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EDITORIAL BOARD

2017

A REVIEW ON PRECISION MEDICINE AND ITS ADVANTAGES

By Gandikota Ramu and Appawala Jayanthi

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Today's healthcare industry is growing rapidly; this delivers both excellent opportunities and difficulties. Quality healthcare is one of the very significant circumstances in how people notice theirs quality of life. Nowadays, your medication policy doesn’t have all that satisfying to do with you particularly. Precision Medicine is an emerging discipline. It recognizes distinct biological disorder using diagnostic methods, usually genic, to identify the best treatment individually not like trial and error. By integrating this data with personal health records (PHRs), Precision Medicine provides physicians and patients to improve aimed prevention and therapy strategies. The purpose is to implement the best medicine with accurate dosage to the correct patient in just-in-time. In this survey, we present a synthesized overview of the current state of research on precision medicine and compare the precision medicine over the traditional medicine. We also identify the current research problems in the areas of precision medicine implementation.

DESIGN OF SMART VILLAGE USING INTERNET OF THINGS AND CLOUD COMPUTING

By S. Subhakala 1, S. Muthulakshmi2 , A.Geetha3 , Dhanya K4, Meenakshi Sundara Nath T.M.5

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

This paper concentrates on implementing smart village through Internet of Things (IoT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI). IOT is used to control the working of great things with our free hands. It enables the path to connect anytime, anywhere, with everything and everyone can use. Meaning of “Smart” represents useful information which is analyzed through sensors used with the Internet Technologies. To improve the agriculture and to create the world optimization in all the fields, anything can be connected through internet. This in turn connects to smart irrigation as smart farming and converging into a Smart Village through IOT. Sensors related to moisture of soil and humidity of temperature are used to record the values. The data stored can be retrieved using cloud technology. The proposed result of the project is to make the village wholly connected through internet.

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT BY USING GLASS POWDER AND FLY ASH IN CONCRETE

By Deepa Shri S.1 and Dhivya K.2

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

This experimental study shows the properties of concrete manufactured with waste glass powder as a cement replacement material. The use of wastes or by-products in concrete production has advantages for improving some or all of the properties of concrete. Waste glass contains about 75.31%, SiO2.When it was grounded to the fineness of around 90 ?m, SiO2 in it reacts with alkalis in cement (pozzolanic reaction) to form supplementary cementitious products. This work examines the possibilities of using Glass powder as a partial replacement of cement for M25 concrete. The Glass powder was partially replaced as 10%, 15% and 20% and fly ash content kept constant at 15% and tested for its mechanical properties up to 7 and 28 days of age and was compared with the properties of conventional concrete.

ACTIVITY OF THUJA (Thuja orientalis) ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT IN INHIBITION ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS GROWTH AND DETOXIFICATION OF AFLATOXIN B1 IN CONTAMINATED CORN SEEDS

By Amna M.Ali

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

The study was conducted to evaluate the activity of Thuja alcoholic extract to inhibit Aspergillus flavus growth and detoxify the aflatoxin B1 that produced. The results showed high activity of Thuja extract in inhibition of A. flavus growth on culture media that attained to 70 – 25, 85 – 40, 100% with the concentrations 0.2, 0.5, and 1% respectively. The activity of the extract in A. flavus growth inhibition was found associated with high activity in detoxification of afla B1 from contaminated corn seeds. The treatment of contaminated corn seeds with 2% of Thuja extract induced high reduction in afla B concentration. The afla B1 concentration was found to be 752.40 ng/g in treated corn seeds compared with 2620.20 ng/g in control representing 71.35% reduction in the first month reached to 100% in the second month.

CALIBRATION - FREE FINGERPRINT BASED SUPPORT VECTOR REGRESSION FOR INDOOR POSITION SYSTEM

By A. CHRISTY JEBA MALAR1, G. KOUSALYA2

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Indoor positioning system uses wireless devices or other communication technologies to locate the position of a movable object within an indoor environment for providing various emergency services as well as business interest services. WLAN (802.11b Wireless LANs) based techniques are broadly utilized and additional hardware installation is not necessary for user location determination. The measured signal strength values from various WiFi access points (AP) are measured and fingerprint data base is constructed by a crowd sourcing technique. This avoids calibration (site survey) cost for recording the received signal strength value from various access points. The measured signal strength property will differ in each point as it depends on the distance, the type of mobile device and signal attenuation. The location can be found by mapping the current signal strength with already collected radio-maps. Statistical measurement, like support vector regression with multiple output, will be used as an approach to optimise the accuracy of localization algorithm.

IN -VITRO EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT FUNGICIDES AND THE BIO-CONTROL AGENT TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM AGAINST BOTRYODIPLODIA THEOBROMAE, THE CAUSE OF GUAVA DECLINE

By Adnan Baloch1+2*, Manzoor Ali Abro1**, Ghulam Husain Jatoi1+5, Nazir Ahmed Abro3, Shah Dad1, Mohammad Rafique2, Rahmat Ali2, Shabana Memon4 and Naimatullah Mangi4

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Guava decline disease, caused by Botryodiplodia theobromae is becoming the countrywide threat in Pakistan and annually it brings severe economic losses to the guava production. The management of this disease is very essential. In-vitro evaluation of four different fungicides viz. Nativo, Antracol, Aliette and Topas, with different concentrations (30, 50, 100 ppm) and the bio-control agent Trichoderma harzianum (5mm mycelial disk) were tested against B. theobromae. The result revealed that the effectiveness of the fungicides increased with increased dosage rate. Nativo was proved to be the most effective fungicide; Antracol was moderately effective, whereas Aliette and Topas were found to be less effective in reducing the mycelial growth of B. theobromae. Similarly, invitro evaluation of the bio-control agent Trichoderma harzianum against B. theobromae was found to be very effective, resulting maximum inhibition of 40.34% in the colony growth of the test fungus within seven days. Thus, farther different fungicides and bio-control agents must be evaluated under in-vitro conditions and then applied in field conditions

AGGREGATE PRODUCTION PLANNING: MIXED STRATEGY

By Anand Jayakumar A.a, Krishnaraj C.b, Nachimuthu A.K.c

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

This article is a mathematical model to make decisions in the aggregate production planning of a pump manufacturing company. The mathematical formulation proposed is based on process selection and lot-sizing models. The aim is to help the planners in selecting the industrial processes used to produce pumps and the inventory strategy. The planning period is one year and decisions are taken on a discrete time. A case study was developed in a pump manufacturing company. Under mixed strategy, both inventory and workforce levels are allowed to change during the planning horizon. Thus, it is a combination of the “chase” and “level” strategies. This will be a good strategy if the costs of maintaining inventory and changing workforce level are relatively high. Optimization models are generally used to determine an optimum mixed strategy. In this paper, we use Python program to optimize the problem.

