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EDITORIAL BOARD

2017

A REVIEW ON BIOTRANSFORMATIONAL STUDIES OF DANAZOL

By Azizuddin

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Biotransformation is the basis of life. Various chemical modifications are occurred by drugs in the body to give metabolites as new molecules having their own features, generally different from those of drug. Danazol (1) is used more effectively for the treatment of endometriosis and benign fibrocystic mastitis. As a result of biotransformation of danazol (1) variety of metabolites, 2-17 were identified by using different sources including a monkey, human (male and female) volunteers and horse, and fermentation with Cephalosporium aphidicola, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium lini, Fusarium solani, Gibberella fujikuorii and Bacillus cerus. This present review will discuss metabolites 2-17, obtained from danazol (1) up to 2012.

A SURVEY ON BORDER ALERT SYSTEMS FOR FISHERMEN

By Nagaraj Balakrishnan, Reshmi S., Arunkumar R. and M.S. Pradeepraj

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

This paper proposes a survey on the different border rescue systems using GPS for Fishermen. Fishermen bring a major portion of income to our economy. These poverty-stricken helpless people risk their lives and sail out into the sea for their livelihood. In India, there are many cases where fisher men from Tamilnadu lost their lives while they crossed the maritime border and sailed into the Sri Lankan premise unaware of the maritime border fact. This unawareness grabbed their lives and it also affected both the country's economic status. So an efficient border alert system for fishermen is necessary. So far, many border alert systems have been put forward. This paper aims to compare some of them and find the most efficient among them.

COMPARISON OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF FOUR HERBAL EXTRACTS AGAINST STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS, ISOLATED FROM DENTAL DISEASES IN VITRO

By 1Nebras N. Al- Dabbagh, 2 Ibtihal M. Abdul, 1Wissam Hamid Al- janabi. 1Esraa Abbas Obead

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

The present study aims to evaluation the antimicrobial effects of four herbal extracts in Streptococcus. mutants. These plants including Rhuscoriaria, Cinnamomum zelanicum, zingiber officinale, Camellia sinensis. Detection of antimicrobial activities of four methanolic herbal plants performed using agar diffusion method. After 24h of incubation the diameters of halos indicative of lack of growth in each well. The zone diameters around each disc were compared with chlorhexidine which is used as positive control. The study indicates methanolic concentration at (20%) have good potential activity on inhibition growth in Streptococcus mutants for C. zelanicum, Rcoriaria, Z. officinale, C. sinensis. (20.33, 17, 9.3, 8.2) respectively.

INVESTIGATION OF THE INHERITED MUTATIONS RELATED TO INVERSION PROCESS OF INTRON 22 IN A SAMPLE OF IRAQI PATIENTS WITH HEMOPHILIA A

By Ismail Hussein Aziz 1, Ali Habeeb AL-Musawi 2*

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Hemophilia (also Haemophilia) is an X- linked recessive bleeding disorder, it is caused due to the deficiency of the coagulation factor eight (FVIII) causing Hemophilia A, or coagulation factor nine (FIX) causing Hemophilia B. The first type (Hemophilia A) is more frequent than the second type (Hemophilia B), representing 80 % of the total of cases of hemophiliacs. About 45% of Hemophilia A caused by inversion in intron 22 of FVIII gene. Two-third of Hemophilia casesare due to inherited mutations, therefore, patients with a family history of this disease. The aim of this study was to detection of mutations of FVIII gene in 18 families ((18 Carriers (patients mother) and 18 patients) of hemophilia A patients. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing was performed for specific regions in intron 22 of the FVIII gene.

ASSESSMENT OF COMPOUNDED DOXORUBICIN IN CARDIAC TISSUE OF EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

By Dhifaf Zeki Aziz1 , Merza Hemza Homady1 , Hussein Abdul Kadim2 , Khalida K. Abbas Al-Kelaby3

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Doxorubicin is one of the most important anticancer agents, but its clinical uses are limited due to cardiotoxicity, the present study evaluated the effects of new derivatives of doxorubicin on cardiac tissue by the measurement of serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and CK-BM assays as biomarkers as well as heart tissue after 3 weeks of treatment in albino mice. The results indicated that TnI was significantly elevated (P? 0.05) in all studied groups when compared with the control, also serum CK-MB was significantly elevated (P? 0.05) in all studied groups except that treated with a new compound when compared with the control group. The histopathological study of heart tissue revealed that the treatment with this compound showed less changes in heart tissue.

EFFECT OF GROWTH REGULATORS AND SUCROSE ON THE INDUCTION AND PRODUCTION OF FLAVONOIDS IN CALLUS OF VITIS VINIFERA (L) IN VITRO

By Sarab A. Almukhtar

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

The study included the use of plant tissue culture technique in the induction of the callus of Vitis vinifera and to stimulate the production of flavonoids. The study was carried out in two stages after sterilization: The first stage was the establishment of callus by culturing a single-node on the MS medium which contained 2,4-D and IAA at different concentrations of 0, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5mg/l with a fixed concentration of 0.5mg/L of BA in independent experiments. The second stage was implemented by cultivating the callus that was induced in the first stage on the MS medium which was provided with different concentrations of sucrose of 30, 60, 90, 120g/l. Results of the study showed that the auxin 2,4-D achieved the highest wet and dry callus weight of 1817.20 and 94.38mg respectively, while the IAA achieved a wet and dry callus weight of 660.07 and 66.43mg respectively. The MS medium that was provided with 2.5mg/l auxin achieved the highest wet and dry callus weight of 977.77 and 122.35mg respectively. The 2,4-D at the concentration of 2mg/l gave significantly higher wet and dry callus weight of 2722.50 and 146.50mg respectively compared with other treatments.

INCIDENCE OF NEONATAL SEPSIS IN A SAMPLE OF IRAQI NEWBORNS

By Qasim S. Al-Mayah1 , Fatima Abood Chalob2 , Thanaa Ismaeel Jawad2

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Neonatal sepsis is a common cause of morbidity and mortality among newborns in developing countries. This study aimed to investigate the causative pathogens other than viruses and the predisposing factors for neonatal sepsis among Iraqi newborns. A total of 150 suspected neonates from three Hospitals in Baghdad/Iraq were enrolled in this study. According to time onset, sepsis was divided into early onset sepsis (EOS) and late onset sepsis (LOS). Blood samples were collected from each neonate, then bacterial and fungal detection were achieved through routine culturing, biochemical tests and API system. Anti-toxoplasma IgM and IgG antibodies were investigated by enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). The overall incidence of neonatal sepsis among suspected neonates was 54.67%. Preterm infants, low body weight (LBW), urinary tract infection of the mother and cesarean section delivery seemed to predispose to neonatal sepsis. Staphylococci were predominant in both EOS and LOS sepsis; however, large percentage of these bacteria were coagulase negative in LOS. Overall, gram positive bacteria were more frequent than gram positive bacteria. Fungi and Toxoplasma appeared to have less or no significant role in neonatal sepsis among Iraqi newborns. These data indicate the diversity of pathogenic bacteria associated with neonatal sepsis. Every effort should be considered for early detection of the pathogens to avoid the mortality.

