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EDITORIAL BOARD

2017

Nrf2: A MASTER REGULATOR OF CELLULAR DEFENSE MECHANISM AND A NOVEL THERAPEUTIC FACTOR

By Shahzadi Javeed1, Maha Almas1, Muhammad Shahid2, Aleena Sumrin1, Hamid Bashir1, Muhammad Bilal1, Zafar Saleem1, Ghulam Zahra Jahangir1, Samia Afzal2, Muhammad Idrees1, Iram Amin2*

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

Nrf2 is a potent regulator for the cellular defense system and belongs to a member of the cap ‘n’ collar (CNC) subfamily of transcription. Nrf2 senses the chemical, electrophilic and radiation-induced oxidative stress under basal conditions. Nrf2 is repressed and retained in cytoplasm by its negative regulator Keap1 and is polyubiquitinated by cullin E3 ubiquitin ligase complex for its proteasomal degradation, but stress induces the modification in cullin E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and leads towards its reduced ability to polyubiquitinate Nrf2 and results in Nrf2 escape from Keap1 and mediates the transcription of antioxidant electrophile response element (ARE) to encode antioxidant enzymes that neutralize the effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we highlighted the activity of Nrf2 as a therapeutic agent in oxidatively stressed diseases such as heart failure, cancer, neurological, bone and joint disorders and it can be induced by numerous natural and synthetic compounds.

RUBBER ELONGATION FACTOR (REF) AND SMALL RUBBER PARTICLE PROTEIN (SRPP) GENE EXPRESSION RESPONSES TO VARIATION OF SEASONAL CHANGE IN FOUR SELECTED RUBBER CLONES

By Auksorn Klaewklad1, Korakot Nakkanong1, Chatchamon Daengkanit Nathaworn2 and Charassri Nualsri*1

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

Applying molecular marker for estimating the amount of production yield will help to reduce time for selecting rubber clones. In this study, gene expression analyses under different seasons were performed in rubber tree since seasonal change is one of the most important factors to latex yield. Four rubber clones (SK1, NK1, T2 and SK3) that have high latex yield potential were used in this study. The latex yields and gene expression levels of REF and SRPP genes were compared over two year, using RRIM 600 clones in the same fields as their paired controls. Moreover, the seasonal effects on gene expression were analyzed. The average yields and gene expression were obtained from 13 years old mature trees in the early rainy season, the late rainy season and the summer season. This study revealed that all four selected clones gave higher production yield and exhibited superior REF and SRPP gene expressions than compared-control RRIM 600. Gene expressions of REF and SRPP had positive relationships with latex yield. Moreover, we found that the highest REF and SRPP gene expressions were recorded in late rainy season that agreed with the amount of production yield. The late rainy season was a good period to investigate differential expression of the candidate molecular marker genes. The results corroborate the two genes’ expression as surrogate selection criteria for high yield rubber clones.

CAUSE AND EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION - AIR, WATER, NOISE &LIGHT

By 1D. Saravanan and 2S. Vijaya lakshmi

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

As the of population increases the country faces different form of pollution which creates challenging environmental issues and cause climate changes in India. Pollution includes air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, light pollution, garbage pollution, industrial pollution etc. Due to these factors, the environment gets polluted and, it spoils the natural environment. Air and noise pollution in India is creating serious issues with, most Indian cities violating the central government norms. This paper is a comparative study of the various pollution causes and effects.

EFFECT OF INDUCED MUTATION BY UV RADIATION ON COTTON GROWTH, SEEDS AND PROTEASE ACTIVITY

By Kaleemullah Kalwar1,2 and M. Umar Dahot2

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

The cotton has great economical value. The aim of this study to determine the variation in cotton by induced mutation. As cotton seed treated with ultraviolet rays and sodium azide, it has affected on germination of whole plant. The weight as control 1.34 g/boll, UV 1 hour 1.68 g/boll and UV 2 hours 1.82 g/boll measured from cotton plant. The protease activity also determined from aqueous extract of cotton seed as control 43.7 mg/ml, UV 1 hour 24.36 mg/ml and UV 2 hours 26.7 mg/ml respectively.