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF STEEL SLAG AS COARSE AGGREGATE

By S. Priyanka1, S.D. Shri2 S. Poovizhi3

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

The main aim of the environmental protection agencies and government are to seek ways and means to minimize the problems of disposal and health hazards of by- products. Some of the industrial by-products have been successfully used in construction industry for the production of cement concrete. Steel slag is one of the materials that are considered as a waste material which could have a promising future in construction industry as partial substitute of either cement or aggregate. Many researchers have already found it possible to use steel slag as a concrete aggregate. The effect of partial replacement of coarse aggregates by steel slag(SS),on the various strength and durability properties of concrete, by using the mix design of M30 grade. The optimum replacement of coarse aggregate by steel slag is found.

THE EFFECTS OF LASER RADIATION ON VISCOSITY (PCV) OF BLOOD

By Huda Kadhem Mohseen

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

In this study, the effect of the laser (532nm) studied on blood viscosity by using Laser (532nm), power 4mw and the time of exposure (15and 20 min), the sample was divided into two sample for irradiation and control. Blood samples withdraw from man ages (35-45) years and to suffer from hyper-viscosity. The results of this study show the decreases of viscosity in blood with effect of laser where the decrement was 2% after 15 min and 8% after 20 min. of laser irradiation. The aim of the research In this research, we use effect of Laser (532nm), power 4mw to treat or reduce the high blood viscosity for some patients with high viscosity as a result of smoking or genetic factors or any other reasons.

STUDY ON PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE USING GLASS POWDER AS PARTIAL REPLACEMENT FOR CEMENT

By Elumalai M1*, Divya Krishnan K2, P.T. Ravichandran3, Karthik N4

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Out of major three carbon dioxide emitting sources, cement manufacturing industry is one along with deforestation and burning of fossil fuels. The radiation of greenhouse gases, such as CO2, to the atmosphere is one of the reasons for the global warming. By considering this fact, it is necessary to address the environmental effects due to the manufacturing of cement andthere is a need to identify the sustainable alternative [1] binders to make concrete. Many extensive researches are going on to identify the potential pozzolanic replacement materials for cement by using many waste materials and industrial by products. In this study, fine glass powder is used as aPozzolana for partial replacement of cement in concrete and its characteristics are compared with ordinaryconventional concrete. The glass powder was partially replaced for cement as 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% and tested for its compressive, tensile and flexural strength at 7 days, 14days and 28 days of age and were compared with those of conventional concrete properties.Among the various percentages of glass powder, the 15% partial replacement of glass powder for cement in concrete give satisfactory results in compressive, split and flexural while compared with conventional concrete mix.The experimental results of split tensile and flexural strength are verified according to the codal provisions of IS and ACI building code. Rapid Chloride Penetration Test (RCPT) was also conducted to understand the performance of concrete with partial replacement glass powder for cement. Hence the replacement of 15% glass powder can be used in the concrete to minimize the cost as well as the disposal problems associated with glass [2].

IL-1 BETA AND IL-6 CYTOKINES PROFILE IN OBESE AND OVER WEIGHT WOMEN IN HILLA CITY-IRAQ

By Zainab Al-Mahdi*, Roqia Ewad**, Haider Qassim Raheem **, Israa Adnan Ibraheam***, Nada Khalid Abo-Khumra**

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

The occurrence of obesity has augmented fast through new year. Our previous study showed obesity was related with diseases and or infections recorded, adipose tissue mediates immune system. Present study aim is evaluation some immune aspect related with IL-1- Beta as pro-inflammatory cytokine and IL-6 cytokine as both pro and antiinflammatory cytokine) production in obese versus normal weight women. Enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) used for detecting and quantifying cytokines. Results shows that the concentration of the IL-1Beta as pro inflammatory cytokine stood greater in obese and overweight women (186.2 ± 58.54, n=17) than in normal weight women (control group (20.41 ± 9.387, n=3), (F=220.4, P < 0.05) while here stayed not any substantial variances in IL-6 concentrations between test group (198.5 ± 34.93, n=15) in compare with control group (212.6 ± 122.9, n=3), (F=2.475, P=0.240). In conclusion, our result improved that obesity responsible in elevation level of proinflammatory cytokine IL-1 Beta and interleukin 6 play important role as both anti and proinflammatory cytokine.

CORPORATE WATER STEWARDSHIP: A STUDY ON WATER FOOTPRINT IN PAPER INDUSTRY

By Agalshri S.K.

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

The Present study attempts to make an account of existing water footprint (WF) in Paper industry for different source of raw materials and also to analyze water management strategies with prime focus on reuse of treated wastewater. Two different industries which uses two different raw materials such as recycled paper and sugarcane bagasse were selected. All the data were collected using Key Informant Interview and Semi- structured interview. This study also reveals the benefit of using the treated waste water within the operational process of industry which helps to save our scarce resource.

SECURE COMMUNICATION USING LIGHT-WEIGHT CRYPTOGRAPHY AND 2-FACTOR VERIFICATION FOR IOT DEVICES

By R. Kanmani, K. Induja, S. Madumidha, M. Malathi and Siddarth Rajesh

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Internet of Things (IoT) is an ecosystem of physical objects connected to each other that are accessible through the internet. The concept of IoT involves the characteristics of Big data and cloud computing for the transmission and storage of data, which naturally implies several threats to the data. The Internet of things(IoT) security is the domain involved in defending the connected devices and networks from unauthorized access.In this paper, we propose a light-weight cryptography technique, SHA-256 algorithm which is used for encrypting the data as it provides high level of security to the data. Two-factor verification is a very efficient security mechanism and an excellent alternative to other security mechanisms as it provides an extra layer of security to the data. It is also known as multi-factor authentication, which requires not only the two correct passwords but also the temporary security PIN sent to the authorized user.

UTILIZATION OF TANNERY WASTE (TANNERY SLUDGE) IN CONCRETE

By Manojgan G1 and Sabarigirivasan L2

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Tannery waste is considered to be one in every of the main industrial wastes. The wastes made from these industries are troublesome in disposal. The disposal of such waste is often done either by combustion or by land filling that ends up in air or land pollution severally. The current study covers the employment of the work waste as a partial replacement for fine combination and to see the mechanical properties of the concrete when substitution. As work wastes have less capability to soak up water not degrade simply after they are disposed by land filling. Fine combination is associate integral half in concrete. The increase within the construction activities the need of fine combination is a lot of. In alternative hand work waste is bumper in nature; a correct replacement of work waste over the fine combination won't solely scale back the work waste however additionally scale back demand for fine combination. The concrete made thanks to this replacement can have reduced weight and additionally possess higher strength than the traditional concrete. Thus, to avoid pollution and scale back the price of construction the experiment is applied and therefore the results are inferred.

