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EDITORIAL BOARD

2017

A REVIEW ON BIOTRANSFORMATIONAL STUDIES OF DANAZOL

By Azizuddin

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Biotransformation is the basis of life. Various chemical modifications are occurred by drugs in the body to give metabolites as new molecules having their own features, generally different from those of drug. Danazol (1) is used more effectively for the treatment of endometriosis and benign fibrocystic mastitis. As a result of biotransformation of danazol (1) variety of metabolites, 2-17 were identified by using different sources including a monkey, human (male and female) volunteers and horse, and fermentation with Cephalosporium aphidicola, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium lini, Fusarium solani, Gibberella fujikuorii and Bacillus cerus. This present review will discuss metabolites 2-17, obtained from danazol (1) up to 2012.

A SURVEY ON BORDER ALERT SYSTEMS FOR FISHERMEN

By Nagaraj Balakrishnan, Reshmi S., Arunkumar R. and M.S. Pradeepraj

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

This paper proposes a survey on the different border rescue systems using GPS for Fishermen. Fishermen bring a major portion of income to our economy. These poverty-stricken helpless people risk their lives and sail out into the sea for their livelihood. In India, there are many cases where fisher men from Tamilnadu lost their lives while they crossed the maritime border and sailed into the Sri Lankan premise unaware of the maritime border fact. This unawareness grabbed their lives and it also affected both the country's economic status. So an efficient border alert system for fishermen is necessary. So far, many border alert systems have been put forward. This paper aims to compare some of them and find the most efficient among them.

COMPARISON OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF FOUR HERBAL EXTRACTS AGAINST STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS, ISOLATED FROM DENTAL DISEASES IN VITRO

By 1Nebras N. Al- Dabbagh, 2 Ibtihal M. Abdul, 1Wissam Hamid Al- janabi. 1Esraa Abbas Obead

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

The present study aims to evaluation the antimicrobial effects of four herbal extracts in Streptococcus. mutants. These plants including Rhuscoriaria, Cinnamomum zelanicum, zingiber officinale, Camellia sinensis. Detection of antimicrobial activities of four methanolic herbal plants performed using agar diffusion method. After 24h of incubation the diameters of halos indicative of lack of growth in each well. The zone diameters around each disc were compared with chlorhexidine which is used as positive control. The study indicates methanolic concentration at (20%) have good potential activity on inhibition growth in Streptococcus mutants for C. zelanicum, Rcoriaria, Z. officinale, C. sinensis. (20.33, 17, 9.3, 8.2) respectively.

INVESTIGATION OF THE INHERITED MUTATIONS RELATED TO INVERSION PROCESS OF INTRON 22 IN A SAMPLE OF IRAQI PATIENTS WITH HEMOPHILIA A

By Ismail Hussein Aziz 1, Ali Habeeb AL-Musawi 2*

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Hemophilia (also Haemophilia) is an X- linked recessive bleeding disorder, it is caused due to the deficiency of the coagulation factor eight (FVIII) causing Hemophilia A, or coagulation factor nine (FIX) causing Hemophilia B. The first type (Hemophilia A) is more frequent than the second type (Hemophilia B), representing 80 % of the total of cases of hemophiliacs. About 45% of Hemophilia A caused by inversion in intron 22 of FVIII gene. Two-third of Hemophilia casesare due to inherited mutations, therefore, patients with a family history of this disease. The aim of this study was to detection of mutations of FVIII gene in 18 families ((18 Carriers (patients’ mother) and 18 patients) of hemophilia A patients. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing was performed for specific regions in intron 22 of the FVIII gene.

ASSESSMENT OF COMPOUNDED DOXORUBICIN IN CARDIAC TISSUE OF EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

By Dhifaf Zeki Aziz1 , Merza Hemza Homady1 , Hussein Abdul Kadim2 , Khalida K. Abbas Al-Kelaby3

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Doxorubicin is one of the most important anticancer agents, but its clinical uses are limited due to cardiotoxicity, the present study evaluated the effects of new derivatives of doxorubicin on cardiac tissue by the measurement of serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and CK-BM assays as biomarkers as well as heart tissue after 3 weeks of treatment in albino mice. The results indicated that TnI was significantly elevated (P? 0.05) in all studied groups when compared with the control, also serum CK-MB was significantly elevated (P? 0.05) in all studied groups except that treated with a new compound when compared with the control group. The histopathological study of heart tissue revealed that the treatment with this compound showed less changes in heart tissue.

