (K+, Cl-, Ca+2) showed a remarkable increase in all irradiated of blood- samples in a comparison with control group. The low levels of Na+ were found to be associated inversely with increase wave length of laser especially at 650nm. On the other hand, the decrease in concentration of ion (Ca+, K+, Cl-) were directly proportional with wave length of laser beam. In conclusion, the data obtained from this study indicated that light energy can be exert photo-biostimulation, in particular, on ATPases enzymes and increases their activities through increase the final product of inorganic phosphate (pi). At the same time, the laser energy can be affect ion channels responsible for distribution of ions across cell membranes and enhances the movement of ions across cellular membranes too much when blood samples become irradiated with laser energy. The aim of this study involved to determine the effects of two types of laser (532nm and 650nm) with 4mw and 135mw on adenosine triphosphatase enzymes (ATPases) activities and then after estimation of some available ions to explain the effects of light energy on membrane potential (ion distributions).

SOME BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AGAINST XANTHOMONAS ORYZAE PV. ORYZAE CAUSE BACTERIAL LEAF BLIGHT OF RICE

By Sadam Hussain Bhutto, Javed Asghar Tarique, Jamal-U-Ddin Hajano, Rehana Naz Syed, Ghulam Hussain Jatoi, M. Ismail, Qurban Ali Rattar and Zeeshan Ghulam Nabi Gishkori

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

In current studies enzymes production and antibiotics sensitivity of some strains of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae tested in in-vitro conditions. Results of biochemical tests like catalase, amylase (starch hydrolysis) and growth on Yeast Dextrose Calcium Carbonate Agar (YDCA) varied among the isolates. The results regarding catalytic and amylase activity showed that out of 19 isolates, 18 isolates (95%) were Catalase positive and 1 isolate (5%) Catalase negative. 16 strains (84%) were amylase positive and 4 strains (21%) were amylase negative. SHB-5, SHB-12, SHB-116 showed maximum inhibition zone against streptomycin where as SHB-18, SHB-19 showed minimum inhibition.

CORRELATION BETWEEN BOD5 AND COD FOR AL- DIWANIYAH WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS TO OBTAIN THE BIODIGRABILITY INDICES

By Ahmed Makki Al-Sulaiman and Basim Hussein Khudair

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The present study aims to establish an empirical correlation between biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the sewage flowing in Al-Diwaniyah wastewater treatment plant. The strength of the wastewater entering the plant varied from medium to high. High concentrations of BOD5 and COD in the effluent were obtained due to the poor performance of the plant. This was observed from the BOD5 /COD ratios that did not confirm with the typical ratios for the treated sewage. Regression equations for BOD5 and COD removal percentages were suggested which can be used to evaluate rapid effluent assessment after the treatment processes or optimal process control to improve the performance of wastewater treatment plants. The average Biodegradability indices (B.I) of Al-Diwaniyah wastewater plants was found to be 0.69. The equations relating the percentage removal of BOD5(y) with influent BOD5(x), y= 0.044x + 80.66 and the percentage removal of COD (y) with influent COD (x), y= 0.045x + 55.15 were found with high correlation R2 =0.72 and 0.86 respectively.

PURIFICATION BY ION EXCHANGE CHROMATOGRAPHY AND ENZYME CHARACTERIZATION OF POTENTIAL DE-HAIRING ALKALINE PROTEASE FROM BACILLUS CEREUS LS2B

By Yendri Junaidi, Ambar Partiwiningrum, Yuny Erwanto, Jamhari1, Lies Mira Yusiati, Takashi Hayakawa, Tomoyuki Nakagawa, Nanung Agus Fitriyanto

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Objective: Effort to develop an environmental-friendly oriented method of animal leather tanning, especially dehairing process, becomes a concern of this research. The aim was to purify the alkaline protease from Bacillus cereus LS2B using a set of methods including ion exchange chromatography with DEAE Sepharose matrix. The enzyme was considered for having a significant potential in the de-hairing process in tanning industries. Method: The step of alkaline protease enzyme purifications including enzyme productions, ammonium precipitation, membrane dialysis and ion exchange chromatography was performed in this research. The total proteins and specific activity of every fractionation resulted from ion exchange chromatography were measured in this research. Identification of molecular weight by SDS-PAGE of each fraction and measurement of optimum pH and temperature of the purified enzyme was also described. Result: The data showed that there was difference enzyme activity in every fraction obtained from the chromatography indicated the position of the enzyme. Alkaline protease from Bacillus cereus LS2B purification using ion exchange chromatography with DEAE Sepharose matrix has resulted in 35 fractions, with each fraction containing about 1.5 ml enzyme. The research was performed with a flow rate of 1.5 ml min-1. Each enzyme fraction has different specific activity. The highest activity is shown at the 15th fraction that confirmed 64.4 U/mg. The balance condition between protein concentration and specific activity was observed at the 21st fraction (45.5 U/mg). The 21st fraction was become interesting due to the total of enzyme protein was almost same as the total enzyme activity. The correlation was considered becomes one of the indications of the effectiveness and efficiency of an enzyme purification. The result of SDS-PAGE determination showed that the 15th fraction has 3 bands of protein enzyme with a molecular weight of 72 kDa, 20 kDa, and 13 kDa. The 21st fraction has smaller protein bands, which are observed 20 kDa and 13 kDa. Conclusion: Each fraction has dominant pure protein molecule around 20 kDa. Moreover, it is assumed that the molecular weight of alkaline protease enzyme specific protein of Bacillus cereus LS2B is 20 kDa. Optimal temperature and pH of the purified enzyme were 40°C and pH 8, respectively.

A NEW COMPOSITE COATING FOR 316 L STAINLESS STEEL IMPLANT

By Ahmed Salah Hameed

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Stainless steel (SS) is a biomaterial used widely in dental and medical fields. It is a bio-tolerant material and more susceptible to infection and corrosion. To overcome these problems SS can be coated with hydroxyapatite crystals combined with titanium. Infection resistance can be imparted by incorporating antimicrobial agent such as silver. A composite coating HA-Ti with Ag at 13wt% was prepared for SS using pulse laser technique and compared with HA and HA-Ti coatings. The coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopyenergy dispersive spectroscopy. The antibacterial action was investigated against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in vitro. The corrosion behavior of the coatings was studied in Hank's balanced solution using computerized potentiated. The results revealed that the composite coating HA-Ti-Ag was uniform and thin (1.6 µm). This coating reduced the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and improved the corrosion resistance of SS. SS coated with (HA-Ti-Ag) coating can be used in dental and orthopedic surgery.

INDUCTION OF GENETIC VARIATION IN TWO VARIETIES OF WHEAT BY ELECTRIC AND HEAT SHOCK

By Laith M.J. Al-Shamma and Mohammed M. H.

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The aim was to study the effect of electric shock (ES) and heat shock (HS), yield, yield components for two varities of wheat (Triticum aestivun L.). Seeds of two varities were germinated to initial appearance the radical of 2-5 mm length, some of the seedling treatment for different periods with electric current (220 AC) used were ( 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mins.). While heat shock treatment for another seedling with heat shock at(35°C,40°C and 45° C) for one hour and then the seedling were transferred to the cold shock condition (7°C) for three hours. Factorial experiment was used (RCBD) with 3 replications for each treatment. Heat shock at 45 oC gave a significant increases in weight of (1000)grain was 37.4 (g), While heat shock at 40oC treatment gave highest grains number per spike was 83.1. The highest average spike number /m2 was 340.3, grain yield was 8.94 (ton.ha-1) when seeds treatment with electric shock for (5 mins.). An increase of the grain yield (37 %). Which the latter was no significant differences with heat shock at 40 oC. Baghdad 1 variety gave the spike have highest number of spikelet is19.5, quantity of grain in spike 73.5, grain yield 7.89 (ton.ha-1). While Babylon 113 variety superimposes in asspike number/m2 301.28. Significant differences also showed for the interactions between varieties and treatments in most of the studied traits, ( Baghdad 1 at Hs 40 oC) gave highestgrain number per spike 93.6, grain yield was 10.59 (ton.ha-1), whereas (Babylon 113 for Es 5 minutes) gave highest value of nd spike number /m2385.3.

PREVALENCE OF CHOLELITHIASIS IN IRAQI PATIENTS WITH HEPATITIS B INFECTION

By Ali Abdul Hussan, Athraa Zaidan Hassan, Luma Ghaeb Al- Saadi, Istabreq Muhammed Ali Salman

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Liver Cirrhosis is a strong and a common?known risk factor for Cholelithiasis. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of cholelithiasis in patients with hepatitis B virus infection and determine gall stone and their association with hepatitis B virus infection in Iraqi patients. Patients and Methods: study? involved 131 patients with chronic liver disease according to clinical, laboratory? and Ultrasonographic findings. in addition, 45-individual with no evidence with hepatitis B virus infection as control groups alkaline phosphatase (ALP), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) were analyzed. ELISA test used to detect hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and sonography? was done to determine presence or absence of gallstones. Results: The results showed that Hepatitis B (HBV) was present in 77.8% with a highly significant? difference (p<0.001) between patient groups when compared? to control groups. Also, increase in Alkaline phosphates in 31.2% with highly significant difference (p<0.001) between patient groups and control group. The prevalence of cholelithiasis was 79.4% as significantly higher (P<0.001) in the patients subjects as compared with control subject. In this study was observed that 33.3% of the patients infected with hepatitis B virus were show increase in alkaline phosphates. Statistically highly significant association was found between abnormal increase in alkaline phosphates and hepatitis B virus positive results (P<0.001). In study appeared that 82.4% of the patients infected with hepatitis B infection (84 of 102 cases) were positive for stone formation (cholelithiasis) as Highly significant association between HBV status and gallbladder stones (P<0.001). Conclusion: Cholelithiasis? tends to? occur more frequently? in patients with hepatitis B virus infection. There is a strong? association? between HBV infection and gallstones. So, HBV infection is definitely ?a risk factor? for gallstone disease.