INVESTIGATION ON BEHAVIOUR OF EXTERIOR BEAM-COLUMN JOINT UNDER CYCLIC LOADING

By V.Kalaivani1, S. Veeradhithyan2, G. Amarnath3, G.S. Thirugnanam4

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Beam column joint is more important structural element subjected to damage during cyclic earthquake loading which risks the entire structure with insecure design. Inadequate design may lead to extensive cracks and increased shear stresses within the joint during ground shaking which affects strength and stiffness to a greater extent. This study investigates on the flexural behaviour of beam column joint with high strength reinforced and normal reinforced concrete under cyclic loading. Two test specimens modeled on 1:4 scale from a multi storey building were cast and tested using M30 and M60 graded concrete to examine the parameters such as load carrying capacity, stiffness degradation, ductility factor and energy absorption capacity. The test specimens are detailed as per the guidelines given in ductile detailing code IS13920:1993. The study indicates that the High Strength Reinforced Concrete (HSRC) enhances the seismic performance of the beam column joint to a numerous level.

SCREENING OF DIFFERENT CHICKPEA VARIETIES AGAINST GRAM POD BORER HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA (HUB). AND ITS LABORATORY REARING ON CHICKPEA, B.T COTTON AND CONVENTIONAL COTTON

By Nazir Ahmed Abro1, Manzoor Ali Abro2*, Imran Khatri1, Ghulam Hussain Jatoi2, Shabana Naz Mazari3, Rehana Kandhro1, Naimatullah Mangi4

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

In Integrated Pest Management host plant resistance is very important against the insect pests. In the recent work, the different Chickpea varieties were screened out for their resistance against the Gram Pod Borer (Helicoverpa armigera) under the natural field conditions at the Latif Farm Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam. The pest was also reared under laboratory conditions on three different hosts i.e. chickpea, conventional cotton and B.t cotton. Results on the screening of different chickpea genotypes revealed that the genotypes NCS 0530 and NCS 0523 produced significant results in term of lower Gram pod borer infestation (Helicoverpa armigera). Whereas susceptible effect against Gram Pod Borer was appeared in the varieties, NCS 0605 and NCS 9917 showing significantly higher population of Gram pod borer. The rest of the varieties were intermediate in tolerance or susceptibile to the attack of gram pod borer. Studies showed that tolerant Chickpea varieties can produce good yield and can reduce the use of chemicals in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) against the Gram Pod Borer. The laboratory rearing of (Helicoverpa armigera) on different natural hosts e.g Chickpea, B.t Cotton and Conventional Cotton was done in laboratory conditions results revealed that chickpea was the most preferred food followed by conventional cotton (Sadori variety). However different life history parameters of Helicoverpa armigera were severely affected by Bt cotton (IR-FH-901) where maximum mortality of first and second larval instars and prolong life cycle of all other instars was recorded.

PRODUCTION OF BIOGAS FROM VARIOUS BIOMASS WASTE

By A.Vijin Prabhu1*, S. Antony Raja1, C. Lindon Robert Lee1, P. Jeba2

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

The anaerobic digestion(AD) of different biomass wastes [Prosopis juliflora (PJ) pods, PJ leaves, grass clippings (GC), dry leaves (DL), parthenium (P), water hyacinth (WH), and cow manure (CM)] were investigated. Two stage of experiments were carried out, to find the daily biogas yield, biogas composition, and the cumulative biogas production. In the first stage of experimentation, anaerobic digestion of seven materials was carried out in the different reactor to find out the biogas yield. The best three materials in terms of biogas production were selected for the second stage of experimentation. In the second stage of experimentation co-digestion of three combinations (PJ pods + DL, PJ pods + WH, and PJ pods + DL + WH) were analyzed. In the first experiment, PJ pods showed the maximum biogas production (45.69 l/kg) and WH showed the highest biogas composition (CH4:79.89% and CO2:19.87%). However, parthenium performed worst in the biogas production (20.12 l/kg) and biogas composition (CH4:13.45% and CO2:66.57%). CM has quicker production of biogas (maximum from 12–15 days) than other materials. The second experiment PJ pods + DL + WH combination showed the maximum biogas production (65.41 l/kg) and the biogas composition (CH4:75.89% and CO2:23.81%).

ATTITUDE OF A SAMPLE OF GENERAL PHYSICIANS WORKING IN SOME PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTERS IN BAGHDAD, AL-KARKH TOWARDS FAMILY MEDICINE

By Saba Samir Salman1, Sinaa Kareem Abdullah1, Reem Jameel Hassan1

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Worldwide, there is a general agreement that primary care is the linchpin of effective health care delivery, family medicine as a cornerstone in the modern health system would be the best to achieve a more efficient and effective health care delivery. The aim of this study was to explore the attitude of a sample of general physicians working in some primary health care centers in Baghdad towards family medicine. A cross- sectional study was implemented by collected, data using filling the questionnaire by general physicians. A convenient sample including 200 general physicians working in twenty selected primary health care centers. This study was conducted from first of January 2016 till end July 2016. The results show that present study found that the responses were really encouraging and promising; out of the 200 respondents (90%) have shown scores of good responses and overall agreement for family medicine in Iraq. The socio demographic characteristics in the present study including age, gender, years of employment were shown no significant association with the participant’s responses. The percentage of agreement carried among statements with highest percentage of agreement was for statement no.1 family physician is the point of first medical contact within the health care system (97 %) and the lowest percentage of agreements was for statement no. 2 (family physician providing open and unlimited access to its users) (61%). The present study concluded that it reflected the existence of good family physician's role could greatly impact on family medicine and can reflected a promising trend toward changing the current system.

GENERALIZED GAUSSIAN QUADRATURE RULES OVER AN N-DIMENSIONAL BALL

By Sarada Jayan1 and K.V. Nagaraja2

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

A nearly-optimal quadrature rule is developed to evaluate integrals over an n-dimensional ball, using an effective transformation which maps an n-dimensional ball to an n-dimensional cube and then again to a zero-one n-cube. The derivation of this formula over a 2-dimensional ball (circular disc), a 3-dimensional ball (sphere) and an ndimensional ball is given along with numerical results for various types of integrals.