EFFECT OF GROWTH REGULATORS AND SUCROSE ON THE INDUCTION AND PRODUCTION OF FLAVONOIDS IN CALLUS OF VITIS VINIFERA (L) IN VITRO

By Sarab A. Almukhtar

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

The study included the use of plant tissue culture technique in the induction of the callus of Vitis vinifera and to stimulate the production of flavonoids. The study was carried out in two stages after sterilization: The first stage was the establishment of callus by culturing a single-node on the MS medium which contained 2,4-D and IAA at different concentrations of 0, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5mg/l with a fixed concentration of 0.5mg/L of BA in independent experiments. The second stage was implemented by cultivating the callus that was induced in the first stage on the MS medium which was provided with different concentrations of sucrose of 30, 60, 90, 120g/l. Results of the study showed that the auxin 2,4-D achieved the highest wet and dry callus weight of 1817.20 and 94.38mg respectively, while the IAA achieved a wet and dry callus weight of 660.07 and 66.43mg respectively. The MS medium that was provided with 2.5mg/l auxin achieved the highest wet and dry callus weight of 977.77 and 122.35mg respectively. The 2,4-D at the concentration of 2mg/l gave significantly higher wet and dry callus weight of 2722.50 and 146.50mg respectively compared with other treatments.

INCIDENCE OF NEONATAL SEPSIS IN A SAMPLE OF IRAQI NEWBORNS

By Qasim S. Al-Mayah1 , Fatima Abood Chalob2 , Thanaa Ismaeel Jawad2

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Neonatal sepsis is a common cause of morbidity and mortality among newborns in developing countries. This study aimed to investigate the causative pathogens other than viruses and the predisposing factors for neonatal sepsis among Iraqi newborns. A total of 150 suspected neonates from three Hospitals in Baghdad/Iraq were enrolled in this study. According to time onset, sepsis was divided into early onset sepsis (EOS) and late onset sepsis (LOS). Blood samples were collected from each neonate, then bacterial and fungal detection were achieved through routine culturing, biochemical tests and API system. Anti-toxoplasma IgM and IgG antibodies were investigated by enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). The overall incidence of neonatal sepsis among suspected neonates was 54.67%. Preterm infants, low body weight (LBW), urinary tract infection of the mother and cesarean section delivery seemed to predispose to neonatal sepsis. Staphylococci were predominant in both EOS and LOS sepsis; however, large percentage of these bacteria were coagulase negative in LOS. Overall, gram positive bacteria were more frequent than gram positive bacteria. Fungi and Toxoplasma appeared to have less or no significant role in neonatal sepsis among Iraqi newborns. These data indicate the diversity of pathogenic bacteria associated with neonatal sepsis. Every effort should be considered for early detection of the pathogens to avoid the mortality.

EFFECT OF ZIZIPHUS SPINA CHRISTY EXTRACT IN BIOFILM FORMATION OF METHICILLIN RESISTANCE STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS HAEMOLYTICUS

By Alia Hussein Al-Mousawi and Siham Jasim Al-Kaabi

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

This research aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of hot an aqueous extract of leaves Ziziphus spina Christy (Sidr), against biofilm formation of clinical isolates Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Ten isolates were diagnosed initially as Staphylococci then selected four isolates depending on virulence and resistance to different types of antibiotics. After that VITEK-2compact system (ID and AST) was used to confirm the species of Staphylococci. The results showed that three isolates reverting to Staphylococcus aureus and one to Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Investigation of S. aureus and S. haemolyticus isolates ability to forming biofilm using of Microtiter plate (96 well) methods, the results indicated that all of the isolates were able to produce the biofilm. The effect of Moxifloxacin and Penicillin G with (MIC), (Sub-MIC) and (Sub-Sub-MIC) were detected for preventing of S.aureus and S.haemolyticus biofilm production, as well as hot an aqueous extract of leaves Ziziphus spina Christy (Sidr) with50 mg/ml tested against the biofilm formation, the results showed ability of tow antibiotics and plant extract to prevent biofilm formation.