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND ANALYSIS OF FUME EXTRACTION AND FILTRATION EQUIPMENT

By 1Ramakrishnan, H. and P. Vinoth2

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

Often, Human kind is permitted to inhale the emission of fumes is in the range of 2 to 3 mg/m3. However, it is the most challenging task for the human safety and environmental pollution. It induced to do the work for reducing the toxic content in the fumes released from chemical manufacturing, metal production process and metal joining process. Thus, the investigation carried out in this work to safeguard the human kind by introducing the new design of filter setup as layers. The filtration is done by using different filters, each having the tendency to absorb the toxic particles that are present in the fumes. The filters used are Silicone crystal, Alum filter and layer of cotton. This work helps the industry to reduce the particulate matter and heavy smoke produced by the fumes of metal joining process.

ETIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF PANCYTOPENIA IN CHILDREN AND ADULT PATIENTS BASED ON BONE MARROW BIOPSY

By 1Shahzad Ali Jiskani, 2Shah Muhammad Mahesar and 3Ammara Mahesar

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

To assess the etiological background of pancytopenia based on bone marrow biopsies in children and adult patients was conducted at tertiary care hospitals of Hyderabad Pakistan. It is a retrospective study in which 134 pancytopenic patients from both pediatric and adult groups were included. Clinical background and microscopic findings of bone marrow biopsies were examined. In children age group, it was assessed that acute lymphoid leukemia was most striking cause (25%), followed by infection related changes (21.66%), reactive bone marrow (11.66%), and megaloblastic anemia (10%).While in adult age group the most widespread cause of pancytopenia was megaloblastic anemia (24.32%), followed by infection related changes (17.56%), hypocellular bone marrow (8.1%) and others. Urgent evaluation of pancytopenic patients is very necessary at earlier stage before it turns in to diverse and dangerous etiological changes.

PREVALENCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AMONG GINGIVITIS IN PATIENT WITH ORTHODONTIC WIRES IN KUFA CITY /IRAQ.

By Manar Hussain Abbas*, Ahlam Kadhum Al-Yasseen*, Wisam Wahab Alhamadi**

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the role of orthodontic wire on bacterial community in oral cavity as well as its effectiveness on Staphylococcus aureus. A total of 78 gingival swab samples have been collected from patient with orthodontic wires suffering from gingivitis and 71 samples were collected from healthy without orthodontic wire during four months from private dental clinics. The results of conventional isolation and identification of bacterial isolates as well as biochemical test showed that S. aureus was the commonest causative pathogens among acute gingivitis (46%) followed by Granulicatella adiacens (29.6%) where 36 isolates were isolated from acute and chronic gingivitis in comparison with 27 isolates from healthy. A mutation experiment was carried out to explain the role of orthodontic wires on S. aureus. The results revealed the same change has been obtained when using both of Nikletitanium (NiTi) and stainless steel wire on S. aureus after 24-96 hr from incubation. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of both original and treated isolates with NiTi and stainless steel wires explained increased in antibiotic resistance of S. aureus to bacitracin, ceftazidim, ogmentin, and erythromycin while other antibiotic remain sensitive such as cefotaxim and amikacin.

DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF DUAL BAND RFID ANTENNA USING HYBRID COUPLER WITH CSRR

By Gayathri, R. and M. Maheswari

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

Nowadays wireless communication devices are flourishing. The performance of the wireless devices must be improved and should have small size and less weight. There are many miniaturization techniques to enhance the characteristics and it gathered a widespread concentration. Microstrip patch antenna is widely used as it has better performance such as higher bandwidth, virtuous efficiency. This paper proposes design of dual band circularly polarized (CP) patch antenna with incorporation of branch line coupler with complementary split ring resonator (CSRR). The design has aperture coupled feeding technique designed for UHF and ISM band. FR-4 substrate is used for the proposed antenna. The relative permittivity of the FR-4 substrate is 4.6 and thickness of 1.6 mm which has greater design flexibility, reduced weight, low cost. The branch line coupler is evaluated in terms of Sparameters. Moreover, the antenna with the dual band coupler with separate transmit and receive ports is evaluated in terms of its impedance bandwidth, isolation, antenna gains, and axial ratios. The results showed that the coupler has good return loss and isolation loss characteristics. The proposed structure covered the band of 900 MHz and 2.4 GHz which can be used for UHF and RFID applications.

PHYCOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON MICROSPORA FLOCCOSA (VAUCHER), THURET ALGA COLLECTED FROM THE PONDS OF HYDERABAD, SINDH

By Jamaluddin Mangi1*, Noor-ul-Ain Soomro1, Sarfraz A. Tunio2, A. Hayee Memon1, M. A. Kazi3 and A. Rauf Jamali1

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

Microspora floccosa (vaucher) Thuret is a rich source of fibers, vitamins and proteins. Present study was conducted to analyze the fatty acids and sterol composition of the fresh water green alga Microspora floccosa present in semipermanent ponds near Hyderabad Sindh. The acids were isolated and then converted into methyl esters. Subsequently they were identified by GC-MS, which revealed the presence of methyl undecylate, myristate, tridecylate, pentadecylate, palmitate, margarate stearate and nonadecylate among saturated and methyl pentadecatrienoate, hexadecatrienoate and heptadecylenate among un-saturated fatty acids. Besides above two sterols such as 24-methylcholesterol and cholesterol were also identified through EI-mass spectrometry and 1HNMR spectroscopy.

A HIGH-PERFORMANCE HTK BASED LANGUAGE IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM FOR VARIOUS INDIAN CLASSICAL LANGUAGES

By aKarthick, M., T. Muruganandamb, C.Jeyalakshmic and A.Revathid

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

Language identification is one of the major research areas in the field of speech processing and tremendous works has been done on that. One of the great bottleneck of language identification system is, for languages which are having closely related pronunciation, it is very difficult to classify them. In our experiments, we have considered seven Indian classical languages and Mel frequency cepstrum with their delta cepstral feature are utilized as features and HMM is used as a classifier. Performance of the system is analysed using HTK based continuous density HMM with MFCC features. The state of the art HTK with MFCC features produced 98.1% with 3 Gaussian mixtures and 100% accuracy with 10 Gaussian mixtures even with small amount of training samples. The same method can be utilized for other languages also.

EARLY ISOLATION OF CELL CYCLE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN KINASE (OSWEE) GENE IN RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.)

By Netty Ermawati1and Yossi Wibisono2

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

The developments of grain are regulated by specific genes that control the size and filling of nutrients during the period of post-fertilization, those specific genes are often known as the cell cycle genes. This study aimed to isolate and characterize genes that are involved in regulation of cell cycle. Using yeast two-hybrid screening, we isolated a gene and identified as a OsWee which belongs to a member of cell cycle genes. This gene has an importance role in regulation of cell division during mitosis, based on the expression level analysis using RT-PCR, and highly expressed in kernels 5 days after pollination (5DAP). The sequence analysis showed, a full-length OsWee gene 1239 bp in size encodes for 413 amino acids. Database searches revealed that OsWee contains protein kinase C-like superfamily (PKc-domain), which is known to play a role in phosphorylation of the hydroxyl groups of serine and threonine amino acid to control the function of proteins. Detailed functional analyses of the OsWee may provide more information concerning the complex regulation of protein kinase in rice and for the molecular breeding leading to improve productivity of various agricultural crops.

RECOGNITION OF EMOTIONS IN BERLIN SPEECH: A HTK BASED APPROACH FOR SPEAKER AND TEXT INDEPENDENT EMOTION RECOGNITION

By C. Jeyalakshmi, B. Murugeswari and M. Karthickc

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

Emotion recognition is one of the recent research area in speech processing to recognize the emotions from the human’s speech. It finds various applications in different fields such as, education, gaming and in call centers to improve Human machine interaction. Researchers utilized different data bases and achieved different recognition accuracies. In this paper, we have proposed HTK based emotion recognition using EMO_DB Berlin database. This contains only ten speakers, uttered each emotion 10 times and the emotions considered are Anger, Boredom, Disgust, Fear, Happy, Neutral and Sad. Speaker and text independent emotion recognition is done by using the HMM models with MFCC features, implemented by HTK. The no. of states and mixtures are varied to validate the performance of the system. This system provides recognition accuracy of 68% for HMM models with 3mimtures and 3states. The system performance is also evaluated for speaker dependent and text independent emotions which produces a recognition accuracy of 81.7%. Even with very small amount of database the system produces better accuracy which can be improved by large amount of database.