EFFECT OF ZIZIPHUS SPINA CHRISTY EXTRACT IN BIOFILM FORMATION OF METHICILLIN RESISTANCE STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS HAEMOLYTICUS

By Alia Hussein Al-Mousawi and Siham Jasim Al-Kaabi

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

This research aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of hot an aqueous extract of leaves Ziziphus spina Christy (Sidr), against biofilm formation of clinical isolates Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Ten isolates were diagnosed initially as Staphylococci then selected four isolates depending on virulence and resistance to different types of antibiotics. After that VITEK-2compact system (ID and AST) was used to confirm the species of Staphylococci. The results showed that three isolates reverting to Staphylococcus aureus and one to Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Investigation of S. aureus and S. haemolyticus isolates ability to forming biofilm using of Microtiter plate (96 well) methods, the results indicated that all of the isolates were able to produce the biofilm. The effect of Moxifloxacin and Penicillin G with (MIC), (Sub-MIC) and (Sub-Sub-MIC) were detected for preventing of S.aureus and S.haemolyticus biofilm production, as well as hot an aqueous extract of leaves Ziziphus spina Christy (Sidr) with50 mg/ml tested against the biofilm formation, the results showed ability of tow antibiotics and plant extract to prevent biofilm formation.

SEROPREVALENCE OF ANTI-TOXPLASMA GONDII, ANTI-RUBELLA, ANTI-CYTOMEGALOVIRUS AND ANTI-HERPES SIMPLEX IGM ANTIBODIES IN PREGNANT WOMEN IN BAGHDAD

By Layla Fouad Ali, Saja Mohanned, Mays Talib

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Congenital anomalies can be caused by perinatal infections, for this reason early recognition of maternal infections are important for all clinicians. TORCH test (Anti-IgM for Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus and Herpes simplex) was done to 161 pregnant women in Baghdad to establish basic knowledge for future pregnancy care. Blood samples of pregnant women were subjected to TORCH Test. This study showed that the seropositive of pregnant women for anti-Toxo IgM is 30 (18.63%), the seropositive for anti-rubella is 11 (6.83%), for the anti-CMV is 21 (13.04%) and for anti-herpes is 15 (9.31%). A total number of Threat Abortion with infection is 93 (57.7%), Total number of Threat Abortion with infection is 23 (14.28%). This study revealed that TORCH infections may cause spontaneous abortion and T. gondii and CMV infection has greater rate in comparison to Herpes and Rubella virus.

MOLECULAR DETECTION OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE GENES OF ACENITOBACTER BUMANNII

By Mahdi Al-Ammar and Ali Salih Al Maghathry

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

This study aims to detection antibiotic resistance gene in Acenitobacter bumannii isolates collected from different diseases. It was included 276 specimens collected from different sources including patient suffer from burn, wound, upper respiratory tract inflammation, urinary tract inflammation, osteocytes, endocarditis and blood infection. 52 of these isolates belonged to italic pleas which have been identified through several laboratory tests including the morphology characterizes, biochemical, API 20 E and VITK -2 compact system technique. The distribution of isolates was burn (34.6 %), wound (28.8 %), urine (19.2), blood (9.6%), sputum (5.7%), plural fluid and CSF (1.9 %). The molecular study revealed that A. baumannii have the gene of ESBL, oxacillance and MBLs bla OXA like 51, bla OXA like 24, bla PER, bla TEM is (94%, 89%, 84%, 96%) respectively also the gene aadA and aadB is (76% and 84%) respectively fluroquinolone gyrA (66%) and finally all isolates have the gene bla TEM.

SURVIELLANCE OF APPLE CANKER AND IDENTIFICATION OF CANKER PATHOGEN IN APPLE ORCHARDS AT DISTRICT ZIARAT (BALOCISTAN)

By Faisal Adnan1 , Ahmed Khan2 , Umar Zaib1 , Nisar Ahmed3 , Abdul Salam1 and Ghulam Hussain Jatoi4,5

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Apple canker is one of the important diseases of apple orchards across apple growing region of Balochistan. For assessment of the existence, magnitude and extent of canker affected trees in district Ziarat, a surveillance study was conducted in active season during 2016 across district Ziarat. In this study, ten different locations were surveyed where 200 apple trees were randomly examined per location and the number of apple trees affected by canker were recorded. The selected locations were: Chowter, Manna, Kan, Kwas, Pachi, Sanjavi, Tanawani, Waam, Warchoom and Zandra, respectively. Thirty samples of cankered tree were collected for isolation and identification of the canker causing agent (Neonectria ditissima). The study revealed that among ten locations, three locations viz. Sanjavi, Kan and Waam, showed higher canker incidence where both Red delicious and Katja were severely affected by canker pathogen. In case of Sanjavi, both Red delicious and Katja varieties manifested 45% and 40% cankered trees but no canker symptoms were observed on Golden delicious followed by 48% cankered trees of Katja at Warchoom and 42% cankered trees of Red delicious at Waam. While Katja variety at Kan and Waam indicated 34.4% and 34% cankered trees. However, Chowter, Manna and Kwas were at low risk and less number of trees indicated canker symptoms. So, it is suggested that detailed research studies should be conducted to find out the economic losses caused by canker infection and to devise effective control strategies, in order to protect the apple orchards from further damage by canker.

EFFECT OF SELENIUM AND CADMIUM IN CHLOROPHYLLS AND CAROTENOID CONTENT OF PHASEOLUS AUREUS ROXB

By US ROXB R

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

In greenhouse, seeds of Phaseolus aureus Roxb. local class are germinated in pots. The seeds treated with different concentrations of Cd (0.0, 0.01 and 0.05M, as CdCl2), a unique concentration of Se (0.05 ?M, as Na2SeO3) and as a combination with Cd, in addition to a control (distilled H2O). In P. aureus, there was significant decreasing in all chlorophylls content. Generally, treatment with Se enhanced the content of chlorophyll which increased significantly in comparison with the control (dH2O). The combination of Se + Cd, 0.05M caused increasing in chlorophyll b and carotenoid significantly comparing with Cd alone at 0.05M. These results indicate the antagonistic effect between Se and Cd on chlorophyll and carotenoid contents.

MICROPROPAGATION OF BANANA CULTIVAR BASRAI UNDER DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF N6-BENZYLAMINOPURIN FOR SHOOT AND INDOLE-3-BUTYRIC ACID FOR ROOT INDUCTION

By 1Parvez Hussain Dahari, 2Ghulam Shah Nizamani, 1Muharam Ali, 2Abdullah Khatri, 3Muhammad Rashid Nizamani, 2Shafquat Yasmeen and 1Shah Nawaz Mari

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

The present study was carried out to check different concentrations of N6-benzylaminopurin (BAP) on multiplication of shoots and along with different concentrations of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for root induction in banana variety Basrai. Data recorded for various parameters were subjected to completely randomized design. The suckers were taken as explants source and cultured on (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) medium with various concentrations (0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mg l-1 ) of BAP for shoot induction and MS medium under the concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg l-1 ) of IBA were used for root induction. After four weeks of culturing, the external leaf primordia of explants turned green which were initially creamy white and from these balls approximating structure, adventitious plantlets were developed. The results indicated that highest shoot length 4.15, 5.23 and 8.59 and more multiplication of shoots was achieved 3.25, 4.39 and 6.29 explants-1 under the concentrations of 2.0 mg l-1 BAP at 20, 40 and 60 days after inoculation. The highest number of leaves 2.49, 3.16 and 4.10 explants-1 observed under the concentrations of 3.0 mg l -1 BAP at 20, 40 and 60 DAI, respectively. For root induction MS media under various concentrations of IBA indicated that the more numbers of roots were recorded (1.25 and 2.61) under the concentration of 1.50 mg l-1 IBA at 20 and 40 days, while 3.67 numbers of roots was achieved at 60 days with concentration of 1.0 mg l-1 IBA. The maximum root length (1.38, 1.92 and 2.72 cm) was observed at 20, 40 and 60 DAI under the concentration of 1.50 mg l-1 IBA at 20, 40 and 60 DAI, respectively.