SECURED SMART HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM BASED ON USER BEHAVIOUR USING INTERNET OF THINGS

By Kiruthiga N, Lokitha Karthi R, Ramya B

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The “Smart Home” can be defined as the idea of what a home could be that is not under the control of human beings over the electrical appliances all the time. In earlier days, home automation technology was considered to be extremely expensive but in the past few years the cost has been reduced and the demand has increased. The significant outcome is that there is danger in connecting anything to the internet, hence this results in lack of security in the automation system. Our approach is to meet the security issues in home automation by creating a smart home automation system where the data about the devices inside a home are collected and the collected data will be secured using privacy preserving algorithms that includes User behavior algorithm and blow fish algorithm. Therefore, the system can allow the appliances to get turned on or off automatically.

GENOTYPING OF VAGINOLYSIN GENE OF GARDNERELLA VAGINALIS ISOLATED FROM PRETERM LABOR PATIENTS IN HILLA CITY

By Ilham A. Bunyan, Lamees A. Abdul-Lateef, Azal Alaa Al-Rubaeaee

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The present study aims to detection Genotyping of vaginolysin gene for Gardnerella vaginalis which isolated from preterm labor patients by PCR-RFLP in Hilla cityIn this study, 150 clinical sample were collected from patients with preterm labor submitted to Al-Hilla Teaching Hospital and Babylon Maternity and pediatric hospital. After extraction of DNA from high vaginal swabs, the DNA was subjected to PCR- RFLP method for identification of G.vginalis. results show It was found only (20%) of bacteria was give positive result. However, vagainolysin were carried out using specific primer and the result shows that 12 samples were positive amplification 1551bp then products were digested with EcoR I the results showed that vagainolysin exhibited three fragment 1000, 717, 100 bp respectively, assertion that G.vaginalis have four Genotyping this improving that it is had more virulent .

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ZATARIA MULTIFLORA BOISS. ESSENTIAL OIL ENCAPSULATED IN NANOLIPOSOME IN BROTH MEDIA AND MINCED BEEF

By Kianoush Khosravi-Darani, Omid Zahed and Sheida Aarabi

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Natural herbal antioxidants as additives in food and biological systems are interesting but their application in food formulations is problematic due to low dispersion in aqueous phase and susceptibility to oxidation. Encapsulation is a solution to increase water solubility protection from environment as well as masking odor and taste of new additives. In this study, liposome-encapsulated Zataria multiflora boiss was produced by heating method and encapsulation efficiency was optimized. Then antioxidant activity of free and encapsulated essential oil was compared using radicals 2-'2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in minced beef. Results showed that the most important parameter affecting the microencapsulation efficiency is phosphatidylcholine. The most suitable encapsulation was achieved in condition includes phosphatidylcholine (2.5% w/w), ratio of essential oil to phosphatidylcholine (0.81% w/w), temperature (35°C) and time (42 min). In these conditions, the encapsulation efficiency reached to 54.4 %. Antioxidant activity of liposomal essential oil was significantly higher than free oil. The sensory evaluation of minced meat containing encapsulated essential oil was significantly higher than control (including free essential oil) (p?0.01) (p. Minced meat containing 0.05% and 0.1 % w/w encapsulated essential oils showed suitable overall acceptance.

SURFACE IMPROVEMENT AND MODIFICATION OF PDMS.SIO2/PES MEMBRANE FOR ETHANOL/WATER SEPARATION IN MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR

By Amirhossein Farahi, Ghasem D. Najafpour, Aliasghar Ghoreyshi

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

An ethanol selective composite membrane consists of dense and hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as active layer on polyethersulfone (PES) as support layer was successfully fabricated. In order to improve membrane's ethanol selectivity, SiO2 was coated on the surface of composite membrane. For SiO2 coating, the composite PDMS surface was modified by corona treatment at corona time of 6 min and corona input power of 360 W. As a result, the ethanol separation factor has significantly increased (from 6.9 to 10.5 for total flux of 510 g/m2.h). The ethanol separation factor using PDMS/PES modified surface membrane was improved by 52%. In the next step, the performance of the fabricated PDMS.SiO2/PES membrane was examined in membrane bioreactor (MBR). Based on obtained data, bioethanol concentration in conventional fermentation was 18.9 g/l while bioethanol concentration in broth of MBR and cold trap were 23.54 and 195.4 g/l, respectively. In addition, the cell concentration at conventional fermentation was 12.3 g/l. The cell concentration in MBR using the PDMS fabricated membrane has reached to 16.1 g/l. Therefore, the modified fabricated composite PDMS.SiO2/PES membrane was quite effective for ethanol separation. The fabricated composite PDMS membrane was much superior than the commercial PDMS membrane.

ANTAGONISTIC ACTIVITY OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES SYNTHESIS BY FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM AGAINST CANDIDA SPP.

By Ghufran Khalid Rahi and Hamzia Ali Ajah

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Background and Objective: Candida infections are one of the most commonly occurring fungal infections in human. Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are a new kind of material with several applications, such as antimicrobial against bacteria, fungi and viruses. The current education remained achieved to appraise the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Fusarium oxysporum against Candida spp. Methods: Ag-NPs synthesis from F.oxysporum extracellularly and characterized by UV-Visible spectral analysis, X-ray Diffraction Analysis (X-RD), Atomic force microscopy(AFM) and Fourier Transform Infrare Spectroscopy (FTIR),effect of Ag-NPs at concentrations (10, 25, 50,100µg/ml) against 7 isolates of Candida spp. by 2 way: agar plate well diffusion assay and Cell Proliferation Assay (MTT). Results: Ag-NPs shown extreme absorbance peak on 418nm in UV–Visible Spectral. Since the X-RD design showed the presence three peaks, Strong diffraction peaks were: 38.19 º (111), 48° (200) and 67° (220). The AgNPs surface morphology revealed from AFM images show, size diameter 73.73 nm, Roughness average (Ra) and Root mean square (Sq) of was 14.7 nm, 18.2 nm, respectively. The FTIR spectrum of biosynthesized Ag-NPs showed six distinct peaks, 3711.87, 1699.18, 1108.81, 834.71, 446.70 and 419.33 cm-1. And altogether Candida spp. isolates remained vulnerable towards Ag-NPs and inhibition rate increases with the increase of concentration. Conclusion: Biological synthesis of Ag-NPs using F.oxysporum have potent antimicrobial action in contradiction of Candida lambica, C.famata, C.glabrata, C.albicans, C.tropicalis, C.sphaerica and C.krusei.

AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON FRICTION STIR WELDED ALUMINUM ALLOY (AA6063-O) JOINTS USING VERTICAL MILLING MACHINE

By T. Pradeepkumar, V. Kalaiyarasan, P. Vijayakumar

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

In this work, an experimental investigation and analysis had been made to study the mechanical and micro-structure behaviors of single sided friction stir welded (FSW) aluminum alloy 6063-O joints. Friction stir welding was performed in vertical milling machine using cylindrical profiled AISI H13 Tool steel. The welding had been performed against four input process parameters including Tool Rotational Speed, Weld Traverse Speed, Tool Tilt Angle and Tool Pin Diameter. Taguchi L9 orthogonal array is the technique used to reduce the number of experimental runs to 9. Micro hardness was taken to measure the strength of the weld. The grey relational analysis was performed against micro-hardness to find out the influence of the process parameter. Microstructure was studied using the optical microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy separately. The microstructures were taken in both advancing and retreating sides of the weld. From the microstructure analysis, weld zones namely Heat Affected Zone and Thermo-Mechanically Affected Zone and Stir Zone were studied.

PATTERN CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUES FOR THE CLASSIFICATION OF CUTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

By S. Samundeswari1,2*, V. Ramalingam1, B. Latha2 and S. Palanivel1

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-lupus (SLE-Lupus) is the prototype of multiorgan autoimmune rheumatic disorders with life threatening systemic manifestations and there is no gold standard test for the diagnosis of SLE. Pattern classification techniques are used to classify the images of SLE and their performances are evaluated. A total of images of 400 patients (200 SLE and 200 normal) are collected from various hospitals available in Tamilnadu state of India, for this experimental study. Features are extracted from these images based on color histogram and texture. Two different classifiers are considered in this study, namely, multilayer perceptron and support vector machines. Experimental results show that the multilayer perceptron model provides higher accuracy of 86.25% than other model, support vector machine for SLE identification.