DEVELOPMENT OF SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS (SNPS) MARKER FOR OLEIC ACID CONTENT IN OIL PALM (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

By Allen Johnny Borlay1*, Suharsono2, 3, Roberdi4, Tony Liwang4

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is an important economic crop species due to the versatile applications of its crude and kernel oils. The necessity to improve oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), which is the world’s most productive oil producing plant under cultivation currently for high yield and oil quality to meet the growing global demand especially in term of its healthy component, oleochemical industrial needs and biodiesel utilization has become a major area of focus for oil palm breeders. Marker assisted selection have played a crucial role in oil palm breeding programs and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) maker is one of those technologies that has recently attracted breeders. High content of oleic acid (18:1) has proven to be that needed component of oil palm and other vegetable oils that can greatly contribute to oil quality improvement. Stearoyl Acyl-carrier-protein Desaturase (SAD) is a key enzyme for oleic acid biosynthesis which plays an important role in determining the composition of unsaturated fatty acids in oil palm. In this study, we identified 9 SNP loci (4 in the exon and 5 in the intron) in SAD gene fragment and developed an allele-specific single nucleotide amplified polymorphism (SNAP) marker for oleic acid content prediction. . Four out of the nine SNAP marker developed and tested on 25 oil palm accessions were polymorphic and reasonably informative. The average expected and observed heterozygosities were 0.391 and 0.404, respectively. The mean polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.312. Our results showed that these SNAP markers will be useful if validated in larger oil palm population in predicting oleic acid composition and genetic variation in oil palm breeding programs based on SAD gene fragment.

DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF LOW NOISE AMPLIFIER WITH FILTERS FOR WBAN BASED HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM

By M. Maheswari*, R. Gayathri and S. Vimal

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

In this paper, the design of LNA with filters structure is proposed for wireless health monitoring system. The receiver in wireless health monitoring system should have efficient LNA as received bio-medical signal should be analyzed very accurately for continuous monitoring of the patient’s health. Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) plays an important role in communication system to suppress the noise in the received signal. This paper proposes a novel design of LNA with band pass filter, butter worth filter and chebychev filter. The proposed LNA has been designed using Advanced Design System tool. The performance of the LNA is analyzed for Gain, Input return loss, Output return loss Noise Figure. The performance of the LNA for different filters has been analyzed and it is found out that LNA with band pass filter provides good performance compared to LNA with butter worth filter and chebychev filters. The proposed LNA with band pass filter can be used for health monitoring system for providing accurate received signal.

APPLICATION OF MICROENCAPSULATED SYNBIOTIC TO IMPROVE THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND HEALTH STATUS OF COMMON CARP (Cyprinus carpio) CULTURED IN THE PONDS

By Ricky Djauhari1, Widanarni*2, Sukenda2, Muhammad Agus Suprayudi2, Muhammad Zairin Jr.2

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

This study aimed to determine the best dose of microencapsulated synbiotic to improve the growth performance and the health status of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) cultured in the ponds. Synbiotic microencapsulation was performed using the spray drying technique. The microencapsulated synbiotic was then administered through feed to common carp (4.81±0.25 g) reared in ponds using hapa net cages sizing 1x1x1 (m3) (30 fish/hapa net cage) for 30 days. This study used the Completely Randomized Design, consisting of four treatments with three replications, a control and microencapsulated synbiotic supplementation at doses of 5, 10 and 20 g/kg feed. Supplementation of the microencapsulated synbiotic could improve the growth performance and the health status of common carp with the best results obtained at a dose of 10 g/kg feed.

GENETIC ENGINEERING OF POTATO PLANT (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. JALA IPAM WITH MmPMA GENE ENCODING PLASMA MEMBRANE H+-ATPASE

By A Farhanah1,2, Suharsono2,3, G A Wattimena2, Utut Widyastuti2,3

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

Plasma Membrane (PM) H+-ATPase has important function as primary transporter driving secondary active transport systems in plant. Some plants overexpressing PM H+-ATPase showed increased light-induced open stomata number and plant growth. This study has an objective to overexpress PM H+-ATPase expected can increase productivity of potato. Genetic transformation was done by cocultivation method using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 carrying pGWB502-MmPMA. Efficiency of transformation in this study is 3.46%. Molecular analysis with PCR was carried out by using primer 35S-F and PMA-R1 to ensure integration of MmPMA into Jala Ipam potato. PCR analysis showed that all of six putative transgenic Jala Ipam potato lines are containing MmPMA gene under the control of 35S CaMV. This study showed that genetic transformation process in Jala Ipam potato with MmPMA gene was successful with enhancing light-induced open stomata percentage, open stomata pore width, and root elongation-under low pH condition.