STUDY OF SOME ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ROLE IN HEMOLYSIN GENE EXPRESSION IN SERRATIA MARCESCENS LOCAL ISOLATES

By Maarib Naziyah Rasheed, Siham Hamel Mohaisen

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

This study aims to selection of highest production of hemolysin isolates and studying the role of some environmental factors in hemolysin gene expression, Serratia marcescens (28 isolates), were isolated from clinical and environmental sources in Baghdad city, which produced hemolysin it was indicated by clear zone around colonies grown on blood agar plates. Four isolates which gave highest absorbability at 405 nm for hemolysin producing isolate (1.09A) in standardized conditions(pH 7,37 C, 24 hours), while highest absorbability for hemolysin producing isolate which gave (0.95A) in conditions pH 4, (0.47A) in pH 10, (1.85A) in 30 C, (0.68A) in 45 C, (1.92A) in 48 hours and (1.04A) in 72 hours. the results found that the highest values of gene expression fold for the gene shlA in pH 4 (2.30) and pH 10 (0.51) while the highest values of fold for shlA gene at 30 C was (6.93) and at 45 C was (0.65) and the highest value of fold for shlA gene at 48 hours was (7.32) and at 72 hours was (2.64). It was apparent there was a direct proportion between absorbability for hemolysin values and folds of gene expression, therefore the change conditions growth of bacteria S. marcescens leads to change of gene expression. 16S rRNA gene expression results, which was used as reference gene, confirmed that this gene was well suited as housekeeping gene.

FRAGMENTATION OF GALLBLADDER STONES USING TRANSFORMER STREPTOCOCCUS SALIVARIUS AND MEASURING OF RNA EXPRESSION TO CHOLESTEROL LOWERING GENES

By Atheer Ahmed Majeed

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Recently, gallbladder stones have been contained bile salt saturated a proximal 70 % cholesterol. This led us to investigate how can use transformer Streptococcus salivarius with plasmid pMG36bsh to fragment cholesterol of gallstones in vitro. Total mRNA of S. salivarius was produced using easy-spinTM, total RNA extraction kit and PCR cDNA-RT to observe the change after percent pMG36bsh vector and prepare S. salivarius have two copies from bsh genes (cgh, bsh) to fragment gallstone in bacterial culture. Our data shows increase bacterial bsh expression help to reduce gallstones concentration in culture when bile salt presented as stimulating agent for the association bsh genes were 77% compare with wild type has the reducing concentration ratio was 66%.

GENETIC DIVERSITY ESTIMATION USING SSR MARKERS AND SOME YIELD COMPONENTS IN SEVEN FORAGE SORGHUM (SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.) MOENCH)

By Mohammed Hamdan Edan Al-Issawi

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a very important fodder crop, therefore the improvement of this crop productivity is required. This study investigated the genetic variability among seven forage sorghum progenies in an experiment that was laid out as CRD in the greenhouse. The genetic diversity was assessed by using SSRs technique as well as some agronomical traits. The results showed that a number of grains per head can be used as an indicator of selection in breeding programs of this crop. However, SSRs result showed that there is variability among progenies under study and showed that the progeny 5 and 6 can be used in breeding programs, as they were very divergent. It can be concluded that there are variability of those progenies and can be utilized in further studies. It can be also recommended using large number of progenies as well as using more DNA-based markers.

FLEXIBLE 2- TREE FUZZY C MEANS BASED IMAGE SEGMENTATION

By Nagaraj Balakrishnan, MithyaVaratharaj, Arunkumar.R

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

This paper presents an unsupervised optimized method for image segmentation. Generally, a FCM or FCM based image segmentation process is accomplished under the supervision of clustering algorithms. But these algorithms possess the demerit of depending upon supervised user inputs such as number of clusters, iteration required etc. The proposed method improves the Double Cluster Tree Structure (DCTS), which is an unsupervised preliminary process, by managing its boundary structure process before each iteration of FCM clustering. The combined structure of these two algorithms forms Flexible 2-tree Fuzzy C Means (F2TFCM). Unsupervised analysis as well as segmentation of the whole image dataset is attained with the aid of F2TFCM. Substantial improvement in segmentation performance is exhibited by this algorithm.

THE EFFECT OF ORGANIC MANURE, FOLIAR SPRAYING WITH BORON ON GROWTH, YIELD, QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF ACTIVE INGREDIENTS OF ANISE PALNT (PIMPINELLA ANISUM)

By Usama H. Mheidi, Imad M. Ali1* and Adil H. Abdulkafoor 1**

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Anise (Pimpinella anisum L) is one of the most popular medicinal plants that are used by 80% of the world population due to its therapeutic effects. Anise has many therapeutic benefits because it contains Anthole and other compounds. Thus, the importance of this study is to determine the effect of organic fertilization and foliar application of boron on the growth, yield, and quantity of the active ingredient of anise. This study was conducted during the winter season of 2014 in one of the private fields in the region of Yusufiya, Baghdad province to investigate the effect of organic fertilizer (0, 2.5 and 5ton ha -1 ) and foliar application of boron (0, 0.75 and 1.50kg ha-1 ) and their interaction. The result of this study showed increasing in the height and branching of the plant with the increase of organic fertilizer. Organic manure (5ton ha-1 ) showed the highest production of inflorescence number, fruit- setting and total seed per plant. A similar result has been demonstrated by boron foliar application (150kg ha-1 ). Organic fertilizer treatment (5ton ha-1 ) was given highest oil content of seed and degree of refraction while the boron (150kg ha-1 ) given highest oil content but the refraction was not significant with comparing with the control (0 kg ha-1 ). HPLC result demonstrated around 20-25 volatile oils. Anethole compound was the highest concentration with Organic manure (5ton ha-1) + boron foliar (150kg ha-1) treatment in comparison with other treatments.

IN VIVO THE DIRECT GENE INJECTION OF HEMATOPIOTIC STEM CELLS TRANSFORMATION USED AS GENE THERAPY

By Mona Al-Terehi, Ali H. Al-Saadi, Abbas N. Al-Sherefi, Haider K. Zaidan

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

The present study aims to estimation the efficiency of direct injection method to transform hematopoietic stem cell in vivo using rabbit animal lab (New Zealand White rabbits) as a model, a direct injected green fluorescence protein gene with polyethylene imine and glucose 5% in bone marrow used for cells transform under full anesthesia in femur bone morrow.