BIOREMEDIATION OF DIESEL BY SOIL FUNGI

By Jasim. H. Naama* and Noor A. Alhusainy

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The study attempts to bioremediation of diesel as petroleum contaminants using fungi isolated from soil of different sites in Baghdad . The three isolated fungi: Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida nonsorbophila and zygosaccharomyces bailii were identified by molecular classification (PCR) and selected for bioremediation experiments that were more predominant in the soil .The fungi tested to biodegradation of diesel in solid medium (PDA) , liquid medium (MSM) and in soil. Results of PDA experiments showed A. fumigatus was resistant to diesel fuel in 5% concentration, the colony diameter reached up to 7.1cm after 14 days. Lowest diameter 1.4 cm appeared in Z. bailii after 28 days.Regarding MSM experiment, A. fumigatus showed highest bioremediation 69.50% after 28 days in 10g/L diesel, while C. nonsorbophilii showed high biodegradation 69.0% after 28 days. To test the ability of mix fungi in MSM media, mix A. fumigatus with Z. bailii showed higher degradation 59.8% in 10g/L diesel after 28 days. While at used three fungi (A.fumigatus+ C.nonsorbophilii+ Z.bailii) showed less degradation 48.0% in 10g/L diesel after 28 days.Experiments of diesel biodegradation in soil after 60 days incubation, A. fumigatus recorded high percentage of remediation 97.70% ,while 97.20% recorded by C. nonsorbophilii. , and 94.80% by Z. bailii that was not different significance among them, but significantly higher than the minimum bioremediation of the three fungal mixture (90.70%).The study concluded that A. fumigatus could be used in bioremediation being better than the rest of the fungi on diesel pollutant biodegradation in solid, liquid and soil medium.Ability of mixed fungi to diesel biodegradation was less than using alone depended on competition and antagonisms between the fungi in the growth medium.

EFFECTIVENESS & ECONOMY OF SAWDUST WOOD ADSORBENTS IN REMOVING ANIONIC DYES OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

By Haider T. Naeema and Ali A. Hassan

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Adsorption of methyl orange (MO) from the aqueous solution on a low-cost adsorbent made of sawdust wood (SW) is studied experimentally. In the current research, a comparative study has been conducted between the natural sawdust wood (SW) and the activated sawdust wood (ASW). Conditions of experimental study were included the followings: 10 ppm of methyl-orang, pH=6 and a dosage in the range of 0.5 - 2 gm for different sizes of sawdust. During the study, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy-(FTIR) as well as (UV/V) is spectroscopy techniques were used. Results obtained indicate that the removal efficiency of methyl orange at 25 ± 3 C exceeded 38.7%. A good fit for equilibrium data was obtained as per Langmuir model (R2> 0.99). Maximum adsorption capacity of MO on ASW is 1.8 mg g-1. Results analysis of the activated sawdust waste show more a potential effectiveness as cheap adsorbent for the dyes removal from industrial wastewater.

OPTIMIZATION OF THE PROCESS CONSTRAINTS IN SPARK EROSION MACHINING OF ALUMINIUM ALLOY AA 6061 HYBRID COMPOSITES USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK

By C.Velmurugan, S. Thirugnanam, P. Maithili, R. Ranjithkumar

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The foremost objective of this research work is to implement Artificial Neural Network (ANN), to improve spark erosion machining performance of aluminum alloy AA 6061 hybrid composites by controlling the process constraints, which is suitable for bio medical applications. Aluminum composites are mostly used to replace the conventional materials attributable to their less weight, notable wear and corrosion resistances. These composites are used in automotive, aerospace, electronics and bio medical applications. Machining of aluminium composites using conventional machining technique is one of the major challenges because of the presence of hard particles in aluminium matrix. Unconventional machining techniques have been preferred for machining aluminium composites to enhance better surface quality. In the present study the composite specimen was processed through stir casting and machining was carried out using spark erosion machining, by varying four process constraints with the application of design of experiments. ANN trained with multi-layer feed forward through the error backpropagation training algorithm, was used to model the network and predict the material removal rate (MRR) of the composite. The outcomes exposed that the projected values found from the ANN model were in good agreement with the investigational values and to study the machining characteristics of composites, the model could be effectively applied.

STAINING OF LEISHMANIA DONOVANI PROMASTIGOTES BY NATURAL FLOWER DYES

By Sura Basil Kamal

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

There are many synthetic dyes used to stain leishmania parasite for the purpose of diagnosis and the most famous are geimsa stain and leishman stain. Due to the damage caused by the use of synthetic dyes, including large environmental pollution and harmful toxic side effects this study came for the purpose of obtaining alternative dyes for the staining of the parasite from natural sources available, cheap and easy to obtain. The water extract of kujarat flowers Hibiscus sabdariffa and the alcoholic extract of Damask rose Rosadamascena and China rose Hibiscus rosa sinensis were prepared and used in staining the Leishmania donovani promastigotes and compared with geimsa stain. The three natural flower extracts gave a good capability in staining the promastigote of Leishmania donovani.

SECURE DATA SHARING IN A CLOUD ENVIRONMENT BY USING BIOMETRIC LEAKAGERESILIENT AUTHENTICATED KEY EXCHANGE

By S. Balakrishnan, J. Janet, K.N. Sivabalan

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Cloud (Distributed) computing is an outline for giving handling organization through the web on intrigue and pay per utilize access to a pool of shared resources for be systems, stockpiling, servers, administrations and applications, without physically securing them. Authenticated key exchange (AKE) traditions (conventions) allow two social affairs passing on finished an inconsistent framework to develop an ordinary mystery key. They are among the most by and large used cryptographic traditions as a piece of training. Remembering the ultimate objective to oppose key-spillage assaults, a couple of spillage versatile AKE traditions have been proposed starting late in the limited spillage show. The spillage strong check (validation) and data (key) organization structure which can be seen as an obvious response for secure cloud (circulated) capacity. In this paper, we propose a Biometric Leakage-Resilient Authenticated Key Exchange (BLR-AKE) convention for giving secure information sharing. A promising approach to develop such a convention is to utilize a Biometric scheme as an authentication system. Cloud client need to do with Biometric framework is just to information his/her own thumb impression. In the event that it is right, the recouped information keys are naturally reserved into the memory amid the decided era. Furthermore, the client can transform this parameter at his/her will.

A CLUSTER BASED INTRUSION DETECTION TECHNIQUES FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

By A. Sunitha nandhini and T. Rajesh kumar

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

An inventive application for different condition in light of remote sensor systems is being produced in the business part. Discovering strings and blocking them without influencing the system is basic without expanding the overheads and vitality. In the proposed calculation called CTACK (Cluster trust based affirmation) for WSN depends on number of dynamic effective conveyances and Kalman Filter is utilized to anticipate the hub trust. In view of the trust estimation of whole course, affirmation is started on chosen bundles to diminish the control overhead. It is watched that bundle conveyance proportion enhances notwithstanding when vindictive hubs are distinguished and keep away from them in the course disclosure process.

EFFECT OF OZONATED WATER TREATMENT ON CLINICAL SIGNS, SURVIVAL RATE AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS IN COMMON CARP, CYPRINUS CARPIO L. INFECTED WITH SAPROLEGNIA SPP.

By Sabah M. Hamad and Sana'a A. Mustafa

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Present study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of Ozone and formaldehyde (as a reference treatment) on controlling Saprolegniasis in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Saprolegnia spp. were isolated on special culture media for fungi from 50 infected specimens of fishes were identified as Saprolegnia spp. Viable fungal suspension of Saprolegnia was determined and adjusted at a concentration of 2×104 zoospores l-1 . To control this fungus, a total of 120 common carp weighing 80±10g were randomly distributed into six replicated groups (10 fish/replicate) and were treated as follows; C-: control healthy without treatment; C+: control infected with Saprolegnia spp. without treatment; T1, T2 and T3: fish were infected with Saprolegnia spp. and treated with Ozone 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 mg/l per hour respectively; T4: fish were infected with Saprolegnia spp. and treated with formalin 0.15 ml/ l for 30 min for 3 successive days. Clinical signs and survival rate were studied. After 14 days of treatment with Ozone, samples were collected from fish for histopathological studies. Among the Ozone treatment 0.50 mg/l showed highest survival rate (90%), survival rate of the control group (without disinfectant) was 20%. Histopathological studies revealed significantly increased (p<0.05) percentage of gill epithelial proliferation and epithelial lifting, also fusion of the secondary lamellae, in fish from ozonated groups relative to C+ and C- groups. However, there were no significant differences in histopathology frequency/severity among the ozonated groups (T1, T2, T3 and T4). Skin of C+ group exhibited severe histopathological alterations including sloughing, erosion and ulcerative of epidermis penetrating up to dermal tissue. While Ozone treatment groups showed increase number of mucous cells and MNCs infiltration. Ozone appears to be a valuable disinfectant against Saprolegnia infection; at the dose of 0.50 mg/l. In conclusion, the results indicated the efficacy of Ozone as antifungal in controlling Saprolegnia infection. Thus, Ozone could be used as potential and promising alternatives to chemotherapeutics compounds in aquaculture, to achieve sustainable, economic, and safer fish production.