A PILOT STUDY FOR THE TREATMENT OF MICROBIAL SKIN INFECTIONS CAUSED BY BACTERIA PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA BACTERIA THAT RESISTANCE TO ANTIBIOTIC IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL BY (ND: YAG LASER) TECHNOLOGY

By Zahra M. Al-Hakak

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa is the second most important of the Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria for humans and animals. They cause high mortality rates in hospitals because of their resistance to detergents and a large number of chemicals and antibiotics. This study was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and impact of the laser (ND: YAG laser) technology to kill the bacteria Pseudomonas Aeruginosa. Use most common laser And yak (ND: YAG laser) with a wavelength of 532 nm and strongly 200 megawatts, we shed light of laser on the dishes of bacterial implant of bacteria Pseudomonas Aeruginosa free of antibiotics or containing bacterial colonies only for periods of time (1 to 6) minutes and then shed light of laser on the dishes implant bacterial used to examine resistant bacteria to antibiotics and measure the diameter of the constituent circle around each antibiotic and then measure the diameter Circle Counting shed laser on these dishes and the presence of antibiotics together also for periods of time (1 to 6) minutes, the result show that not killed Pseudomonas Aeruginosa in the case of the use of laser alone wavelength and strength of the above for the time periods mentioned above, and in the case of the use of antibiotics alone. While when the combination of antibiotic treatment and use of laser was the best result as bacteria began to weaken and increased sensitivity to antibiotics when using laser light for one minute and the presence of antibiotic and weakened bacteria more and killed about half the number of colonies when the light of laser shed for (3 minutes) and the use of antibiotic also the sensitivity of bacteria to antibiotics increased to (100%) where bacteria killed and the elimination of all colonies when using antibiotics and laser irradiation for (6 minutes) in one. We use an antibiotic (Penicillin, terramycine, ciprofloxacin, azactam, maxipime, cephalexin, amikacin,gentamicin). The result was better when using gentamicin antibiotic than the rest of antibiotics and amikacin.

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON STABILIZATION OF BLACK COTTON SOIL USING TEXTILE SLUDGE WASTE TREATED WITH HYDRATED LIME

By E. S. KARTHIKEYAN and R. VINOTHKUMAR

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Construction industry is very crucial for infrastructure improvement because it gives enormous rise to country's economy. Since black cotton soil are very fertile soil, so they are not good for pavement and foundation [1]. Black cotton soil is expansive clay, since it processes high swelling and shrinkage characteristics due to change in moisture content. Soil enhancement skill like stabilization and reinforcement are hired to improve geotechnical properties of soil, thereby strengthening the reliability of construction. Textile sludge waste was added to black cotton soil in varying proportions of 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 % and 50 %. Hydrated lime was added to soil in varying proportions of 2 %, 4 %, 6 %, 8 % and 10 % with the optimum proportions obtained from textile sludge waste. The outcome drawn from this debate is that black cotton soil stabilized with textile sludge waste and hydrated lime showed optimum performance in prescription of 20 % and 6 % correspondingly by weight of soil.

STUDY EFFECT THE EXTRACT OF CLADOPHORA GLOMERATE CLADOPHORA GLOMERATE ALGAE ON THE PARASITE OF ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA

By Shatha Khudhaier Abbas

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Was isolated parasitic amoeba fabric E.histolytica in samples bloody diarrhea mucosa of patients infected with Wales a hot amoebic Amoebic dysentery and has its own development in the center of Luc-eggs (LE) axis to add protein pro complex) GALNER) instead of white emulsion, the results showed the success of the implant in the middle, accompanied bacteria, growth continued for two weeks, included this term secondary farm to perpetuate the amoeba. The effectiveness of selected two concentrations chloroform extract cladophora glomerat first concentration 128 mg / ml and second concentration 256 mg / ml. The results showed the effect of two concentrations against amoeba condition of the fabric in the glass. the effectiveness of the extract with the increase mixture focus, where it came from homicide rate of 80% when using the extract 128 mg / ml and 90% when using concentration 256 mg / ml, has influence came to extract a higher content of alkaloids, phenols and Alsabonyat and Alkleikosadat. In-vitro was, VFD was measuring enzyme AIP in the positive control 0.28± 28.6 K.A.U / 100ml and dosed Group by concentration 128 mg / ml was 11.48± 0.6 K.A.U/ 100ml and7.42± 0.055 K.A.U/ 100ml in the second concentration as compared with the negative control group5.23± 0.072 K.A.U/ 100ml treated falagel 7.21± 0.080 K.A.U/ 100ml. enzyme LDH results were in the range of positive control 68.82± 0.3425 U/ L dosed group by concentration 128mg/ ml was50.28± 0.1398 U/ L. As the second concentration 36.36± 0.3425 U/ L. As compared to negative control Group25.28± 0.3425 U/ L group dosed by flagel 51.11± 0.16 U/ L. The cholesterol was in the positive control group and the group141.3± 10.1 U/ L dosed group 128mg/ ml was 156± 0.3422.9 U/ L the second concentration 174.17± 4.40 U/ L as compared to the negative control group184.53± 0.26 U/ L by filagel treatment group 180.5.± 0.221 U/ L, Keriaten was within the normal boundaries (1.2-0.5) mg/dl. A concentration of glucose in the positive control group was 92.28± 5.55 U/ L and the dosed group by low concentration was 86.6± 0.34211 U/ L. The high concentration was 95.5± 5.11 U/ L compared to the negative control group 99.32± 3.41 U/ L and the treatment group95.5± 5.11 U/ L. The total protein concentration, was positive in the control group 6.65± 0.33 U/ L and the dosed by the low first concentration 7.71± 2.84 U/ L and the higher 6.53± 0.561 U/ L as compared with the negative control control 7.21± 0.802 U/ L and treatment by filagel 6.25± 0.31 U/ L.

PARAMETRIC STUDY ON GEOGRID – REINFORCED FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT

By A. Nivedhitha1, K. Sekar2, P.T. Ravichandran3

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Due to the rapid increase in the growth of traffic, there is frequent occurrence of various damages in the pavement. To rectify the damage in the pavement many improvement methods are adopted using chemicals, admixtures, industrial waste, etc. Even though it cannot fulfil the strength requirement of the pavement for traffic flow. In view of this for the past four decades, the attempts were made to use geosynthetics in the pavement. In this line, the attempt is made to investigate the effect of reinforcement in the flexible pavements. The models are made with and without reinforcement and their performances are perceived by analysis made using finite element programme PLAXIS 8.2. The analysis of pavements involves the parametric study of displacement, effective stress and effective strain. Results of unreinforced and reinforced pavement obtained and are compared. From the comparisons, it is observed that the strength of the geosynthetic reinforced pavement is prominently higher than the unreinforced pavement (nearly 11 times). This technique helps to analyze the pavement on weaker soil with geosynthetics.