GENETIC DISTANCE, HERITABILITY AND CORRELATION ANALYSIS FOR YIELD AND FIBRE QUALITY TRAITS IN UPLAND COTTON GENOTYPES

By 1FaizaNizamani, 1Muhammad Jurial Baloch, 1Abdul Wahid Baloch, 2Mehmoda Buriro, 3Ghulam Shah Nizamani, 4Muhammmad Rashid Nizamani and 1Irfan Ahmed Baloch

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

The present research was carried out to determine the genetic distance, heritability and correlation coefficients for yield and fibre quality traits in fifteen upland cotton genotypes. The traits studied were; plant height, sympodial branches plant-1, number of bolls plant-1, boll weight, ginning outturn (%), seed index, seed cotton yield plant-1 and staple length. The genetic distance was further supported by statistical procedures like cluster analysis, coefficient of parentage and principal component analysis. The mean squares from analysis of variance revealed that genotypes differed significantly at 5 % probability level for all the traits except that seed index and staple length were nonsignificant. The mean performance of genotypes suggested that IR-524 produced the tallest plants; Sadori produced the maximum number of sympodial branches plant-1, Sohni formed highest number of bolls plant-1; Tarzan-1 yielded heaviest bolls and gave highest seed cotton yield plant-1; NIA-Ufaq ginned maximum lint % and Chandi-95 recorded highest seed index and measured longest staple length. The correlation coefficient indicated that all the morpho-yield traits were significantly associated with seed cotton yield and with each other suggesting that one or more yield traits can be used as selection criteria to improve the seed cotton yield. The higher heritability estimates (h2b.s) were recorded for almost all the studied traits except seed index. Such results revealed that improvement in those traits can be made through direct phenotypic selection. Cluster analysis arranged all the 15 genotypes into four different groups. Cluster third characterized the genotypes as having more number of plants and with higher seed cotton yield plant-1, hence genotypes of this group may prove promising in producing higher seed cotton yield plant-1. While concerning genetic distance, out of 105 pair wise comparisons, some pairs manifested greater genetic distance; consequently, those genotypes can be utilized in heterosis and backcross breeding programmes for the introgression of novel genes. From principal component analysis (PCA), eight components were extracted for studied characters. The first two components accounted for about 99 % variation from total variation, thus the cumulative percent of variance was 99.0 % in first two components. The first two PCAs demonstrated significantly higher variability that can be exploited for further breeding programmes in cotton.

USE KILLER TOXIN EXTRACTED FROM BAKERY YEAST FOR EXTENDING SHELF LIFE OF FRUITS

By *Mohammed A. Alsoufi and **Raghad A. Aziz

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

Dry Bakery yeast was used to production of killer toxin. Purification steps included use of (NH4)2SO4 30-70% saturated solution and Sephacryl S-200, giving two peaks that collected to give inhibition zones of 28 and 22mm diameter for Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium respectively, with 10.6% yield from the total protein 13.7mg\ml of yeast crude extract. The effect of killer toxin and pullulan coating on growth of some selected microorganism's strains showed inhibition of growth of E. coli, S. typhimurium, Aspergillus ssp., Penicillium ssp., Candida albicans and Pichia jadinii a was 71, 62, 52, 59, 68 and 76% respectively, at a rate of 64.6% for killer toxin (K), and was 68, 70, 42, 48, 61 and 63% respectively, at a rate of 58.6% for pullulan (P), and 74, 68, 65, 68, 71 and 73% respectively, at a rate of 69.83% for 25% P+75% K, and was 83, 76, 72, 81, 76 and 87% respectively, at a rate of 79.16% for 50% P+50% K, and was 67, 72, 54, 56, 64 and 69% respectively, at a rate of 63.66% for 75% P+25% K. The percentage values of weight loss for uncoated and coated apples with 100% (K), 100% (P), 50% K+50% P, 25% K+75% P and 75% K+25% P solutions were 3.2, 4.8, 6.1, 7, 7.2, 8.3 and 9.1%; 3.3, 4.2, 5.1, 5.6, 6.1, 7.2 and 8.3%; 2.9, 3.8, 4.1, 4.6, 5.8, 6.4 and 7.6%; 2.6, 2.8, 3.2, 3.3, 4, 4.7 and 5.1%; 2.9, 3.3, 3.5, 4.1, 5.3, 5.7 and 6%; 3, 3.5, 3.7, 4.4, 5.6, 5.9 and 6.5% respectively, when storage at 25°C for 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 day respectively, while observe spoilage time (days) during apples storage at 25°C showed that the spoilage began to appear at 4, 14, 7, 19, 9 and 12 day for uncoated and coated apples with 100% (K), 100% (P), 50% P+50% K, 25% K+75% P and 75% K+25% P respectively.