MOLECULAR AND BACTERIOLOGICAL DETECTION FOR BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM ENDODONTIC TREATMENT

By Rasha Jasim Alwarid

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Endodontic disease is the result of both the response of the host and the pathogenic effects of the microbes. Microorganisms can r caused primary infections that settle in the necrotic pulp tissue. It can be regarded as the initial or wild infection and are causing of primary apical periodontitis. Infected root canal system is a unique niche for the selective species of microorganisms. Certain isolated bacteria from clinical sample are difficult in growth supplies, it may give flexible effects with obtainable biochemical test, so it is not all the time detected or might be misidentified during the detection. Thet16S rRNA gene has delivered an original instrument for approximating bacterial phylogeny. The study population contained of sixty-two patients, ages ranged from twenty-one to fifty-five years awarding at the endodontic unit in the Dentistry College of the University of Babylon. Eleven isolates (17.7%) of P. gingivalis were reported as positive by 16S rRNA gene whereas only seven isolates (12.9 %) reported positive results by traditional culture and biochemical test. All isolates seem positive results for several virulence factors.

ESTIMATION OF FAS LIGAND PROTEIN (FASL) IN PATIENTS WITH VARICELLA ZOSTER VIRUS IN HILLA/IRAQ

By Nisreen kaddim Radi

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Twenty-eight serum samples were collated from patients with Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection who visited Marjan Hospital, Hilla, Iraq. Control groups represented by healthy individuals (22 people). The results of indirect immunofluorescence test to detect the presence of antibodies IgG and IgM in serum of patient show that 99% of the specimens gave positive reaction. The evaluation of fas ligand protein level in the serum showed highest concentration level with Mean S.E 84.50 4.32pg/ml, while the level of protein in the control group revealed lower concentration 57.43 1.63 pg/ml.

CLONING LasB GENE OF Pseudomonas aeruginosa EIASTASE 10104-2AI IN E. Coli BL21 AND E. Coli DH5 Alpha AND INVESTIGATED THEIR EFFECT ON THE STRIPPING OF VERO CELLS

By Bahaa Abdullah Laftaah Al-Rubii

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a causative agent of various infectious diseases throughout the world. Our study aimed to determine and amplify LasB gene that encode to Metalloprotease (elastase) virulent factor by PCR and cloning into pGEX KG plasmid then expression in E. coli, also aimed to investigate the effect of P. aeruginosa supernatant that contains crude elastase on monolayer Vero cell line. This bacterium is capable of secreting Metalloprotease (elastase) with specific activity 191 unit /mg and decreased to 78 unit / mg after adding casein as an alternative to trypton as nitrogen source in liquid production broth. The recombinant competent E. coli BL21 which contains pGEX KG-LasB was none inducible by IPTG and failed to express elastase. Also, taking into consideration all the steps that would make the success of the expression like changing the expression vector.

COMPARISON OF SUPERANTIGENIC TOXINS GENES BETWEEN MRSA AND MSSA ISOLATED FROM CLINICAL SPECIMENS IN IRAQ

By Qasim Obaid Bdaiwi1 , Sanaa Noori Hussein 2

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

One hundred fifteen isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were collected from different hospitals in Iraq. For preliminary design isolation of S. aureus culture media was used, and depending on features on cultures, Biochemical tests and (Vitek2 system). Different methods for screening to methicillin resistance S. aureus were used phenotypic method, disc diffusion method, the results showed that a 30/115(26.1%) of MRSA isolates, 79/115(68.7%) MSSA and 6/115(5.2%) intermediate resistance to cefoxitin, in genotypic methods PCR were used to detect housekeeping gene femA responsible to confirm species and mobile genetic element mecA inorder to confirm resistance of isolates to methicillin. The results revealed that all S. aureus isolates 100% contained femA gene while 61% isolates contained mecA gene (MRSA) and 39% isolates devoid mecA gene (MSSA). The most prevalence gene was sea 28.12% gene; seg 15.62%)gene; sei 10.93% gene; tst1 3.12% gene; seb, seh and selp 1.56% genes. Results showed a higher prevalence of the sea gene in MSSA isolates 32% compared with MRSA isolates 25.64%, seg gene in MRSA isolates17.94% compared with MSSA isolates 12%, sei gene in MSSA isolates12% compared with MRSA isolates 10.25%, tst1 gene in MRSA isolates 5.12% compared with MSSA isolates 0%, seh gene in MRSA isolates2.56% compared with MSSA isolates 0%, selp gene in MRSA isolates 2.56% compared with MSSA isolates 0% while seb gene in MSSA isolates 4% compared with MRSA isolates 0%. Higher prevalence of Superantigenic toxin genes in MRSA isolates 64.1% compared with MSSA isolates 60%. Superantigenic genes distributed in various clinical samples was: 22% in wound, 11% in burn, 7.8% in nasal, 6.3% in tonsil, 4.7% in urine, 4.7% in boils, 3.1% in ear, 1.6% for each of eye and pimples. The most common genotype S. aureus was sea 54.83% followed by ( seg, sei ) 16.12%, seg 9.67% and (seg, sei, tsst1), (sea, seg, sei), seb, selp, seh, tst1 3.22%.

INEXPENSIVE AND RELIABLE RAPID MANUAL PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING GENOMIC DNA FROM FROZEN BLOOD SAMPLES

By Rabab Omran1 and Ilham N.A. AL-Fatlawi2

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Objective: There are numerous procedures accessible to extract nucleic acid from many cellular sources such as whole blood samples and choosing an appropriate protocol still require consideration of numerous different factors, and perform more researches. The aim of this paper was improved special protocol for DNA extraction from frozen blood samples which is fast, inexpensive and reliable for downstream molecular applications. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 25 persons (from Hilah City-Iraq) for extracting genomic DNA using manual method (by using 500L blood sample volume) and Geneaid purification kit as a control by using 200L blood sample volume. The concentrations and purity of DNA extracts were estimated by NanoDrop spectrophotometer. The presence of enzyme inhibitors in the two extracts was tested via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by detection of the SOD2 gene. Results: The DNA extracts from frozen blood samples using a manual procedure had acceptable concentration and purity were 63.0824.28 ng/L and 1.390.16, respectively and the final volume of DNA extract about 300 L, compared to control method (Geneaid purification kit) (86.9132.97 ng/l, 1.740.13, and 100 L respectively). The DNA extracts were free enzyme inhibitors, which confirmed by PCR. Conclusion: Based on the experimental results the manual method could be recommended as a rapid and inexpensive Lab procedure for DNA extraction from either fresh or frozen blood samples.

ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF SILYMARIN IN INFECTED RATS AND EVALUATION OF SERUM IL-8

By Oruba K. Al-Bermani* , Sama J.Al-Zuwaini* , Nisreen Kaddim radi* and Wurood Alwan Kaddim*

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Silymarin extracted from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) was used for many deceases to cure acute and chronic liver infection in human that caused by viral infection, exposure to poisons and alcohols. Eighty-six white rats (albino) were used that were divided into two groups. First group had been treated with standard anti-inflammatory drugs and with different doses of Silymarin 125, 250, 500mg/kg. After 30 min, the experimental inflammation was induced by inoculation of egg albumin in paw of rats then the thickness of edema was measured after 1hr, 2hr and 3hr. The second group contains thirty rats to study the effective dose of silymarin 250 mg/kg in two models of administration. First model: rats were injected with silymarin in a pre-infection mode (as a prtectant). The second model: Silymarin was injected in a post infection mode as treatment. The two groups of rats were killed, and their serum was collected for IL-8 evaluation by ELISA. The result showed that the activity of silymarin against inflammation depended on the dose in comparison with standard compound (acetyalsalicylic acid, dexamethasone, meloxicam) and this activity was increased with dose quantity until 250mg/kg. The ELISA test showed that there is a significant difference between pre- and post-infection with the control group (p<0.05).

MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF FUNGI ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS WHICH PRODUCING TOXIN (AFB1) IN IRAQ

By Muna A. Alrawi and Halima Z. Hussein

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Mycotoxins are fungal toxic metabolites which naturally contaminate food and feed. Aflatoxins, when ingested, inhaled or adsorbed through the skin, have carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, teratogenic and mutagenic effects in human and animals. Genetically, Aspergillus was one of the best studied fungi and the complete genome sequence of A. flavus in addition to several strains of A. flavus group strains are available now at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) (Rodrigues et al., 2007). Phylogenetic analysis of ITS region seems to be a useful tool to provide taxonomical information about ecological genotypes. In this study, the results showed the DNA chain reaction using primers ITS1-ITS4 located within the ribosomal gene 18S rRNA and a clear band resulting from the process of doubled. It has been used BLAST tool to find parallelism and compared nucleotide sequence for ITS region in ribosomal gene S18 with nucleotide sequence data base the other strain in the National Centre for Biotechnology Information NCBI and Gene Bank results showed 98% ratio match for isolate.

DOSE AND TIME DEPENDENT EFFECTS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES (AGNPS) ON OVARIAN HISTOLOGY AND SERUM LEVELS OF SEX HORMONES IN FEMALE RATS

By Noori M. Luaibi and Hiba A. Qassim

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Background; Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the most commonly nanoparticles used in various areas of research, because of their characteristic physical properties as; optical, magnetic, mechanical properties, catalytic performance as well as the antimicrobial effects so that exposing human to increased levels of nanoparticles. However, not enough information's are accessible about their potential effect on endocrine physiology. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the time and dose dependent effects of AgNPs in ovaries function, sex hormones and histology in female rats. Method; Sixty adult female spargue-dawely rats were divided into Three main groups each of (20) animals treated for (10, 20, and 30) days duration. within each treatment duration, animals were assigned into 4 subgroups each of 5 rats as follows; control treated with vehicle and three experimental subgroups treated with sequential doses 12.5, 25 and 50mg/kg of AgNPs 20-30nm by intra-peritonial injection. At the end of each treatment duration, animals were sacrificed, and blood samples were collected and analyzed for serum levels of LH, FSH, Estrogen and Progesterone. Ovary was removed and kept in buffered formalin for microscopic examination. Result: Serum levels of Progesterone and FSH non-significantly altered by AgNPs in all treatment groups, while serum level Estrogen showed significant increase in short duration (10 days) with all treatment doses of 12.5, 25 and 50mg/kg but in long duration (30 days) showed significant decrease in serum level Estrogen in all treatment doses of 12.5, 25 and 50mg/kg, furthermore, Treatment for (20 day), with 12.5 mg/kg showed significant elevated in the level of Estrogen. While, 25 and 50mg/kg caused highly significant decrease in Estrogen levels for same duration (20 day) when compared to control groups. This result was confirmed by histological examination of ovary tissues. As well as, the study of ovary weight showed the long-term exposure 30 day to 50 mg/kg of AgNPs caused a highly significant increase in weights of ovaries.

INDUCTION OF SYSTEMIC RESISTANCE OF EGGPLANT AGAINST SCLEROTINIA SCLEROTIORUM INFECTION USING BIOCHAR AND BIO-HEALTH

By Aalaa K. Hassan

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

This study was initiated to assess the efficacy of plant biochar produced from Eucalyptus, Albizia and Citrus and Bio Health to control white rot disease on eggplant caused by S. sclerotiorum. Under greenhouse conditions, Pathogenicity tests revealed all S. sclerotiorum isolates were highly infective, with or without wounds on eggplant stem. Among other fungus isolates, Ssc4 scored the highest infection severity percentages ranged 60 and 90.67% respectively. Results showed charcoal produced from eucalyptus trees was the best among others when inhibited fungus growth on PDA medium to 100% at 3% concentration. Whereas, BioHealth inhibited fungal growth to 100% at 5% concentration. Eucalyptus + Albiziacharcoal combination treatment was the best decreased infection severity up to 2.67% compared to 4.00 and 6.67% respectively or for Eucalyptus + Citrus and Albizia + Citrus combinations compared with pathogenic fungus only (control) treatmentswith82.67% .Besides, it increased plant fresh and dry weights compared to other combinations. Among other charcoal combinations and BioHealth, Eucalyptus + Albizia was the best when increased protein content of plant up to 40.35%followed by Eucalyptus + Citruswith37.24. Whereas protein content of non-charcoal treated healthy and fungal infected plants were to 30.33% and 22.45%, respectively . BioHealth and charcoal treatments successfully induced systemic resistance when increase peroxidase activity in treated plants. Peroxidase activity was72.73, 76.20 and 58.54 for BioHealth, Eucalyptus + Albiziaand Eucalyptus + Citrus ,respectively compared to 39.66 for control treatment (fungus only treatment(.

THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF EARTHWORM POWDER ON THE PATHOGENESIS OF ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA IN VIVO

By Nebrass F. Chachain* and Hussein A. Jamil

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

This study was carried out in vivo to detect the effect of earthworm powder on the Entamoeba histolytica in white mice. The mice infected with the parasite were inoculated by earthworm powder with a concentration of 200 mg/ml for 11 days, during this period, the faeces were examined daily to observe the change in parasite numbers after inoculating with powder. Results showed that the earthworm powder was effective in reducing parasite numbers in mice gradually and when compared the therapeutic efficacy of the earthworm powder with the metronidazole where it was close (61.5 & 63.1) respectively. Histopathological change was study found that the parasite and metronidazole cause necrosis, infiltration of lymphocyte and mucosal damage and while powder of earthworm effectively in repair the damaged intestinal walls. In addition, there was an increased concentration of sIgA in the intestinal tissue, which was concentrated after 3,7,9 days in the treatment earthworm powder group (4.084 1.29, 2.588 0.82, 2.563 0.81) ng/ml respectively. while in the metronidazole after 3,7,9days 4.0571.28, 2.5530.81, 2.5280.71ng/ml respectively compared with control negative group. Also in the earthworm powder group (none infected) it noted after 3,7,9 days (2.064 0.65, 2.17 0.681.901 0.60) ng/ml respectively, and in positive control group the concentration of IgA was 3.2211.01, 3.3701.06, 3.5801.13ng/ml respectively after 3,7,9 days compared with control negative group.