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE ANTERIOR AND POSTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT AFTER KNEE REPLACEMENT: CORRELATIONS WITH VITAMIN D, CALCIUM AND C- REACTIVE PROTEIN IN IRAQI PATIENTS WITH OSTEOARTHRITIS

By Nabaa S. Abdul Sahib1, Sahar A. H. Al-Sharqi2 and Mahmood Shihab Wahab3

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic disease and the most common arthritis forms which involving deterioration of articular cartilage. The present study is a case control study aimed to examine some histopathological change with knee OA patients and biochemical test in both patients and controls. Tissue samples anterior cruciate ligament and Posterior cruciate ligament (ACL, PCL) obtained from 50 knee OA patients (35 females and 15 males) during total knee replacement for histological study. Blood sample were obtained from 50 knee OA patients and 25 controls. The tissue sample and whole blood were collected during the period from October 2015 to June 2016. In the current study, there are many histopathological changes in knee OA tissues (ACL and PCL) such as congestion of blood vessels, edema, fibrocystic proliferation and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Likewise, the assessment of vitamin D revealed that there was significant difference (p < 0.05) between (Healthy or Patients). Although vitamin D concentration was lower in patients than controls but the difference was not statistically significant, but there is a significant difference in serum vitamin D concentration between male OA patient and female OA patient. Also, there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in serum Calcium concentration of males in patients group when compared with males in controls group. Calcium concentration showed no-significant difference between male and female in patients group. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in concentration of C- reactive protein (CRP) among all groups.

DETECTION OF P53 and Bax genes ASSOCIATED WITH HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION

By ASEEL H. AL-SABARY, MOHAMMED S. ABDUL RAZZAQ, MOSHTAK A. WTWT

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

H. pylori is considered one of the most common human pathogen worldwide, with infection rates much higher in developing countries than in developed nations. The aim of this study is the investigation of some candidate genes include P53 and Bax genes mutation associated with H. pylori infection and study the role of H. pylori virulence genes on the induction of P53 and Bax genes mutation. The results show a total of 92 gastric biopsies gave positive results for the presence of H. pylori diagnosed by molecular technique. Only (49) cag a positive H. pylori strains obtain from gastric biopsy of patient suffering from H. pylori infection which also harboring cag E and vacA genes. Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) technique used to identify mutations in the p53 gene in several exons. Where 16 alterations in exon E5A, 19 alterations in exon E5B6A, 17 alterations in exon E7 and only two in exon E6B; but no alteration was appeared in exon E8 of P53 gene. In the same way, PCR-SSCP analysis detected alterations in Bax gene where only 14 positive samples gave alteration in the sequence of Bax gene in exons E1, E4 and E6. Regarding to exon 1 of Bax gene, it was appeared that only 10 samples gave positive gene locus mutation. This may attribute to H. pylori which stimulate Bax mutation through its ability to produce cag A protein which has the ability to cause changing in gene sequence and function. It is concluded that p53 and Bax genes mutation is important tool in the screening of genetic alteration associated with H. pylori infections.

TO STUDY THE FLEXURAL BEHAVIOUR OF NON-PRISMATIC BEAMS USING SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE

By Imran Sharik M.1, Joshua Daniel A.2

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is a type of concretethat consolidates under its own weight without external compaction. The extremely fluid nature of SCC makes it appropriate to use in difficult conditions and in sections with congested reinforcement.Non prismatic beams have non uniform cross section and so congestion arises due to closely spaced stirrups and bars. Compaction by vibrator is difficult, to overcome this beam are studied with self-compacting concrete. The present paper focuses on investigating the characteristics of M50 grade of self- compacting concrete where cement is replaced with ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and Micro Silica (MS) with six different proportions. Fresh concrete properties of the concrete were studied. Cubes and prisms were casted and tested to obtain the optimum proportion. This is further used in fabrication of non- prismatic beams. Flexural behavior of these beams are tested and compared with that of the conventional beam

COMPARATIVE ANALYTICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY BASED ON STRENGTHENING OF RC BEAM USING TEXTILE FIBER AND ARAMID FIBER

By Sharmilee S.1, Pavithra C.2, Karthiga S.2

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Textile fiber and aramid fiber is being used as the polymer used in the strengthening of the beam in tensile and flexure. The jute textile fiber's tensile and flexural property is compared with the kevlar aramid fiber. The jute textile fiber is readily available in the Indian market as it is been used in many other fields. The jute fiber reinforced polymer is cheap when compared with the kevlar fiber reinforced polymer. Kevlar is the material used in the armor jackets, gloves since it has great resistance except to direct contact with the ultra-violet rays. This work carries out the comparative study of the jute fiber reinforced polymer and kevlar fiber reinforced polymer in strengthening of material using the wrapping technique. The fiber is externally wrapped on the beam. The wrapping is placed on the beam and coated with the primer. The fiber reinforced polymer is wrapped around the beam in single layer with different percentages. The percentages used here in this beam are 25%, 50%, 90% in experimental and in analytical.

SOME HEPATIC AND RENAL HISTOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF THE ARTIFICIAL TESTOSTERONE (SUSTANON) ON FEMALE RATS

By Ekhlas Abd Hamza*, Kareem Hameed Rashid**

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

This experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of three different doses of artificial testosterone (sustanon) on the histological structure and the function of liver and kidney. For this experiment 48 adult female rats divided into four groups received 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 mg/kg respectively in addition to one control group for a period of 42 days. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experiment for liver enzymes levels analysis. Then the animals were sacrificed and dissected out to remove liver and kidneys for histopathological study. The results showed significant changes in liver enzymes compared with control group. All treated groups showed enlargement and congestion in hepatocytes and nephrons. In addition to that, Cellular swelling, vacuolar degeneration, fatty changes and apoptosis were noticed in all treatment groups. It was concluded from this study that artificial testosterone at the above doses had hepatic and renal histological and physiological changes in female rats and these findings suggesting a similar effect in human

REMOTE SENSING AND GIS-MULTICRITERIA DECISION ANALYSIS FOR GROUND WATER RESOURCES MAPPING OF THALAVADI BLOCK - ERODE DISTRICT IN TAMIL NADU

By P. MUTHUKUMAR, E. SAKTHIVEL

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Water is one of the most vital natural resources for our daily life. This essential resource is obtained mainly from surface water and ground water. Inconsistency and unequal availability of surface water leads to the search for ground water. Ground water is profoundly utilized in irrigation, industries and for domestic purposes. Therefore, the quality of ground water is equally important as its quantity. The present study makes use of geo-spatial technology in mapping the spatial variability [Choudhary, et al.,1996] of ground water quality. Ground water samples were collected in study area. The major water quality parameters such namely pH, Electrical Conductivity[EC], Total Dissolved Solids, Total hardness, Iron, Chloride, Nitrate and Fluoride have been estimated for all the sampling locations. The spatial variation maps of these ground water quality parameters were generated and utilize as thematic layers. The thematic layers were given ranks based on their relative importance. Different classes within each thematic layer were assigned weight ages in numerical rating from 1 to 3 as attribute values in GIS environment. Summation of these attributes [Ganesh and Sashikkumar, et al., 2015] values and the corresponding rank values of the thematic layers were utilize to generate the final ground water quality map. The final map shows the different classes of ground water quality within the district. This can be utilized in giving guideline for the suitability of ground water uses.