PGPR MEDIATED BIO-FORTIFICATION OF TOMATO FRUIT METABOLITES WITH NUTRITIONAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE

By Sabin Fatima1*, Tehmina Anjum1, Riaz Hussain2and Basharat Ali3

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

There is a growing interest in producing food plants with increased nutritional and medicinal values. The purpose of this study was biofortification of nutritionally and pharmacologically important metabolites of tomato fruits by using a PGPR strain “Pseudomonas aeruginosa PM12”. Tomato plants were co-cultivated in the presence of this bacterial strain and changes in fruit metabolites were discovered. Metabolites were quantified and identified by performing GC/MS analysis. The fruit extracts from the tomato plants receiving bacterial strains showed significant up-regulations in quantities of sugars, flavonoids, terpenoids, carotenoids, and total phenolic contents. Principal component analysis well separated both treatment groups to show their significant effects. In support of these findings, metabolomic changes were incorporated in primary metabolic pathways to show that upon exposure to this beneficial bacterial strain, extensive re-modulations were induced in the bio-synthesis pathways of sugars, phenolics, carbohydrates and amino acids. These results suggest that application of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PM12 can induce plants for increased production of various bioactive compounds.

FRY TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus) ANTIBODY IMPROVEMENT AGAINST Streptococcus agalactiae THROUGH BROODSTOCK VACCINATION

By Khairun Nisaa1, Sukenda2*, Muhammad Zairin Junior2, Angela Mariana Lusiastuti3, Sri Nuryati2

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

Maternal immunity through brood stock vaccination could improve antibody of seed to pathogenic infections. This study was aimed to determine the appropriate time to vaccinate tilapia brood stock using a combination of extracellular product and formaline-killed whole cells S. agalactiae. Therefore, experiments were divided into brood stock injected on day seven after spawning (Group 1), brood stock injected on day 14 after spawning (Group 2) and non-vaccinated brood stock as a control group. Vaccination was performed according to gonadal development stages. Macroscopic observation of gonadal development was conducted on the field using fresh specimen, and then analyzed using histological method. The second stage of gonadal development was observed on day seven, and the third stage (peak of vitellogenesis) on day fourteen post-spawning. The results indicated that vaccination time directly affects the antibody accumulation in fish eggs and seeds and the appropriate time to vaccinate broodstock was on the second stage of their gonadal development.

EFFECT OF INJECTION OF HUMAN MENOPAUSAL GONADOTROPHIN AND HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN HORMONE ON SPERMATOGENESIS OF ADULT MALE MICE

By Shaima Ahmed Rahim

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

This study was designed to investigate the effect of the widely-used gonadotrophin hormones (Human Menopausal Gonadotrophin and Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin) on spermatogenesis of adult male albino mice. Thirteen mature swiss mice of Balb/C strain were used in this study. They were divided randomly into control and treated groups. Male mice in the first and second treated groups had been injected intramuscularly with (75 IU of hMG) and (500 IU of hCG) Every 48 hr, for 35 days of this dose. While the mice of the control groups had been injected with (0.9%) normal saline in the same way. The results revealed the following significant differences , when compared with control groups : There were no significant differences in weights of the reproductive organs and there were no significant differences in average of the percentage of spermatogonia and spermatocytes, While the study reports a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the percentage of spermatids of animals treated with hMG hormone and a significant increase (P<0.01) in the percentage of spermatozoa of animals treated with hMG hormone and also A significant decrease (P<0.01) in the average numbers of Leydig cells for the animals treated with hMG and hCG hormones and A significant decrease (P<0.01) in the average diameters of epididymal tubules and the height of epithelial cells of caput epididymis tubules for two animals with hMG and hCG .