IDENTIFICATION OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR VARIATION INDUCED BY GAMMA IRRADIATION ON MUSA CV. PISANG TANDUK (AAB)

By Ferid Abdulhafiz Kemal, Fatimah Kayat and Suhana Zakaria

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The Banana and plantain improvement through conventional breeding method has been very slow mainly due to narrow genetic variability, sterility and polyploid nature of most banana cultivars. Thus, mutation breeding is a promising tool to create new cultivars for the improvement of banana. Therefore, gamma treated banana plantlets were subjected to acclimatization under nursery and several study was conducted. Morphological study on the growth of mutated plantlets showed that, 10 Gy induced a significant stimulation effect on root length, leaf length and leaf width compared to non-treated banana. In the meanwhile, 30 Gy treatment induced dwarf plant. IRAP molecular analysis revealed that, the total of 37 DNA bands position were detected, out of them 20 were polymorphic, producing 54% polymorphism. The highest IRAP bands were detected using primer Sukkula LTR with a maximum number of polymorphic bands, whereas primer LTR 6149, Sukkula LTR/LTR 6149, Sukkula LTR/3'LTR and Sukkula LTR/5'LTR1 yielded monomorphic bands. Hence, in overall application of 10 Gy of ? induced the significant higher phenotypic and genotypic variation. Therefore, the current research was conducted to study the effect of gamma radiation on the morphological and genetic variation in ? irradiated banana plant.

COMPARISON BETWEEN EFFECT OF GENERAL AND SPINAL ANESTHESIA ON APGAR SCORES IN THE NEONATES DELIVERED BY ELECTIVES CESAREAN SECTIONS

By Enas Ibrahim Mehdi, and Zinah Majid Mnati

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

Delivering of the pregnant woman by the caesarean section, become increasingly common, caesarean section deliveries account for (25 to 30) % (range 1.8-40.5 %) of deliveries nationally and internationally, despite that most patients undergoing cesarean section included healthy and young; who represent a more risk groups of patients. Selection of an appropriate anesthesia (either general anesthesia or regional which include spinal or epidural) for cesarean section has studied for a longtime and depend on several factors. This, study was conducted to comparing effect of both spinal and general anesthesia on the newborn fetus by caesarean section through monitoring of Apgar score of the newborn. A prospective randomized study, 60 pregnant women (36-40 weeks gestational age) planned for elective caesarean section were divided into two group as ( A&B) groups, (group A 30 cases) receiving general anesthesia, (group B 30 cases) receiving spinal anesthesia, after the delivery of fetus Apgar score was recorded at 1st, 5th and 10th minute, with proper resuscitation was done if needed. Apgar score was statistically higher scores at 1st, 5th minutes in general anesthesia compared to spinal anesthesia. Neonatal Apgar score of whose mother receiving spinal anesthesia was better than neonate, who mother receiving general anesthesia.

INDUCED RESISTANCE IN CUCUMBER AGAINST RHIZOCTONIA DAMPING-OFF DISEASE USING A BIOTIC AND BIOTIC AGENTS

By Aalaa K. Hassan, Hurria H. Al-Juboory and Neran S. Aljarah

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of three control agents, Preservepro,Biaclean , and Biohealth, separately or in combination, for inducing systemic resistance in cucumber plants against Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of root rot disease . It was found that the three agents induced significant reduction in pre and post emergence damping off and in disease severity compared with control. The applications of these agents in combination were found to be more efficient in reducing pre and post emergence damping off and in disease severity that attained to 0.00, 3.33, 1.33% and 3.33, 3.70, 4.00% and 3.33, 13.70, 13.33% with Preservepro + Biaclean, Preservepro + Biohealth, Biaclean +Biohealth respectively, compared with 3.33,13.70,14.67% and 6.67, 24.81, 25.33% and 13.33, 15.74, 24.0% with Preservepro, Biaclean, Biohealth respectively when applicated separately at 25 ml/pot (50mg/L), 2.5 g/Kg soil and 600 ml/Kg respectively and with 40.00, 39.50 and 72.00% in control. The reduction in disease incidence and severity was found associated with increases in root and foliage dry weights and in peroxides antioxidant enzyme in cucumber plants. These results may be promising in IPM program to manage root rot disease.

HISTOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF SPINAL CORD IN QUAIL COTURNIX COTURNIX (LINNAEUS, 1758)

By Asmaa Basheer Abed, Nahla A. Al-Bakri, Wijdan Basheer Abid, Mohammad Oda Selman

Vol-15 No-2

Abstract

The study is done in the period between (February 20 and October 20) by using ten adult quail Coturnix coturnix (Linnaeus, 1758). The sections are preparing by paraffin method then stain in Harris haematoxylin-eosin. The histological aspects of spinal cord in quail (Coturnix coturnix) the white matter is in the outer part, while the gray matter is arranged in from of X represents its internal part, the dorsal region is called the dorsal horns while the ventral region is called the ventral horns and the central canal cavity, the spinal cord areas appeared as follows: The medial column, column of von Lenhossek, lateral column, dorsal magnocellular column and marginal paragriseal, columns are also called Hoffmann’s nuclei.

SOFT COMPUTING BASED INDUSTRIAL PROCESS: A REVIEW

By A. Agalya1 and B. Nagaraj2

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

This paper presents the survey on Soft computing algorithms like genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, bacterial foraging optimization techniques, Ant colony optimization and firefly algorithm. This optimization technique handles the uncertainty present in the real-world problem appreciably hence presently much research is being done on various areas covered by soft computing algorithms. The primary aim is to provide background information, motivation for applications and an exposition to the methodologies involved in the development of soft computing technologies in engineering. This paper covers the survey on the work that has been done in the field of soft computing algorithms in various industrial processes.

THE ATTITUDE OF SECOND YEAR PHARMACY STUDENTS TOWARD LECTURES, EXAMS AND ELEARNING

By Ahmed T Alahmar

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Objective: There is an increasing trend toward student cantered interactive e-learning methods and students’ feedback is a valuable tool for improving learning methods. The aim of this study was to explore the attitude of second year pharmacy students at University of Babylon, Iraq toward lectures, exams and e-learning. Materials and methods: Ninety pharmacy students were surveyed by paper questionnaire about their preference for lecture format, use of e-files, theoretical lectures versus practical experiments, lecture and lab time. Students were also asked about their predilection for Moodle-based online exams, diverse types of exam questions, exam time and other extra academic activities. Results: Students prefer to read lectures on paper (73.3%), use of PowerPoint file (76.7%), short lectures of less than 10 pages (94.5%), practical experiments (66.7%), lectures and lab time of less than two hours (89.9% and 96.6 respectively) and intra-lecture discussions (68.9%). Students also like to have paper-based exam (73.3%), short essay (40%) or MCQ (34.4%) questions and prefer to do extra activities like reports (22.2%), seminars (18.6%) and posters (10.8%). Conclusion: Second year pharmacy students have different attitudes toward traditional and electronic leaning and assessment methods. Using multimedia, e-learning and Moodle are increasingly preferred methods among some students

SYNTHESIS, INVESTIGATION, CHROMATOGRAPHY, THERMAL-BEHAVIOR OF (FIVE, SEVEN)- MEMBERED RING WITH AZO AND ANIL COMPOUNDS

By Nagham Mahmood Aljamali

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

This practical studying includes formation of a new Nitrogen-Cyclic compounds (five and seven membered ring) by azotation reaction and condensation reaction, then cyclization with diamine compounds (phenylene diamine, phenyl hydrazine) by some conditions with catalyst to formation di nitrogen cycle compounds. The structure of all formatted compounds was characterized by using many techniques (FT, IR, 1H. NMR, Mass Spectra, Chromatography-Measurement, Thermal-Measurements)) then studying of physical and chemical characterization and other chemical studies.

MUCOXIN ENHANCED TRANSCRIPTION AND PROTEIN EXPRESSION OF P53 IN BREAST CANCER CELL LINE T47D

By Muhartono*, Ermin R**, Bayu PDJ*

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Mucoxin is a type of acetogenin isolated from Rollinia mucosa leaves which is known to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. However, the mechanism of mucoxin in regulating and eliminating cancer cells was not clear. This study investigated the mucoxin effect on the transcriptional-translational and posttranslational processes of p53 gene in breast cancer cells line T47D. Breast cancer cells line T47D was divided into three groups referred to hours of assays, namely hour 24th, 48th, 72nd, where each group was given mucoxin with six difference doses, namely 0.1 ng/mL, 0.5 ng/mL, 1 ng/mL, 5 ng/mL and 10 ng/mL with three replicates. Transcription of p53 gene was assayed by quantitative PCR (qPCR), whereas the expresssion of p53 protein assayed by immunocytochemistry. Mucoxin enhance p53 gene and protein in all treatment group. p53 gene transcription increased significantly in 48 h, while expression of p53 protein increased significantly in 72 h. Conclusion: Mucoxin increased transcription of p53 gene and expression of p53 protein on cell line T47D.

SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND STUDY BIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF SOME NEW AZETIDINONE DERIVATIVES FROM AZO- SULPHADIAZINE

By Radhiyah A. Khdur* and Ezzat H. Zimam**

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

This research Involved synthesis of some new azetidinone Derivatives from Azo Compound[4-Amino-3--((4methoxy-2-nitrophenyl)diazenyl)-N-(Pyrimidine-2-yl)benzen-esulfonamide](N1)by two routsone of them Conversion the free amino group in an azo comp. to Schiff base, then formation of azetidinone derivatives by keten-imine reaction or Staudingers Cyclo addition .The other rout is the cyclization by reaction of the free amino group with Chloro acetyl chloride and Et3N to give ?-Chloroacetamide derivative then reaction with hydrazine hydrate to produce the hydrazinyl acetamide derivative. Then conversion to Schiff base and finally formation azetidinone derivative. Most of these derivatives were confirmed by "FT-IR,1HNMR and 13CNMR" spectra and by Mass spectrum for two prepared derivatives. the prepared compounds are tested as anticancer and antimicrobial activity against of bacteria and fungi.