SEROPREVALENCE OF RUBELLA, CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, HERPES, AND TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN RECURRENT ABORTED WOMEN IN BAGHDAD

By Roua Jamal Abdulkhaliq1, Sabaa Taher Mohammed2, Ahmed Abdul-Hassan Abbas3

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Recurrent Abortion (RA) in the general populations is common occurrence and often changes among different communities. This study was to determination the prevalence of Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, herpes, and Toxoplasma Gondii in Baghdad. Blood samples were collected from 210 women, 180 women with recurrent abortion (three or more abortions) in the first trimester and 30 women with a healthy pregnancy. Based on the clinical examination, and diagnostic laboratory findings of the rapid lateral immune chromatography assay (RLICA), and Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for TORCH examination measured serum levels of immunoglobulin (IgM and IgG) for Toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, herpes, and rubella in aborted women. Depending on the result of ELISA test the patients were included women with recurrent abortion with sero-negative for TORCH test was 50 (27.8%), women with recurrent aborted with sero-positive for antitoxoplasma antibodies was 44 (24.5%), women with recurrent abortions suffering from infected with different causes such as cytomegalovirus, Rubella or Herpes ratio were 86 (47.7%) and women with a healthy pregnancy (normal third delivery or more and with no previously recognized miscarriage) was 30 (14.3%). Also the results pointed out that the seropositivity rate for CMV IgG, T. gondii IgG, Rubella IgG, and HSV IgG were higher in recurrent aborted women compared with CMV IgM, T. gondii IgM, Rubella IgM, and HSV IgM also in recurrent aborted women with highly significant difference (P<0.05). The results indicated that the efficacy of ELISA test was higher than rapid test in detecting of TORCH infections. Aim of this Study: Determination the prevalence of Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, herpes, and Toxoplasma Gondii gondii in Baghdad and to detect the efficacy of ELISA test in detecting of TORCH infections.

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY TO INVESTIGATE THE LATERAL LOAD RESISTING BEHAVIOUR OF SHEAR WALL USING SCC

By Goutham L., Joshua Daniel A.

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Self-compacting concrete (SCC) has low yield stretch, high deformability and appropriate thickness to guarantee uniform suspension of strong particles amid transportation, arrangement without outer compaction. Shear wall is a structural system which provides stability to the structure. Since reinforcement in shear wall has closely spaced, compaction is difficult which necessitate the incorporation of self-compacting concrete. The present paper focuses on investigating the characteristics of M50 grade of self-compacting concrete where cement is replaced with ground granulated impact heater slag (GGBS) and Micro Silica (MS)with six different proportions. Fresh concrete properties of the concrete were studied. Cubes, cylinders were casted and tested to obtain the optimum proportion. This is further used in fabrication of shear wall and shear wall with opening. Shear behavior of these walls were tested and compared with that of the conventional beam.

MOLECULAR DETECTION OF ENTAMOEBA GINGIVALIS USING POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

By RAFLAA S. H. HUSSIAN

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Background and objective: Periodontitis is still until now not understood, it's being recorded as public health problems. This disease is caused by bacteria and parasite. Two parasites found in mouth Trichomonas tenax and Entamoeba gingivalis. Entamoeba gingivalis; opportunistic parasite finding in mouth, has only trophozoite form. This parasite possibly has a connection with Periodontitis. The objective of the study: compares between multi – methods for E. gingivalis detection, including microscopic examination, culturing the parasite in a modifying TrypticaseYeast Extract-Serum-Gastric Mucin-9 (TYSGM-9) medium and molecular detection of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Methods: 100 Cotton swab samples from patients with Periodontitis were collected using three or two sterile cotton swabs for everyone. The 50 samples were diagnosed by microscopic examination and 50 samples culturing on modifying TYSGM-9 media and then using PCR to insure found Entamoeba gingivalis grew on media and The 50 samples were diagnosed by PCR using specific primers of the SSU rDNA gene (Small Subunit of the ribosomal DNA gene). The No. of sample under testing 100 or 150 . Result: About 18 (36%) samples positive by microscope, and 20 (40%) samples positive by culture. Whereas the result of PCR positive for these 20samples of culture. So the PCR technique is the best method to detect E. gingivalis and modify TYSGM-9 media is perfect to grow this parasite. You mean all patients under study infections by parasite but no bacteria? Conclusions: The modifying TYSGM-9 medium and molecular detection by PCR using specific primers of the SSU rDNA gene are the best methods for E. gingivalis detection as ceasing to periodontal diseases and distinguished from other pathogens.

STUDY ON SIGNIFICANT SUCCESS FACTORS FOR LABOUR SUBCONTRACTORS IN INDIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

By G. Smrithi1, V.P. Golda Percy2 , V. Visalan3, P. Aravind4

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

In current scenario, construction industry is growing tremendously with huge and complex projects. The large quantity and complexity of work puts the various construction project in a challenging environment. In order to successfully complete the project within the scheduled time and available resources there is a requirement for more amount of skilled labours which the construction industry is in demand of. So the contractors undertaking high budget construction projects with more quantity of work opt to allot their huge proportion of works to labour subcontractors. In this paper the significant success factors for subcontractors who are specialist in providing manpower for various construction works are identified and assessed. Initially a questionnaire survey was conducted and significant success factors were identified through statistical analysis of the data. Further a qualitative analysis technique was approached by semi structured interview with the concerned experts for assessment of the identified significant success factors

IoT BASED PATIENT MONITORING SYSTEM USING RASPBERRY PI 3 and LabVIEW

By K. Mohanraj1, N. Balaji2, R. Chithrakkannan3

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Continuous monitoring of critical patients and their biological parameters are transmitted to doctor’s console, and doctor’s domain address in person using Internet of Things technology (IoT). The design involves measurement of all critical parameters of patients using sensors. Vital parameters measured are temperature, respiration, and pulse rate, humidity and oxygen saturation level using dht11 sensor, MQ sensor, pulse sensor and pulse oximeter sensor. The input sensors are interfaced with an Arduino board and then the signals are transferred to the Raspberry Pi controller and the vital parameters are transmitted to the centralized monitor, where the front end is designed using Lab VIEW software. Using IoT, physicians are notified about the sudden change in patient’s condition. The graphical representation of the patient’s data is displayed in the doctor’s console using Lab VIEW, and the critical readings of the patient are sent to the doctor’s domain address through IoT. Thus, critical patients can be monitored by the doctors from wherever they are, enabling more care and attention towards the patient’s health by the doctor.

EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON TRENGTHENING OF RCC BEAMS BY USING THE FLAX SEEDS AS A PARTIAL REPLACEMENT FOR CEMENT

By V. Visalan1, L. Sabarigirivasan2, P. Aravind3, G. Smrithi4

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

The role of fibres plays a vital role in modern construction field, the natural form of fibres are said to be the most studied material. The flax seed is the natural forms of fibre possess condescending mechanical properties where the young’s modulus rate and tensile strength are in good range and it is eco-friendly. The flax seeds are powdered in a fine manner and it is used as the partial replacement of cement. By adding the flax seeds in the ratio of 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2% in RCC beams and it is further tested under cyclic loading to determine the flexural strength and stiffness value. Finally the mechanical properties and strengthening capacity of the flax seed beams are compared with conventional RCC beams.

THE EFFECT OF POLYSACCHARIDE IN THE FERMENTATION MEDIUM ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BACTERILA CELLULOSE FROM Gluconacetobacter xylinus BTCC B796

By Yunan Kholifatuddin Sya’di1,3*, Endang Tri Wahyuni2, Enandg Sutriswati Rahayu1, Muhammad Nur Cahyanto1*.

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Effect of addition of starch, agar, and alginate on the physical properties of Bacterial Cellulose produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus BTCC B796 has been studied. The strain was grown in Hestrin Schramm medium supplemented by either starch or agar or alginate with various concentrations at room temperature for 7 days without shaking. The cellulose produced was analyzed for crystallinity index, functional groups, cellulose morphology, tensile strength, water holding capacity, and rehydration ratio. The addition of starch, agar and alginate decreased the crystallinity of Bacterial cellulose, in which the strongest effect was shown by starch. Furthermore, it was observed that the addition of polysaccharide led to decrease in tensile strength, increase in the rehydration ratio and water holding capacity, except agar. Addition of starch gave more pronounced effects than that of agar or alginate.The addition of starch in the medium resulted in decreasing the crystallinity and changes the physical properties greater than agar and alginate

RISK MANAGEMENT ON BOT SCHEME ON POST CONSTRUCTED TOLL ROADS

By P. ARAVIND1, V. P. GOLDA PERCY2, V. VISALAN3, G. SMRITHI4, A.M. SNEHA5

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

BOT (Build, Operate, Transfer) scheme means the government transfers the concession to private company where the company is responsible for building and operating the project, and transfers the project back to the government when the concession expires. This kind of BOT (Build, Operate, and Transfer) projects is currently fashionable worldwide. The important issues concerning a highway B-O-T project is the risk factors which have been involved on the post constructed toll roads. This paper deals with the factors on risk which have been involved on a constructed toll road. Different toll roads were considered. Risk identification and classification based on risk factors has been done on the toll roads. The risk parameters are measured by the collection of details from various experts from toll road projects. AHP (analytic hierarchy process) is used for analyzing the data to determine the risk factors and their impact at different stages in road project. The comparative study is made between city and highway toll roads where many differences in management of roads were obtained. Keywords: BOT, Highway, Risk Factors, Toll Roads, AHP Analysis

COCKROACHES (Periplaneta americana ): RESERVOIRS OF METALLO ? LACTAMASE AND EXTENDED SPECTRUM ?-LACTAMASE PRODUCING BACTERIA IN MEDICAL CITY HOSPITAL IN BAGHDAD, IRAQ

By Mohammed F. AL-Marjani, Raghad A. Abdulrazaq, Zahraa A. Khadam, Reyam I. Daham and Khiaria J. Tothli

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Cockroaches are usually major carriers of pathogenic bacteria, prompting economic and serious health risk problem for humans by carrying bacteria and allergens. This study focuses on isolation of bacteria from Periplaneta americana in Medical City Hospital in Baghdad. In total, thirty adult cockroaches were collected randomly in February 2017. Antibiotic susceptibility test was done for each bacterial species. In total, 21 bacterial isolates were identified. The most common diagnostic bacterium isolated from the cockroaches was found to be Klebsiella pneumoniae (33.33%). Coagulase -ve Staphylococci were found in 19% of the isolates. About 42.8% of cockroach bacterial isolates were found to express ES?Ls trait while 19% of isolates expressed M?Ls trait. Two isolates harbored the blaTEM ES?Ls gene. None of the isolates harbored blaIMP, blaCTX or blaVIM. Current study indicates that Periplaneta americana is reservoirs for bacterial isolates which produce ES?Ls and M?Ls.

EVALUATION OF EFFICIENCY OF REHABILITATION SCHEME OF VIERENDEEL GIRDER

By Avinash Kumar P.S.1 and Satyanarayanan K.S.2

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

The significant advantage of vierendeel beam system in building construction is that they can be used in portal frames, taken suitable advantage of the member flexural and compression resistances eliminating the need for extra diagonal members. For this reason, they allow greater interaction with building services, enabling a free space for pipes, ducts, etc. Due to tremor, this-structures are damaged partly or totally. In general, such structures are repaired and used again. In this study, two bay single storey R.C. bare frame is carried out in experimental manner. The R.C bare frame is retrofitted by using infilled, strut, GFRP and CFRP. All these frames were tested under static cyclic loading. This paper summarises the tests experimentally carried out to develop an efficient strengthening method for seismically affected vie rend eel structures. The experimental results were compared by using a finite element software. In this study shows that the retrofitted vierendeel girder shows more stiffness than the R.C. frames.

IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL PROTEINS INVOLVED IN INULIN METABOLISM FROM COLONDERIVED LACTOBACILLUS CASEI STRAINS

By Widodo1,2*, Dwi Aditiyarini1 and Tutik Dwi Wahyuningsih1,3

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

The Lactobacillus casei strains AP and AG are lactic acid bacteria originating in the gastrointestinal tract. The strains were grown in inulin as the only carbon source to identify inulin-degrading proteins and their metabolism. To examine their inulin metabolism, sugar analysis was performed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for intracellular- and supernatant-derived samples. Sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDSPAGE) was used to identify inulin-degrading proteins; this was followed by electrospray ionisation - liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (ESI-LC-MS/MS) analysis of specific protein bands. The cell wall protein profiles of bacterial cells grown in inulin showed different band sizes at 30 and 50 kDa from those grown in glucose. The 30-kDa proteins belonged to the phosphotransferase system mannose/fructose/sorbose-specific IID component, ATP-binding cassette transporter and ATP-binding cassette transporter substrate-binding protein. These proteins may be involved in the intracellular inulin transport in the L. casei strains AP and AG.