PREDICTING THE HIGH-RISK PATIENT USING VIRTUAL PHYSIOLOGICAL HUMAN TECHNIQUE IN BIG DATA HEALTH CARE

By A. Jameer Basha1 , S. Suguna2 , M. Kowsigan3 , A. Sureshkumar4 , V. Roopa5

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Big data plays a key function in all aspects of organization especially in health science and clinical information. In the past days every health care related data contains data in the format of hard copy. (i.e.) Drug Prescription, consultants report, radiographs, laboratory prescription etc. But, nowadays with the increasing need for ample variety of clinical data access over the internet, every data is move towards cloud in the outward appearance of digitization. The immense quantity of information collected from the various health cares, hospitals, and physicians etc. which are stored remotely on the cloud on top of the internet is called big data. This big data is in the appearance of structured (Tables in the outward appearance of rows and columns), semi- structured (XML data) and unstructured data (videos, X-rays, scan report, Images, Audios etc.). This enormous size of information needs to store, processed and retrieved in the effective manner to provide accurate and valuable information to the doctors, patients, house surgeon and medical researchers. This manuscript is mainly focused to predict and analyze the symptoms and also categorize the high-risk patients. Here the association rule is applied in the VPH (Virtual Physiological Human) method. VPH technique is used for collecting, analyzing, observing, categorizing and indexing the data which are observed from various hospitals, Patient record, primary health care, Insurance Firms etc. Here the experts from various fields are analyze and verify the data. Associate rule is used for uncovering the association among the symptoms in the database. From the data collected, we apply Apriori algorithm to the data base and also gives the risk priority category and highest risk patient.

THE ROLE OF HLA-DRB1 ALLELE IN HYPOTHYROID PATIENTS WITH AND WITHOUT PERIODONTITIS

By 1Sahar H. Al-Hindawi, 2Batool H. Al-Ghurabi, 3Noori M. Luaibi

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Hypothyroidism is a frequent disorder in the general population, especially among women, is defined as a deficiency of thyroid activity that results from insufficient production or action of thyroid hormones leading to a total decrease of metabolic. Human leukocyte antigen is the most polymorphic genetic system in man. Genes of this region influence susceptibility to certain diseases. Objectives: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the role of HLA-DRB1 genotyping in hypothyroid patients with and without periodontitis. Sixty hypothyroid patients 30 of patients were with periodontitis and 30 without periodontitis compare with 30 healthy subjects as control enrolled in this study. DNA was extracted from blood samples, then HLA- genotyping performed by polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific oligonucleotide probes (PCR-SSO). The results showed the frequencies of HLA-DRB1*03 and *04 alleles are significantly increased in hypothyroid patients than control (P<0.001; P<0.05) respectively; whereas, the frequencies of HLA-DRB1*08 allele is significantly higher in control group as compared to patients group (P<0.05). Surprisingly comparison between groups of hypothyroid patients with and without periodontitis revealed significant higher frequency (P<0.05) of DRB1*03 allele among group of hypothyroid patients with periodontitis. The present findings suggested that the presence of HLA-DRB1*03 and HLA-DRB1*04 alleles may increase the susceptibility to hypothyroidism, while HLA-DRB1*08 allele could confer protective effects against this disease. Moreover, patients with HLA-DRB1*03 allele are more likely to develop periodontitis.

AN INTEGRATED DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC LOAD BALANCING SYSTEM IN A CLOUD ENVIRONMENT

By T. Rajesh kumar* , G. Remmiya devi, K. Abinaya, N.N. Deepika, S. Priyadharshini

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Density of road traffic is a severe problem in the present world. The objective of this work is to manage the traffic lights and to provide importance in emergency cases using cloud. Traffic control system is a density based system that can determine the density of the vehicles at each side of the junction road when vehicles are nearer to that junction and transfer the information to the cloud. The presented system works based on a PIC16F8 series microcontroller. Density of vehicles is detected using Infrared sensors, which are placed within a fixed distance. Priority is provided to the overcrowded side of the road in traffic.

ASSOCIATION OF VITAMIN D RECEPTOR GENE POLYMORPHISM AT THREE SNPS AND THEIR HAPLOTYPES WITH POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME RISK IN IRAQI WOMEN

By Ismail A. Abdul-hassan* and Ala Hazim Badr** Sanaa Jasim Kadhim *

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most endocrinological disorder,in young reproductive age women , Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene variants have been associated with metabolic co-morbidities in population. This study was carried out to examine whether the polymorphisms of VDR gene are correlated with the risk of PCOS. Polycystic ovary syndrome women (n=50) and apparently healthy control subject (n=50), were enrolled genotyping of VDR gene SNPs (rs2228570, rs7975232 and rs731236) were determined by using Taqman genotyping assay. The results showed that the distribution of genotypes and alleles frequencies at rs2228570 SNP of VDR gene, as related with TT, TC and combined TC+CC genotypes, no significant differences in frequency percentage were noted between PCOS patients and apparently healthy subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome. Whereas, the frequency of CC genotype was significantly (p<0.05) lower in PCOS patients compared with apparently healthy group. The genotypes and alleles frequencies distribution at rs7975232 C>A polymorphism, the frequency of wild CC genotype was significantly (p<0.05) lower in patients with PCOS than in apparently healthy subjects. In contrast, the frequency of heterozygous CA genotype was significant (p<0.05) higher in patients with PCOS compared with apparently healthy subjects. The frequency of TT genotype at rs731236 T>C polymorphism was significant (p<0.05) lower in patients with PCOS than in apparently healthy subjects. While as related with TC, CC and combined TC+CC genotypes, no significant differences in frequency percentage were detected between PCOS patients and apparently healthy subjects. Further, the three VDR SNPs presented eight possible haplotypes, with TTA and TTC being the most common in both groups (patients and controls). In particular, the TCC haplotype showed significant (p<0.05) distribution in PCOS patients compared with apparently healthy control and the frequency of TTC / CCA haplotype combination was significantly (p<0.05) higher in patients with PCOS than in apparently healthy subjects. This study found that no association between both heterozygous and homozygous mutants at rs2228570 and rs731236 of VDR gene with the incidence of PCOS, while heterozygosity at rs7975232 of VDR gene showed a risk for PCOS development susceptibility.

DEVICE POWER CONSUMPTION AVOIDANCE USING IMAGE PROCESSING

By Radha R., Sasikala E., Gayathri M. and S. Sharanya

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

In this paper we propose a system to prevent the unnecessary wastage of electricity using the various concepts and principles of Image processing. In our proposed system, the whole process is implemented and executed using MATLAB software. Initially, we obtain the feed from the video devices like camera, recorder, etc. From this, a still frame is obtained and pre-processed to enhance the input. Then, we process the data using a set of segmentation and extraction techniques to obtain the various objects from the data image by implementing Object Recognition techniques. This helps us in identifying the various unwanted objects that are scattered across the image and helps in eliminating them and processing only the necessary data. This concept is then applied to the various parts of the image to obtain their threshold values, and as such the overall threshold value of the frame is calculated. This value is used in the future instances to detect the change that occurs in the image and as such re-calculate the output of the scenario. According to the results that are obtained, it can be inferred that this method is more accurate and efficient than the other existing methods. Index Terms Image Processing, Edge

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF Arachis hypogaea L. SEED COAT EXTRACT CULTIVATED IN IRAQ