MONITORING, CONTROLLING AND PROTECTION OF CONVEYOR MECHANISM USING PLC

By A.Sathish Kumar1*, A.Ananthi christy1 , Arul Mecloy Lobo3, S.Rajasomashekar4

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Conveyor systems in thermal power stations cater the need of fuel flow from mines to thermal power stations for power generation. Conveyors are seen virtually in the coal handling plant (CHP) that are having number of conveyors. The conveyor system has many combinational conveyor sequences. The control systems used for these conveyors are important for the safe operation the plants. In order to ensure the safe belt conveyor operation a reliable, centralized monitoring and controlling is necessary. The conveyor scheme operational system has enormous control components to achieve a starting logic, stopping logic, tripping logic. The control components are mostly electromagnetic relays, timers and indicating lamps etc. Also the system has many other indicating, sensing components for its monitoring and protection purpose. The system has limitation for future modification due to the complexity of hard wired circuit. In order to overcome the above complexity problem and achieve better optimized result, PLC is proposed to control the conveyor system. PLC is automatic controller device which minimizes more number of requirements of electromagnetic relay, timers etc. and it can be programmed to accept the operational logic in a minimal time.

EFFECT OF DIODE LASER-ACTIVATED ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS (LAAAS) ON PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

By 1Suzan Saadi Hussian, 2Mahasin F. Hadi Al-Kadhemy, 3Saja Ali Ibrahim 4Nihad Khalawe Tektook

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Laser-activated antimicrobial agents (LAAAS) are drugs that have no antimicrobial activity in the dark but can be activated by laser of an appropriate wavelength. The effect of photosensitizers (silver nanoparticle, Methylene blue Dye) was studied by the presence and absence of laser on two types of gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria. The work was in several stages where the first stage was without the use of laser, which is divided in turn to the effect of dye only, the effect of nanoparticles only, the joint effect of dye and nanoparticles. The second phase was on the same format used previously but added to the effect of low power diode laser. Our results showed that the effective antibacterial of silver nanoparticle; (methylene blue) and combined between them were differenced, P. aeruginosa more sensitivity than Staphylococcus aureus, so AgNPs was more effective against gram positive bacteria than gram negative bacterial strain.

STUDY OF SOME LIVER FUNCTIONS PARAMETERS IN THALASSAEMIC PATIENTS IN AL-NAJAF PROVINCE

By Karrar Saleem Zayed

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

The current study was carried out in Al-Zahra Hospital in Al-Najaf province during the period from 2017/1/3 till 2017/9/15. The study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of major thalassemia disease on liver function criteria (ALT, AST, ALP and bilirubin) in a number of patients. Forty-eight major thalassaemic patients in both gender (24 males and 24 females) participated in the study, their ages ranged from (2-19) years divided into three groups (8/group) according to the ages (2-7, 8-13, 14-19) years. Also contribute thirty health individuals divided into 15 males and 15 females as a control subjects, their age ranged from (2-20) years. Results of this study revealed that the thalassaemia disease in patients with both gender and ages causes a significant elevation of ALT, AST, ALP and bilirubin levels. On the other hand, the results showed no apparent difference in these parameters when compared between males and females. So, the study was suggested that thalassaemia may be causes lesions in liver tissues indicated by elevation of serum liver function criteria levels.

MICROBIAL TEST OF FORMAZAN COMPOUNDS AGAINST TYPES OF BACTERIA

By Nagham Mahmood Aljamali* and Dhuha Rahi Kashash

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Formazane compounds have wide medical and pharmaceutical applications , for this reason the present paper to complete our work (first paper- in first reference) ,which involved studying of microbial behavior on types of bacteria and effect of formazan compounds ( carban ion - imine- azo ) against resistant of bacteria ,effect of compounds on DNA and wall of bacteria cell by using diameter of inhibition (mm) as parameter of compounds activity ,effect of types of substitution which linked with formazan compounds on bacteria.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE DISPARITIES OF NATIONALITY/ETHNICITY AND OTHER RISK FACTORS FROM ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS FOR PREVALENCE DIABETES TYPE 2 FOR PATIENTS FROM BAGHDAD PROVINCE

By Qater Al-Nada Ali Kanaem Al-Ibady

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

MThe present study was carried out to determine the ethnicity, age groups, and the gender as a risk factors to determination and prevalence type two diabetes mellitus by many methods such as biochemistry and hematological parameters such as measuring the levels of HDL and LDL in 85 patient (46 males and 39 females), whose injury with diabetic from type two, compared with 39 control (26 males and 13 females) . which for ages between 19 and ?61 years old, which injury with this disease. This study was performed during the period from beginning in November 1/11/2016 to January 30/1/2017 from Al-Kandy Hospital and Medicinal City Hospital. This study showed no found relationship between the diabetes and the genders. Also, this study recorded no significant correlation between the sex and infected with diabetes mellitus type two under the probability (P> 0.05). Also, the results showed significant differences (p<0.05) for the relationship between the age and diabetic patients, then the type 2 diabetes mellitus, mean was most prevalent in older adults, especially in the age groups (50-60) years old. In this study showed no found relationship between the diabetes and the ethnicity. Also, this study recorded no significant correlation between the nationality and infected with diabetes mellitus type two under the probability (P> 0.05). Whilst this study showed no found relationship between the diabetes and HDL Levels. Also, this study recorded no significant correlation between HDL Levels and infected with diabetes mellitus type two under the probability (P> 0.05). Finally, this study recorded no significant between the diabetes and the LDL Levels and infected with diabetes mellitus type two under the probability (P> 0.05). Also, this study recorded no significant correlation between the smoking and infected with diabetes mellitus type two under the probability (P> 0.05). While by reading the results, its clear that the proportion of nonsmokers were 60 (48.4%), but the ratio of smokers was 25(20.2%) from the total cases 85(68.5%). This study recorded high significant correlation between blood pressure and infected with diabetes mellitus type two under the probability (P> 0.0001). This table demonstrated the number and percentage of diabetic patients whose infected with hypertension were 47(37.9%), compared with noninfected, which were 38(30.6%). Also, this study recorded high significant correlation between body mass index and infected with diabetes mellitus type two. Therefore, the frequency of overweight category was 61(49.2%), compared with another category.

APPLICATION OF FIBER OPTIC FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY METHOD FOR DETECTION OF Fusarium verticillioides and Penicillium oxalicum ON MAIZE SEED

By Sri Endah Nurzannah*1, Bonny Poernomo Soekarno1, Efi Toding Tondok2, Akhiruddin Maddu3

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Maize as food crop provides high economic value in Indonesia and other countries. Maize production is still low caused plant diseases. Fusarium verticillioides and Penicillium oxalicum are two of fungi that infect maize in storage. One of potential technology can be developed as detection method is fiber optic fluorescence spectroscopy. The research aimed to develop an alternative detection method more rapid, accurate, and simple for seed-fungi based on secondary metabolites. This research covered the preparation of pure isolates of the fungal, calibration of fiber optic fluorescence spectroscopy, detection of fungal on maize seed, fungal secondary metabolite analysis by Py-GC-MS, and data analysis by Spectrasuite Ocean Optics. Fiber optic fluorescence spectroscopy was able to detect fluorescence emission of a metabolite fungal after maize seeds were incubated for 24 hours. Metabolite of F. verticillioides and P. oxalicum produces fluorescence at 505 nm and 552 nm.

VITRO STUDY OF THE ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF ALHAGI MAURORUM AND TAMARIX APHYLLA EXTRACTS AGAINST SOME PLANT PATHOGENIC FUNGI.

By Emad Abd Atia Alrabaea

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

The antifungal activity of Alhagi maurorum and Tamarix aphylla extracts was tested for inhibiting the growth of Fusarium oxysporum, causing tomato wilt disease, Pythium aphanedrmatuim, causing cucumber seedling damping off, and Alternaria solani causing early blight of tomato under in-vitro condition. The T. aphylla extracts of 40% had the highest effect against F. oxysporum, P. aphanedrmatuim and A. solani (47.19, 41.25 and 47.85% respectively), while A. maurorum extract had less effect against F. oxysporum, P. aphanedrmatuim and A. solani as compared to Tamarix aphylla extracts. The high antifungal activity of both plants extracts leads to the possibility of using the plant extract eco-friendly to avoid environmental pollution which is caused by fungicides.

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM THE RICE CROP IN LOWER SINDH

By Sadam Hussain Bhutto1, Javed Asghar Tariq2, Rehana Naz Syed1 and Ghulam Hussain Jatoi13

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Bacterial leaf Blight (BLB) considered as the most important disease among various potential diseases of rice in Pakistan. The first and most important step for its management is the characterization and identification of associated pathogen. For this purpose, survey of three districts were made to collect disease samples. BLB were found to prevail in all the served area with varying severity. Bacterial strains were isolated from these samples by direct plating method. Isolated culture was purified and characterized. Their colonies were found to be small, medium and large; their shape was irregular, circular and filamentous on Nutrient Agar (N.A) media. The elevation of bacterial colonies was found to be raised and convex and their edges were undulate and entire. The color of most of the colonies was pale yellow and yellow and some were found off white, reddish and creamy and surface of most of the colonies was smooth.