SEROPREVALENCE OF ANTI-TOXPLASMA GONDII, ANTI-RUBELLA, ANTI-CYTOMEGALOVIRUS AND ANTI-HERPES SIMPLEX IGM ANTIBODIES IN PREGNANT WOMEN IN BAGHDAD

By Layla Fouad Ali, Saja Mohanned, Mays Talib

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Congenital anomalies can be caused by perinatal infections, for this reason early recognition of maternal infections are important for all clinicians. TORCH test (Anti-IgM for Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus and Herpes simplex) was done to 161 pregnant women in Baghdad to establish basic knowledge for future pregnancy care. Blood samples of pregnant women were subjected to TORCH Test. This study showed that the seropositive of pregnant women for anti-Toxo IgM is 30 (18.63%), the seropositive for anti-rubella is 11 (6.83%), for the anti-CMV is 21 (13.04%) and for anti-herpes is 15 (9.31%). A total number of Threat Abortion with infection is 93 (57.7%), Total number of Threat Abortion with infection is 23 (14.28%). This study revealed that TORCH infections may cause spontaneous abortion and T. gondii and CMV infection has greater rate in comparison to Herpes and Rubella virus.

MOLECULAR DETECTION OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE GENES OF ACENITOBACTER BUMANNII

By Mahdi Al-Ammar and Ali Salih Al Maghathry

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

This study aims to detection antibiotic resistance gene in Acenitobacter bumannii isolates collected from different diseases. It was included 276 specimens collected from different sources including patient suffer from burn, wound, upper respiratory tract inflammation, urinary tract inflammation, osteocytes, endocarditis and blood infection. 52 of these isolates belonged to italic pleas which have been identified through several laboratory tests including the morphology characterizes, biochemical, API 20 E and VITK -2 compact system technique. The distribution of isolates was burn (34.6 %), wound (28.8 %), urine (19.2), blood (9.6%), sputum (5.7%), plural fluid and CSF (1.9 %). The molecular study revealed that A. baumannii have the gene of ESBL, oxacillance and MBLs bla OXA like 51, bla OXA like 24, bla PER, bla TEM is (94%, 89%, 84%, 96%) respectively also the gene aadA and aadB is (76% and 84%) respectively fluroquinolone gyrA (66%) and finally all isolates have the gene bla TEM.

SURVIELLANCE OF APPLE CANKER AND IDENTIFICATION OF CANKER PATHOGEN IN APPLE ORCHARDS AT DISTRICT ZIARAT (BALOCISTAN)

By Faisal Adnan1 , Ahmed Khan2 , Umar Zaib1 , Nisar Ahmed3 , Abdul Salam1 and Ghulam Hussain Jatoi4,5

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Apple canker is one of the important diseases of apple orchards across apple growing region of Balochistan. For assessment of the existence, magnitude and extent of canker affected trees in district Ziarat, a surveillance study was conducted in active season during 2016 across district Ziarat. In this study, ten different locations were surveyed where 200 apple trees were randomly examined per location and the number of apple trees affected by canker were recorded. The selected locations were: Chowter, Manna, Kan, Kwas, Pachi, Sanjavi, Tanawani, Waam, Warchoom and Zandra, respectively. Thirty samples of cankered tree were collected for isolation and identification of the canker causing agent (Neonectria ditissima). The study revealed that among ten locations, three locations viz. Sanjavi, Kan and Waam, showed higher canker incidence where both Red delicious and Katja were severely affected by canker pathogen. In case of Sanjavi, both Red delicious and Katja varieties manifested 45% and 40% cankered trees but no canker symptoms were observed on Golden delicious followed by 48% cankered trees of Katja at Warchoom and 42% cankered trees of Red delicious at Waam. While Katja variety at Kan and Waam indicated 34.4% and 34% cankered trees. However, Chowter, Manna and Kwas were at low risk and less number of trees indicated canker symptoms. So, it is suggested that detailed research studies should be conducted to find out the economic losses caused by canker infection and to devise effective control strategies, in order to protect the apple orchards from further damage by canker.