By Ahmed H. AL-Azawi1 * and Zainab H. Hassan2

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

The present study aimed to assess the antibacterial activity of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) skin extracts. The phytochemical analysis of the peanut skin extracts was investigated, the result showed a strong presence of flavonoids, phenols, alkaloids and tannins in methanol and ethyl acetate extracts. Antibiotic susceptibility of the bacterial isolates was performed on seven antibiotics represented by Amikacin, Tetracycline, Ciprofloxacin, Chloramphenicol, Ticarcillin, Cefotaxime and Gentamicin by disc diffusion method. The antibiogram for studied isolates revealed high level resistance of A. baumannii to all of the antibiotics under test except amikacin, while Staph. aurous was resistance to Chloramphenicol and Cefotxime and sensitive to Amikacin, Tetracycline, Ciprofloxacin, Ticarcillin and Gentamicin. The antibacterial activity of the peanut skin extracts was studied on some pathogenic microorganisms like (Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Serratia marcescens and Escherichia coli). The results show that the best effect was seen against Staph. aureus with inhibition zone (10.67 0.67, 13.00 1.00 and14.67 0.88) in concentration (25, 50 and 100 mg/ml) respectively, with significant difference (P<0.01), while the lowest effect was seen against A. baumannii with inhibition zone (4.67 0.33, 7.33 0.33 and 10.33 0.33) in concentration (25, 50 and 100 mg/ml) respectively with significant difference (P<0.01) for methanolic extract.

SEQUENCES OF MITOCONDRIAL D-LOOP REGION IN IRAQI PERSONS

By Athraa H. Hassoon1 , Harith K. Buniya2 and Almuthana Kh. Hameed2

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Mitochondrial DNA is a circular genome placed in the mitochondria. It had 1.1 kbp fragment and named the displacement loop. The using of sequencing technique and then find the degree of variation of this fragment are the aims of study. Geneaid extraction kit was used for extracted the completely genomic DNA, and then amplified the displacement loop region by polymerase chain reaction through specific primers. The PCR products were sequenced and detected variation by using the MEGA7 program. Different polymorphisms were discovered in this region for both blood and muscle samples from Iraqi population. The accumulation of SNPs in D-loop may be associated with ageing. SNPs in D-loop region of blood and muscle samples were identified in this study, and their association with ageing was estimated. The majority of polymorphism were located in D-loop. The nucleotide transition,transversion, insertion and deletion were causes the important variations in nucleotide sequencing. The total number of mutations in blood samples of young individuals was 37 (4.3%) and 48 (5.6%) in muscle samples for same individuals while the total number of mutations in blood samples of older individuals was 667 (78%) and 93 (10.8%) in muscle samples for same individuals. There were high differences in the number of mutations in older people, specifically for blood samples incidence and frequency of mutations were greater than those of younger age groups were. The analysis of genomic single nucleotide polymorphisms in D-loop may help to detect the most important variation in both young and adult Iraqi individuals.

ALTERNATIVE CULTURE MEDIA FOR GROWTH AND SPORULATION OF TRICHODERMAHARZIANUM

By Liqaa Y. Mohsen1 , Haider J. Kadhim2 , Jawad K. Abood Al-Janabi1 and Zahraa, A. N. Al-Yassiry1

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Microorganisms need nutrients for their biological activities and reproduction. Culture media such PDA, used for growing fungi in laboratories. Because of high cost and dont available at all time. The present study was conducted to supersede Potato in PDA medium with powdered leaves of either Moringa oleifera or mint and to examine their effect on mycelial, conidial and biomass production of bioagent fungus Trichoderma harzianum and pathogenic fungi: Fusarium graminearum and F. oxysporum. The patterns of T. harzainum growth was substantially affected by Moringa Dextrose Agar (MoDA) and Mint Dextrose Agar (MiDA). Both the media were found to magnify the mycelial growth of bioagent fungus as compared to pathogenic fungus F. oxysporum. MoDA characterized by enhancing spore production in T. harzainum (19.6108 ), in comparison to Fusarium graminearum (7.13108 ) and F. oxysporum (8.73108 ) after 9 days of inoculation. Dry weights of T. harzainum (0.75 mg) and F. oxysporum (0.35 mg) mycelia were also sharply incremented in MoDB compared to PDB (0.2 and 0.15gm) respectively in which the dry weight not inhibited by modified media. It was concluded that the utilization of M. oleifera or Mint leaves as a component of culture media in laboratories is a feasible and cheap source as compared to commercially prepared PDA. Furthermore, the present formulated media could be subsidiary act as a selective medium for the magnification and sporulation of T. harzianum. In integration, the leaf powders of both sources can be stored for longer time periods in comparison to potato.

MODELLING AND OPTIMIZATION OF CASSAVA STARCH BASED FILM FOR FOOD PACKAGING APPLICATIONS

By Paramanantham Hema Prabha1 and Thottiam Vasudevan Ranganathan2

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

The growing concern on environmental pollution and increasing difficulties of waste disposal that causes land pollution are the prime factors that contribute towards the threat of global warming and this in turn, emphasizes the research into biodegradable packaging material. The use of biodegradable packaging material as an alternative to plastic polymers is therefore evoking considerable interest in the present scenario. Biodegradable films can be used to reduce the migration of moisture, oxygen and carbon dioxide through the film which improves the shelf-life of the packaged food products. This study focuses on developing three factors Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology (RSM) for optimizing and evaluating the interactive and individual effects of the process variables used in the development of the cassava starch-based biodegradable films. Filmogenic solutions comprising of starch, glycerol and acetic acid were prepared according to three level, four-factors Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology for the development of cassava starch based biodegradable films. Second order polynomial models were derived from the results obtained using Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA) for all the responses and it showed good fit of the data along with a close agreement between experimental and predicted values. The association between the process parameters and the responses were illustrated by constructing response surfaces and contour plots.

HORMONAL ASSESSMENT OF PATIENTS WITH BEHCET DISEASE IN BABYLON PROVINCE- IRAQI

By Sawsam Jassim Al-Harbi*, Haider Kamil Zaidan**, Ali Hmood, Al-Saadi** and Mona N. AlTerehi**

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Background: Behcets disease (BD) is a rare disorder affecting vascular and nervous system which might lead to death due to complications of inflamed, ruptured vessels as well as aneurysms. Aim of Study: to determine the risk factors of Behcets Disease and to determine mean differences of study hormones between patients and control groups. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based case-control study design was carried out on (34) patients with Behcet disease and control group seen atthe Rheumatology outpatient clinicat Merjan Teaching Hospital in Babylon Iraq, all patients and control were from the same ethnic group (Arabic).Pearsons X2 and independent sample t-test have been used. A p-value of ? 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The overall mean age of patients and control was 36.1514.23 and 30.2011.36 years old, respectively.Behcet disease was two times more likely to have a family history of disease.There were significant mean differences of Testosterone, Estradiol, Prolactin and Epidermal growth factorHormones by study groups. Conclusion: Hormonal assessment for patients with Behcet disease of valuable informations in patients and can be helpful in determining the activity of the disease and Sex hormonesplay asignificant roleinits relationship withBehcet's disease.