ANALYTICAL STUDY ON FUNICULAR SHELLS WITH VARYING RISES

By P.M. Siddharth1, C. Pavithra2, S. Karthiga3

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

The construction of buildings has started by using concrete many years ago and from then there hasn’t been much improvement in terms of structural design of buildings. In this project, a new way of designing the structure of building by using funicular shells as roof is explored. Funicular shells are the structural systems, which has a special nature and the load is carried on the curvature of shell. Funicular shells which consists of zero percentage steel reinforcement are used for both flooring and roofing systems. The study aims to investigate funicular shells of varying spans of 1 m to 2 m with varying rises of L/10 to L/20 are analyzed. The results suggest that the L/D ratio plays an important role in the deflection, tensile stress, compressive stress and strain values. The accession in rise of the shell is more advantageous in reducing the deformation values. Conclusions are drawn based on the results produced from the software.

ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC VARIABILITY OF OPEN-POLLINATED OIL PALM IN SOUTHERN THAILAND USING SSR MARKERS

By Thanet Khomphet1, Theera Eksomtramage1,2, Saowapa Duangpan1,2*

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Genetic variability of plant materials is very crucial when they are used for breeding purpose. In this present study, genetic variation of 100 open pollinated seeds of tenera hybrid (dura x pisifera) from five provinces in southern Thailand including Phang-nga, Krabi, Surat Thani, Trang and Chumphon were assessed using SSR markers. Seven SSR primers produced 20 alleles with the average of 2.86 alleles per locus. AMOVA analysis based on sampling locations indicated that 99% of genetic variation was observed within populations rather than among populations. Therefore, oil palm populations from different provinces were not significantly diverged. The genetic relationships among oil palm genotypes were further analyzed using cluster analysis and PCoA based on Jaccard’s similarity coefficient. One hundred oil palms were clustered into two groups, regardless of sampling locations. These analyses are useful information for establishing material for breeding program and for crossing scheme. High genetic variability to be included in breeding population can be achieved by selecting oil palms from two different clusters identified.

SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF ADJACENT BUILDINGS WITH POUNDING EFFECT

By S. PRAGADEESWARAN, S. PRADEEP

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

During major earthquakes, pounding between two adjacent structures will be an important phenomenon which may cause severe damages to the structures. Structural components of those pounded structures will be greatly damaged during earthquake excitation. Insufficient distances between the structures are the main reason for the pounding effect. To mitigate the effect of the pounding the simplest form is to provide maximum separation distance to the structures. Thus, it is very important to find out the pounding effect of two closely spaced structures during an earthquake excitation. Non-linear seismic analysis has been done to investigate the effect of pounding damage between the two MDOF adjacent buildings subjected to ground motion and the time history analysis has been used for this paper. The results are observed in the form of story shear, story drift and displacement which are helpful to find the occurrence of pounding between the two structures.

EVALUATION OF SOME CHEMOKINES LEVELS IN IRAQI PATIENTS INFECTED WITH VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS

By 1Ali Nazar Yaseen, 2Israa Kasim Al- Aubaidi and 3Thikra Falih Hasan

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), or kala-azar, is one of the deadliest and most disregarded of all tropical maladies. The presence of inflammatory mediators in serum could hypothetically control the disease. However, there is likewise liberation of anti-inflammatory mediators that could intervene with the control of parasite multiplication. The objective of the current work is to determine levels of some serum chemokines that incorporate granulocytes-macrophages colonies stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) of Iraqi patients with VL which can be considered as a biomarkers for VL infection. Sixty people were included in the present study; thirty- five of them were infected with VL while 25 uninfected people were considered as control. Patients were recognized on the premise of clinical and parasitological criteria. Sera (GM-CSF, IP-10 and VEGF) levels were determined by ELISA using a quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique. The results showed that there were no significant differences (0.05) between males and females infected with VL, while sera levels of GMCSF, IP-10, and VEGF were significantly higher in patients group than healthy subjects (P<0.01).

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF R.C.C. AND COMPOSITE STRUCTURES WITH DIFFERENT VERTICAL IRREGULARITIES

By S. Prabhu Booshan*, S. Sindhu Nachiar, S. Anandh

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Overall development of the country is based on the infrastructural development. Hence for the construction, nowadays RC structures are being replaced with steel-concrete composite structure due to their structural efficiency which also include cost and time efficiency. During an earthquake, damage occurs due to the discontinuities in the structure. Discontinuities are caused by the presence of irregularities in the structure. Irregular structures are highly vulnerable to seismic forces. Hence structures with different irregularities must be analysed for their performance under seismic force. In this paper, different vertical irregularities such as stiffness, mass and geometric irregularities are analysed for both RC and composite structure.10 storey RC and steel-concrete composite structure are modelled and analysed using response spectrum method in ETABS 2015. On comparison, steel-concrete composite structures with different vertical irregularities perform better than irregular RC structures.

GALACTOSIDASE FROM WATERMELON (Citrullus lanatus) SEEDLINGS: PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND PROPERTIES.

By Asma Saeed1, Muhammad Salim1, Umber Zaman2, Rubina Naz2, Saleem Jan3 and Ahmad Saeed4*

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

?-Galactosidase from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seedlings was partially purified. Extract was fractionated in two steps with ammonium sulfate at 30 & 80% saturations. Ammonium sulfate precipitated enzyme yielded 60% recovery and two folds purification of the enzyme. Further, the enzyme was subjected to CM-Cellulose and Sephadex G-100 chromatography to obtain 24-folds purification. The specific activity was increased to from 1.5 U to 36 U per milligram of protein. The overall yield was 13.2%. The enzyme had optimum pH 4.8 and pH stability between pH 4.0 and 7.0 was observed. Optimum temperature was 50°C and temperature stability was also shown up to 50°C. Thereafter enzyme activity fell and inactivated completely at 70°C. The Km and Vmax were found to be 0.2 mM and 34Umin-1mg-1of protein, respectively. ?-mercaptoethanol exhibited very small activation at moderate concentration, but the inhibition was displayed at high concentrations. Heavy metal ions such as Al+3, Ag+1, Hg+2, etc. inhibited the enzyme strongly. The inhibition by heavy metals and SH-reacting reagents suggests that cystein was necessary for enzyme activity. On the addition of ?-mercaptoethanol to pre-incubated enzyme with metal ions, the inhibition was relieved. The ?-Galactosidase activity was increased in the presence of alcohols. This activation reflected glycosyltransferase activity.