EFFECT OF SUPERCYREN PESTICIDE IN THE HEART AND EYE TISSUES OF MICE

By Sabah A. Hameid, A. Rahman and Jehan M. Rajab

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Organophosphorus insecticides constitute a large family of pesticides and they are used widely for controlling pests in the household, agricultural and urban environment, the present study aims to study effect of supercyren pesticide in the heart and eye tissues of mice . about Thirty albino male mice divided into three groups treated orally with supercyren pesticide in dose (ze, o,10, 20 mg /kg). After 30 days of the experiment the troponin protein was measured in blood samples of three groups for one month. For histological study samples of the heart , retina and cornea were collected and prepared with paraffin technique and stained with Hand E stain. The blood samples were negative for troponin protein in the control group and were positive at doses of (10mg and 20mg). The histological sections showed some changes in the heart and eyes with dose )10 and 20 mg/ kg (. The present study concluded harmful effects of various concentrations of supercyren in some body organs.

SYNTHESIS AND STUDYING OF LIQUID CRYSTALLINE APPLICATIONS OF NEW OXADIAZOLE COMPOUNDS VIA (POLARIZED OPTICAL AND DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY)

By Nagham Mahmood Aljamali*, Sajida Hadi Ridha and Noorhan Ali Hamza

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

In this paper, we completed via synthesis eight compounds as a liquid crystalline derivative which involved (imine group, amide or to amid group) in same compound which containing terminal group like (OR, NH2, COOH, OCH3) in their structures. Studying of terminal effect in their structures on liquid crystalline behavior. All reactions are followed by paper chromatography (TLC) and all the prepared crystalline have been characterized by using many techniques represented by (1H.NMR-spectra,13C.NMR- spectra, (C.H.N)- Micro elemental analysis, FT.IR- spectra), melting points and chemical-physical properties with studying of liquid crystalline applications by using polarized optical microscopy (POM) with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) which showed liquid crystal phase in their liquid crystalline.

TLR2 AND TLR4 AS A BIOMARKER OF BACTERIAL SEPSIS SYNDROME IN ADULT AND CHILDREN PATIENTS IN IRAQ

By Farah Q. Younis, Ali Hussein. Alwan, Neihaya H. Zaki

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate the using of Toll-like receptors (TLR2 and TLR4) gene expression as an early biomarkers for diagnosis of bacterial septic syndrome in children and elderly. The causative agents of infection were determined by blood culture. Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-?), Interleukin 10 (IL-10), and Soluble Human Leukocyte Antigen - antigen D Related (sHLA-DR) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and TLR2, TLR4 expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. We included 75 patients was diagnosed with sepsis syndrome.The age range of patients (13 days-92 years) with mean 56.3±13.9 and matched to 55 healthy volunteers. Depending on age, patients were divided into 4 age groups (group A <1 year, group B 113 year, group C 14-40 year and group D >40 year). The results indicated that the levels of TNF-?, IL-10 and sHLADR in all age groups were significantly increased (P<0.05) except the level of TNF-? in group B (P=0.123) compared with control groups. A positive correlation has observed between levels of TNF-? and sHLA-DR with patients age (P-value=0.044 and P-value= 0.00013),respectively. TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA expression was significantly increased in all age groups with significant difference between group A and groups D. TLR2 expression highly increased in G+ve infection, while TLR4 expressed highly in G-ve infection. We conclude that TLR2 and TLR4 expression in bacterial sepsis patients indicates the strong possibility of using them as biomarkers in the early diagnosis of bacterial sepsis syndrome, in children and elderly patients

EFFECT OF MEDIUM, TEMPERATURE AND pH, ON IN-VITRO GROWTH OF Botryodiplodia theobromae ISOLATED FROM GUAVA

By Adnan Baloch1+2, Shah Dad2, Rehmat Ali Baloch1, Ghulam Hussain Jatoi2+3, Muhammad Anwar1, Zaheer Uddin Babar Bhatti2

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Botryodiplodia theobromae is a major reason for bringing huge economic losses to the crop production in tropical and subtropical regions. In this study outcomes of media, temperature and pH were evaluated on mycelial colony growth of the fungus. Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) and Czepak Dox Agar (CDA) were suitable for the growth of fungus colony. The highest growth was seen on PDA. The fungus grew best at 25-30°C. The fastest growth was observed at 30°C. There was no growth at 10°C. pH 7 and 8 were the most optimum for the fungus growth whereas, the minimum growth was obtained at pH 4.

A LYTIC PODOPHAGE SPECIFIC TO FISH PATHOGENIC EDWARDSIELLA TARDA

By Parichat Phumkhachorn*, Pongsak Rattanachaikunsopon

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

A lytic bacteriophage specific to Edwardsiella tarda, a fish pathogen, was isolated from fish culturing pond water. The bacteriophage, designated P8, was highly specific to the species E. tarda. It was tolerant to high temperature up to 70°C and to pH from 4 to 11. As studied by transmission electron microscope, the bacteriophage was a short-tail bacteriophage. The genome of bacteriophage P8 was found to be double stranded DNA, indicated by its sensitivity to EcoRI. Based on its morphology and genome, bacteriophage P8 was classified as a podophage. Five major proteins of bacteriophage P8 (70, 45, 35, 37 and 23 kDa) were detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This study shows that bacteriophage P8 had specificity, host range and stability favoring its use as a therapeutic agent against E. tarda infection in aquaculture.

THE EFFECT OF WATER EXTRACT OF SOME PLANTS, GROWTH REGULATOR (DIMILLIN) AND METABOLIC PRODUCTS OF RHIZOPUS SP ON GRYLLODES AIGILLATUS

By Esraa fadel wathah and Rasha Muzahim Hatem

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

This research aimed to investigate the activity of the Ricius Communis, Dodonia sp. and Syzygium Aromaticum extract plants, growth regulator(Dimillin) and fungal suspension of Rhizopus sp. on both Nymph and adult stages of Gryllodes sigillatus insect. The excellence of Rhizopus sp. fungal suspension had been noticed in nymph stage destruction, in which it reached 96.82% in 100% concentration after 6days from the treatment, while the effect of Dimillin reached 90.22% in the same concentration. As for the extract plants the R. communis followed by Dodona sp. and Syzygium S. S. aromaticum were more effective in spraying than in feeding, in which they reached 87.22%, 75.12% and 69.13% successively through spraying, while they reached 64.2%, 53.4% and 48.1% successively respectively through feeding. In adult stages the mortality proportion of the fungus reached 81.14% in 100% concentration. The growth regulator hadn’t any mortality proportion in adults, in nymphs the R. communis plant is the most effective through spraying in which it reached 72.4% in 40% concentration after 6 days from the treatment.

MEDICAL IMAGE CLASSIFICATION FOR DISEASE DIAGNOSIS BY DBN METHODS

By Arunkumar, R and Nagaraj Balakrishnan

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

A radical deep learning-based feature extraction approach for disease diagnosis is discussed in this paper. This approach focusses on the development of automatic screening system which is capable of diagnosing diseases such as collateral disease, retinal disease, drain, heart diseases etc. Some of these diseases shares common characteristics, which makes their classification difficult. In an effort to subdue the aforementioned problem, DBN (Deep Belief network) in association with a multi class SVM classifier is utilized. The main contribution of this work is the reduction of complexity in the process of finding the significant features and thus reducing its dimensions to classify the nature of the disease. The paper depicts efficient feature extraction methods for diagnosis of retinal diseases.

STUDY THE EFFECT OF Citrus aurantium LEAVES WATER EXTRACT COPER NANO PARTICLES ON THE 3th, 4th LARVAE AND PUPA OF Culex pipiens

By Rasha Sattam Hameed, RajwaHasen Essa, Sundus Hameed Ahmed and Isam Hussain AlKarkhi*

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Our study is conducted to evaluate the effect of Citrus aurantium leaves coper nanoparticles. Characterization of coper nanoparticles was performed using UV, FTIR. The diameter of coper nanoparticles was distributed in the range of 2 to 12 nm. Using different concentration ?s of Citrus aurantium leaves extract, coper sulfate and nanoparticles (100, 200, 300ppm). The result of our study showed that the higher concentration 300ppm of nanoparticles gave a higher mortality percentage on 4th larvae 100% followed with 3th 89.3% and the pupa gave 83.3% respectively, thus introduced to use Citrus aurantium leaves coper nano particles as a Culex pipiens, management agent.