EFFECTIVE VIDEO RETERIVAL USING CLUSTERING TECHNIQUE

By Dennis Joseph and D.Saravanan

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Knowledge extraction is one of the fastest growing fields today. Proper extraction of the needed information presents a challenging job for many researchers. This becomes even more complicated in the case of multimedia content. Clustering is a useful technique for finding useful patterns from the given data set. Video clustering is done on video files for video data mining. Existing clustering techniques works well for only a few particular types of inputs. It has been experimentally verified that the proposed clustering technique offers the best clustering solution for a majority of input files.

CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM CITRUS LIMON (L.) AND EVALUATING THE BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS ON THYROID HORMONE AND CELLULAR TOXICITY

By Lahib Mohammed Al-Abbassi and Kareem Talib Al-Hatemy

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

The present study was carried out to estimate the vital effects of the water and alcohol extract of Citrus limon (L.) seeds in thyroids hormone levels secretion in adults female Albino rats. Plant Seeds was extracted with distilled water and alcohol using ethanol. Then phytochemical compound detected using classical methods and thin layer chromatography (TLC). animals groups were injected with L-Thyroxine and plant extracts. Blood samples were collected from all animals after the end of the trial time of 10 days. The results of study showed that the water and ethanol extract contain many bioactive substances, including carbohydrates, tannins, glycoside, saponin, terpenes, alkaloids and phenols. Meanwhile, Glycosides detection by (TLC) plate from water and alcohol extracts of C. limon showed 4 and 5 bands using the BAW (4: 1: 5) solvent system respectively, 4 and 5 bands with alkaloids, showed 4 and 5 bands of terpenoids compound, 4; 5 spots with tannins compounds were observed.

COMBINED EFFECT BETWEEN DEXTRAN PRODUCED BY LEUCONOSTOC MESENTEROIDES SSP. MESENTEROIDES AND ANTIBIOTICS AGAINST MDR BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM CATHETERS

By Jehan Abdul Sattar Salman and Mustafa Z. Salim

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Evaluation of the effect of dextran produced from locally isolate Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. mesenteroeides with different antibiotics against multi drug resistance (MDR) bacteria isolated from catheters. Samples of urinary catheters from patient were collected to isolate the contaminating bacteria. All isolates were subjected to the cultural, microscopical and biochemical tests as well as Vitek2 system. Moreover, these isolates were tested for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobial agents. The combined effect between dextran produced from L. mesenteroides ssp. mesenteroides and antibiotics was investigated against MDR bacteria isolated from catheters. Forty-two isolates were obtained from catheters as; 11 isolates (26.19%) belonged to Escherichia coli, 8 isolates (19.04%) to Proteus mirabilis, 6 isolates (14.28%) to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and one isolate (2.38%) to Morganella morganii, 10 isolates (23.80%) belonged to Staphylococcus epidermidis and 6 isolates (14.28%) to S. aureus. All isolates were resistance to tetracycline while they were sensitive to imipenem. The antibacterial activity of Cefepime, Cefoxitin and Gentamycin have been increased in the presence of dextran against all bacterial isolates.

RELATION OF CLASS1 INTEGRON GENE WITH MULTI-DRUG RESISTANCE SALMONELLA TYPI ISOLATES

By Israa Abdul Ameer AL-Kraety and Mahdi Al-Ammar

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

This study aimed to detection the intI gene and its relationship with multi-drug resistance of Salmonella typhi. isolates. The results of the antibiotic sensitivity test showed that the S.typhi isolates were highly resistant to the antibiotic; the results of PCR technique for intIgene amplification show that there are where 14/30 S. typhi isolated had positive results of amplification.

COMPARISON OF BIOFILM FORMATION BY DIFFERENT SPECIES OF KLEBSIELLA

By Saad H. Abood* and Israa AJ. Ibrahim**

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

From September 2016 to January 2017, we have collected ninety isolates of Klebsiella spp. isolated from the clinical sample. There are three Klebsiella spp. were identified: Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia, Klebsiella pneumoniae ozaenae and Klebsiella oxytoca. Classical methods such as microtiter plate method with different experimental condition and tube method were used to determine biofilm formation. The result showed all isolates were formation biofilm in microtiter plate assay supplemented with glucose media, however in microtiter plate assay non-supplemented with glucose media the result showed that 42/53(79%) of Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumoniae isolates, 29/29 (100%), Klebsiella pnemoniae ozaenae isolates, and 8/8(100%) isolates of Klebsiella oxytoca, respectively. In glass tube method showed, 43/53(81%) K. pneumoniae pneumoniae, 28/29(96%) Klebsiella pnemoniae ozaenae and 6/8(75%) Klebsiella oxytoca were formation biofilm. In other hand, using plastic poly ethylene tube method revealed, 49/53 (92%) Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumoniae, 28/29 (96%) Klebsiella pnemoniae ozaenae and 7/8 (87.5%) Klebsiella oxytoca were formation biofilm. Finally, the present study confirms previous study about biofilm formation is one of the common virulence factor shares with many bacteria in different degree.

EVALUATION OF SOME IMMUNOLOGICAL BIOMARKERS IN PATIENTS INFECTED WITH SARCOPTES SCABIEI

By Saleem Khteer Al-Hadraawy*, Harth Rajab Haider, Ali Hassan Abood

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

The present study was conducted on 60 patients and 30 healthy persons (17 male and 13 female) to determine the effects of scabies disease in some immunological biomarkers it was IL-8, IL-5 and IgE levels. The results of the current study showed a significantly elevated (P<0.05) in level of IL-8, in patients infested with Sarcoptes scabiei parasite in 356.047 0.201pg /ml in compared to the control group 240.815 0.081pg /ml, also serum concentration of IL-5 was significantly increased (P<0.05) in Sarcoptes scabiei infection patients which were 42.128 0.415pg /ml in compared to the control group 14.512 0.021pg /ml, whereas the level of IgE in patients was 401.654 0.618pg /ml)in compared to the control group 179.092 0.109ng /ml. The current study concluded that the infection with Sarcoptes scabiei was affected in some immunological biomarkers of human represent by IL8, IL-5 and IgE.

ROLE OF BIO FERTILIZATION ON WHEAT AND WATER PRODUCTIVITY UNDER WATER SCARCITY

By *Alaa Salih Ati **Abdualkareem Hassan **Sana Abd-Aljabar ** Ammar Salah

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Field experiment was conducted by using two fertilization systems (i.e.) biofertilizers (inoculation with Pseudomonas putida and with Azotobacter chroococcum and non inoculation) and chemical fertilization (100%, 50% and 25% of recommended by Ministry of Agriculture) to study the influence of these system and interaction on water and grain yield productivity, some growth phytohorones and number of bacterial cells in soil rizosphere of root of wheat crop under water scarcity. The result showed that the integrate fertilization (inoculation with Pseudomonas putida and Azotobacter chroococcum bacterial + 50% of the recommended chemical fertilizer) recorded 5.70 and 5.55 t ha-1 , respectively with reducing the chemical fertilizer applied in these systems as single application to the half. The number of bacterial cells of Azotobacter chroococcum increased with age of wheat crop and had 34.34 10-6 and 37.82 10-6 CFU g-1 soil for inoculation with Pseudomonas putida and Azotobacter chroococcum bacterial + 50% of the recommended chemical fertilizer, respectively during the maturity stage. The integrated fertilization system offered an alternative system instead of using chemical or biofertilizers system when they use separately.