THE EFFECT OF ORGANIC MEDIUM USE IN FORMULATION OF TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM AND PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS IN VIABILITY AND DECOMPOSITION OF CACAO POD HUSKS WASTE

By Suherah1*, Tutik Kuswinanti1,2**, Ade Rosmana1,2, Burhanuddin Rasyid1,3

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Biomass waste can be processed into high nutritious organic fertilizer and improve soil structure. This study aims to assess viability of Trichoderma harzianum TH03 and Pleurotus ostreatus PO2 isolates that propagated in different growth mediums: rice, corn and sawdust medium, followed by formulation in powder form and stored in different packaging after 2-24 weeks of storage periods under room temperature. This study used Completely Randomized Design with two factors : mediums and packaging types with three replications. The highest viability was observed in T. harzianum TH03 derived from rice medium and P. ostreatus PO2 from corn medium. Aluminum foil and plastic bag provided highest viability on P. ostreatus PO2 and T. harzianum TH03. P. ostreatus PO2 and T. harzianum TH03 treatment was appropriate with mature compost criteria. The lowest C/N content was found in cacao pod husk waste treated with T. harzianum TH03 (4.85%) whereas the control (23.20%). The nutrient of the compost treated with P. ostreatus PO2 is higher than control.

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS WITH VERTICAL HANDOFF PREDICTION BASED ON USER BEHAVIOUR

By Sasikala, E., Radha R., Sharanya S. and M. Gayathri

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Wireless Data Network governed by radio waves deploys wireless medium for data communication. Mobility is the major challenge in integrating the wireless nodes. Handoff in mobile nodes demand uninterrupted data transmission while preserving the network integrity. Handoff process consumes lot of network resources, increases the network traffic and is also susceptible to data loss. Handoff prediction will foresee the handoff that is likely to occur in future so that the handover operations are done beforehand. This paper gives general overview of the vertical handoff prediction using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Association Rule Mining (ARM). The proposed methodology uses ANNs to determine whether a handoff is necessary with the current network parameters, which is confirmed by Apriori algorithm. A detailed comparison is given between the ANN-Apriori and Support Vector Machine (SVM)-Apriori hybridization. The results indicate that the former performs better than the latter in terms of accuracy in prediction handoff.

CYTOMEGALOVIRUS ANTIBODIES AMONG PREGNANTLADIESAT KAMAL ALSAMARRAI HOSPITAL IN BAGHDAD CITY/IRAQ

By Mastafa Heilo Jabber Al-musawi

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is asymptomatic, and the essential CMV disease during pregnancy is connected with various difficulties such as intrinsic contortions, intrauterine fetal demise and later squealsas visual deficiency and deafness. This study aims to investigate the Frequacy of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) among pregnant women in Kamal al-Samarrai Hospital between the period August and October 2015. The cross-sectional study was done in Kamal al-Samarrai Hospital; serum was taken from pregnant patients, who were examined for cytomegalovirus IgG and IgM antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent measure (ELISA).Age range of selected patients was between 20 and 40 years. A group of 132 pregnant patients was incorporated into this study, 29 of them with abortion history. The results show that Out of 132, 124(93.2%) were positive for IgG,8(6.0%) were negative, 7 (5.3%) were positive for both IgG and IgM and8 (6.0%) were negative for both antibodies. The present results concluded that The Frequency of CMV demonstrated high prevalence of IgG among the patients and low of IgM, thus, there is a necessity for voluntary screening to early detection of CMV infection to avoid the effects on the fetus and maternal health.

THE CYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF PURPLE NUTSEDGE (Cyperus rotundus L.) TUBER ESSENTIAL OIL ON THE HELA CERVICAL CANCER CELL LINE

By Susianti Susianti1, Yanwirasti Yanwirasti2, Eryati Darwin3, Jamsari Jamsari4

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Many problems in cancer therapy have prompted researchers to explore natural materials to discover new anticancer substances with higher efficacy and more minimal side effects. Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) is one of the potential medicinal plants being studied as an anticancer substance. A variety of studies have been conducted on the use of the purple nutsedge tuber as an anticancer substance, but not about the effects of its essential oils on cervical cancer. The method used in this research was a cytotoxic test on HeLa cervical cancer cells using an MTT assay. The cells were incubated with purple nutsedge essential oil in a 96-well plate with eight series of doses (3.9-500 ?g/ml), and each dose was performed three times. After the absorbance of the cells was measured using an ELISA reader, the percentage of cell viability was calculated for each dose, followed by the calculation of the inhibitory concentration 50% rate (IC50) using probit regression analysis. This research conclude that purple nutsedge essential oil IC50 on HeLa cells is 35.062 + 11.258?g/ml. This indicates that there is a cytotoxic effect of purple nutsedge essential oil on the HeLa cervical cancer cell line.

SMART REAL TIME RESCUE SYSTEM FOR FISHERMEN SMART REAL TIME RESCUE SYSTEM FOR FISHERMEN

By Nagaraj Balakrishnan, Reshmi S., Arunkumar, R. and M.S. Pradeepraj

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

In India, fishermen being caught and imprisoned or even killed is a common news that come across. Technology has developed so far and yet we fail to secure our borders and people. As a means of their livelihood they sail into the deep sea and most of them have conventional fishing boats with no modern technological provisions. The countrys sea borders are not recognizable for the common fishermen. This paper proposes an eminent alert system for fishermen as they cross the border and the location of the fishing boat is indicated using GPS. Additionally, an IoT gateway system is used to send information about a fisherman to coastal guard system on the seashore indicating that the fishing boat has crossed the maritime border using internet. Thus, costal guards in the seashore can assist and provide additional help to those fishermen from anywhere. Staying in the memory line of the lost lives of Indian fishermen, this device has been implemented to help others not to navigate beyond the maritime border. On the whole, it is a honest attempt to build a cost effective alert system for fishermen.

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MONOAMINE OXIDASE A (MAOA) GENE POLYMORPHISM AND VIOLENT BEHAVIOR

By Mohammed Abdullah Jebor Ahlam Gareeb

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Practical portrayal thinks about uncovered that transcriptional action of the human monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) quality is balanced by a polymorphic redundant arrangement situated in 1.2 kb upstream of the ATG codon. To research the conceivable impact of the allelic variations of the MAOA quality in the hereditary inclination to forceful conduct, a case-control affiliation investigation of 31 mental patients and 26 solid controls was directed. Factual examination demonstrated no noteworthy contrasts in allele or genotype frequencies amongst control and patient gatherings. These discoveries recommend that either high or low action alleles of the MAOA-uVNTR 30-bp polymorphism are not related with standoffish conduct in mental patients.

EFFECTS OF FEED SUPPLEMENTATION OF Nodulisporium sp. KT29 INDUCED BY Vibrio harveyi CELLS ON PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE OF PACIFIC WHITE SHRIMP Litopenaeus vannamei CULTURED UNDER MARINE CULTURE SYSTEM

By Teuku Reza Efianda1, Dinamella Wahjuningrum*2, Kustiariyah Tarman3,4, Munti Yuhana2, Irzal Effendi2,4, Fazril Saputra5

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

This current study aimed to investigate the effects of Vibrio harveyi induced Nodulisporium sp. KT29 administration on enhancement of bioactive compound concentration, surface of intestinal structure, and production performance of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) cultured in the sea. The post larvae (PL) 10 of L. vannamei was cultured at density of 1000 shrimp/m3 for 30 days in the sea. Completely randomized design was arranged, consisting of 3 treatments with three replications, i.e C (control 0 mL/kg), NP (Nodulisporium sp. KT29 without induction of V. harveyi 20 mL/kg), NK (Nodulisporium sp. KT29 with induction of killed Vibrio harveyi 20 mL/kg), NL (Nodulisporium sp. KT29 without induction of living V. harveyi 20 mL/kg). The results revealed that NK treatment showed the best effects on rising concentration of bioactive compounds, production performance, and improving the density of shrimp intestinal structure compared to control.

COMPARISON OF TWO WAYS OF THE METALS PROTECTION AGAINST CORROSION CAUSED BY OF DESULFOVIBRIO DESULFURICANS

By Karamysheva N.N.1, Semenov A.M.2*, Vasilyev D.A.1, Morozov A.V.1, Ignatov A.L.1

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

The introduction simultaneously with the technological water during oil production the suspension of specific phage which attacks on Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and carry out the lyses the bacteria, allows protecting the metal from biocorrosion instead of the use of traditional chemical protectors.

DEVELOPMENT OF DETECTION METHOD FOR SEED-BORNE PATHOGENIC FUNGI ON RICE SEED USING FIBER OPTIC FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY

By Giska Fauzia1, Bonny Poernomo Soekarno1, Titiek Siti Yuliani1, Akhiruddin Maddu2

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Aspergillus flavus, Bipolaris oryzae and Fusarium semitectum are fungi that infect rice crop both in field and storage. Seed health testing is conducted in order to prevent or to minimize risks caused by seed-borne pathogens. One of potential technology which can be developed as detection method is fiber optic fluorescence spectroscopy. The research aimed to develop an alternative detection method more rapid, accurate, and simple for seed-borne fungal pathogen based on secondary metabolites by using fiber optic spectroscopy fluorescence. This research covered: preparation of pure isolates of A. flavus, B. oryzae, and F. semitectum; calibration of fiber optic fluorescence spectroscopy and fungal secondary metabolite analysis by Py-GC-MS; and detection of A. flavus, B. oryzae and F. semitectum on rice seed. The data were analyzed by Spectrasuite Ocean Optic software. Fiber optic fluorescence spectroscopy was able to detect fluorescence emission of fungal metabolites after rice seed were incubated for 24 hours. Each fungus produced specific secondary metabolite when exposed to violet or ultraviolet light which has specific fluorescence emission. A. flavus produced aflatoxin B1 at 440 nm, B. oryzae produced ophiobolin A at 534 nm, and F.semitectum produced beauvericin at 510 nm.

USE NANOTECHNOLOGY IN CAPSULATION OMEGA-3 FATTY ACID TO IMPROVE ITS THERMAL STABILITY AND USE IT TO ENRICH PASTEURIZED MILK

By Emad Kais Slewa1 and Azhar J. AL – Mowsowy2

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

The study involved the encapsulation of Alpha-Linolenic Acid (ALA) to increasing its thermal stability and making it more resistant to oxidation and lipolysis and use it to enrich pasteurized milk. The Nano Capsules of AlphaLinolenic Acid (NC-ALA) were prepared using the emulsion-diffusion method, by adding acetone organic solvent containing Poly Lactic Acid (PLA) and ALA to the water phase containing the stabilizer Twain 20. NC-ALA was produced in irregular colloids shapes and nanoparticles ranging from 68.4 to 302.6 nanometers (nm) and the highest ratio was in the suspension at 143.9 nm and its zeta potential was -38.67 mV. Concentrates 5, 10 and 30 mg of NCALA and Non-Capsulated ALA (Non-C-ALA) were used to enrich 1 kg of raw milk to prepare pasteurized milk treatments M1, M2, M3, M4, M5 and M6. Mc treatments was left without addition. The results showed that the treatments supplemented with NC-ALA were less developed in the ratio of titration acidity and Peroxide Values (POV) from Non-C-ALA treatments. The PLA coat had a significant role in the protection of ALA against lipolysis by formation of a protective layer protects the ALA from the activity of lipases enzymes, and the addition of ALA to milk was determined the growth of microbial in it. The results of the sensory evaluation showed that M1 and M2 supplemented with 5 and 10 mg of NC-ALA respectively maintained their sensory characteristics during the storage period, with a total grade of 20 of 24 at the end of the storage period which was 7 days at temperature 6±1 ºC, indicating that the capsulated of ALA and its addition to pasteurized milk before the pasteurization process helped preserve it for a longer period without affecting in its various qualities.

MARASMIELLUS PALMIVORUS AS A NEW CAUSAL AGENT OF REED WILT DISEASE IN IRAQ

By Hassan A. Tamur1, Liqaa Y. Mohsin2, Jawad K. Abood Al-Janabi3 and Zahraa, A. N. Al-Yassiry4

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Background: Reed plants are widely distributed in Iraq and responsible to invade irrigation channels and drainage systems. Aim: The present study was designed to identify and characterize the causal agent of reed wilt disease. Methods: Disease symptoms, characteristics and growth pattern of causal agent were investigated. Results: Reed wilt disease has been observed during the survey which was held at the end of October 2016. The percent of natural infection of this disease was found in the range of 7-18%, the causal agent was identified as Marasmiellus palmivorus based on macro and microscopic characteristics. Microscopic observation of M. palmivorus revealed the engendered white cottony mycelia turned to creamy with clamp connection. Radial growth of this fungus was greatly varied according to the type of additives supplemented in the growth media and results were as following: M. oleifera (7.8 cm) > wheat (7.7cm) > Reed (7.4 cm) > millet (6.8 cm) > Caladium (6.7 cm) > PDA (5.86 cm) > onion (2.94 cm). Conclusion: The results of present study concluded that M. palmivorus was recorded as the causal agent of wilt disease on reed plant for the first time in Iraq and possibly for other countries as far as we know. Also, this fungus could be act as bio-herbicidal against reed plants, but more attention should be paid to this point.

STUDY THE VIRULENCE FACTORS AND PATTERNS OF ANTIBIOTICS RESISTANCE IN ACINETOBACTER BAUMANNII ISOLATED FROM HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS IN BAGHDAD CITY

By Nihad Khalawe Tektook

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic nosocomialamultidrug resistance( MDR) pathogen, so arising largely infections by this bacteria specially in immuno-compromised patients and ability to survive in hospital environments and it became important human pathogen so , virulence factor and antibiotic resistance are playing important role in infections but few studies in Iraq about this bacteria there for present study aimed to study the virulence factors among Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from Hospitalized patients among hospitals in Baghdad city and evaluate the antibiotics resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii isolate. Thirty-nine isolate of Acinetobacter baumannii were isolated during period March to October 2015 from various clinical source from laboratories of bacteriology in different hospitals of Baghdad city then diagnosis and identification by classical methods and vitek 2system, and study virulence factors as form Biofilm; Capsule formation; Pellicle assay; hemolysin production and various enzymes so evaluated the antimicrobial resistance for twelve different antibiotics. Acinetobacter baumannii was more isolated from Wound and Burn swab(38.5%) so (28.2%) isolated from both Urine and sputum , whilst (5.1%) form blood, and high percentage of Acinetobacter baumannii (43.5%) in age group(40-60) years, whilst only (2.5%) in age less than 20 years, as well as high percentage (59.4%) founded in males, Also biochemical test were positive for catalase and citrate, while negative for each of Oxidase, indole , Urease , Lactose fermentation , motility and hemolysin , also all isolate were positive for gelatinase and 21 isolate positive for Protease whilst 29 isolate positive for both Lipase and Capsule as well as 18 isolate positive for Lecithinase and 38, 33 isolate positive for heamolysin production and Pellicle assay respectively . so 32 of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were positive for biofilm formation, also current study appearance all Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were found resistant to ampicillin, Cefoxitin and tetracycline (100%), whilst low resistance to Imipenem and Piperacillin 58.9, 15.4% respectively. High percentage of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from burn swab, whilst low percentage from blood so high percentage isolated from age group (40-60) years and frommales patients more isolate compared to females .as well as Acinetobacter baumannii isolates have multiple virulence factors that apparent all Acinetobacter baumannii isolates have gelatinase activity whilst varied result other factors, and highest resistance of isolates to Ampicillin, Cefoxitin and Tetracycline.

THE RELATION BETWEEN HYPERTENSION AND ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME GENOTYPE IN IRAQI

By Israa Adnan Ibraheam*, Tsahel Hamed Al-dulaimi*, Sabreen Kamal Abd alameer*, Zainab Khudhur Ahmad Al-Mahdi**, Hawraa Wahab Aziz*, Amal Raqib Shimran*

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

The source of most common chronic condition attributed to high blood pressure or hypertension, which affect about 20%–30% of the adult males and female’s population. The present study is aimed to determine the association, of angiotensin converting enzyme genotype with Iraqis’ hypertensive patients. The study was carried out on 30 Iraqi patients having hypertension and 30 healthy subjects as control. Blood samples were collected from both patients and the healthy subjects, DNA from the patients and control specimens were isolated, Detecting of ACE insertion deletion genotype was done by polymerase chain reaction. The results show association between ACE genotype with hypertension DD genotype was increase in patients than control. The present study reported the relation between angiotensin converting enzyme genotype among Iraqis’ hypertensive patients.

STABILITY OF SARDINE (SARDINELLA SP.) OIL SOFT GEL THROUGH SALT SOLUTION AND CITRIC ACID DEGUMMING METHOD

By Sugeng Heri Suseno*, Dian PC Hulu, Stephanie Bija, Nadia Fitriana, Ernawati

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

The stability of sardine (Sardinella sp.) oil soft gel during storage was analyzed through salt and citric acid degumming process. Soft gel was capsulated with 0.05% mix tocopherol and stored for 16 days at 40°C according to schaal oven test method. The stability of soft gel during storage was determined by its FFA, PV, AV, Totox and clarity value. Sardine oil soft gel prepared through salt degumming treatment met the IFOS standard for FFA, PV, AV and Totox value up to 16th, 12nd, 14th and 10th day of storage respectively. Soft gel produced through citric acid degumming treatment reached the IFOS limit for FFA, PV, AV and Totox value in order on the 10th, 2nd, 2nd and 4th day of storage. Salt degumming treatment performed better results in maintaining fish oil soft gel stability compared to citric acid degumming. One-day storage using Schaal Oven Test method equals to 15 days storage at room temperature

FOREIGN GROWTH HORMONE GENE TRANSMISSION AND EXPRESSION IN F1 TRANSGENIC BETTA FISH (Betta imbellis)

By Eni Kusrini12, Alimuddin2*, Muhammad Zairin Jr2, Dinar Tri Soelistyowati2

Vol-15 No-1

Abstract

The economical value of betta fish (Betta imbellis) is mostly determined by its body color and size. The present study was conducted to evaluate PhGH transmission, mRNA expression level and production performance of the first generation of transgenic betta (F1). Three males and three females of transgenic F0 were mated with nontransgenic to produce F1 generation, and three pairs of non-transgenic betta as control were used. PhGH transgene transmissions were analyzed using PCR method, mRNA expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and production performance was evaluated based on the fertilization level, hatching level, body length and weight. The percentage of F1 transgenic fish carrying PhGH gene was 62.5±5.89%, and mRNA expression varied amongst F1 transgenic fish. Fertilization (FR: 91.7±7.5%) and hatching rates (HR: 91.3±9.4%) of transgenic fish were higher than those of non-transgenic (FR: 70.0±10.0%; HR: 70.8±4.5%). At five-months-old, the mean body weight of males and females of transgenic F1 were 1.47 and 1.76 times higher, whereas body length were 1.32 and 1.25 times higher than those of non-transgenic fish, respectively.