EFFECT OF SELENIUM AND CADMIUM IN CHLOROPHYLLS AND CAROTENOID CONTENT OF PHASEOLUS AUREUS ROXB

By US ROXB R

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

In greenhouse, seeds of Phaseolus aureus Roxb. local class are germinated in pots. The seeds treated with different concentrations of Cd (0.0, 0.01 and 0.05M, as CdCl2), a unique concentration of Se (0.05 ?M, as Na2SeO3) and as a combination with Cd, in addition to a control (distilled H2O). In P. aureus, there was significant decreasing in all chlorophylls content. Generally, treatment with Se enhanced the content of chlorophyll which increased significantly in comparison with the control (dH2O). The combination of Se + Cd, 0.05M caused increasing in chlorophyll b and carotenoid significantly comparing with Cd alone at 0.05M. These results indicate the antagonistic effect between Se and Cd on chlorophyll and carotenoid contents.

MICROPROPAGATION OF BANANA CULTIVAR BASRAI UNDER DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF N6-BENZYLAMINOPURIN FOR SHOOT AND INDOLE-3-BUTYRIC ACID FOR ROOT INDUCTION

By 1Parvez Hussain Dahari, 2Ghulam Shah Nizamani, 1Muharam Ali, 2Abdullah Khatri, 3Muhammad Rashid Nizamani, 2Shafquat Yasmeen and 1Shah Nawaz Mari

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

The present study was carried out to check different concentrations of N6-benzylaminopurin (BAP) on multiplication of shoots and along with different concentrations of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for root induction in banana variety Basrai. Data recorded for various parameters were subjected to completely randomized design. The suckers were taken as explants source and cultured on (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) medium with various concentrations (0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mg l-1 ) of BAP for shoot induction and ˝MS medium under the concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg l-1 ) of IBA were used for root induction. After four weeks of culturing, the external leaf primordia of explants turned green which were initially creamy white and from these balls approximating structure, adventitious plantlets were developed. The results indicated that highest shoot length 4.15, 5.23 and 8.59 and more multiplication of shoots was achieved 3.25, 4.39 and 6.29 explants-1 under the concentrations of 2.0 mg l-1 BAP at 20, 40 and 60 days after inoculation. The highest number of leaves 2.49, 3.16 and 4.10 explants-1 observed under the concentrations of 3.0 mg l -1 BAP at 20, 40 and 60 DAI, respectively. For root induction ˝MS media under various concentrations of IBA indicated that the more numbers of roots were recorded (1.25 and 2.61) under the concentration of 1.50 mg l-1 IBA at 20 and 40 days, while 3.67 numbers of roots was achieved at 60 days with concentration of 1.0 mg l-1 IBA. The maximum root length (1.38, 1.92 and 2.72 cm) was observed at 20, 40 and 60 DAI under the concentration of 1.50 mg l-1 IBA at 20, 40 and 60 DAI, respectively.

STUDY OF SOME ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ROLE IN HEMOLYSIN GENE EXPRESSION IN SERRATIA MARCESCENS LOCAL ISOLATES

By Maarib Naziyah Rasheed, Siham Hamel Mohaisen

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

This study aims to selection of highest production of hemolysin isolates and studying the role of some environmental factors in hemolysin gene expression, Serratia marcescens (28 isolates), were isolated from clinical and environmental sources in Baghdad city, which produced hemolysin it was indicated by clear zone around colonies grown on blood agar plates. Four isolates which gave highest absorbability at 405 nm for hemolysin producing isolate (1.09A) in standardized conditions(pH 7,37 Cş, 24 hours), while highest absorbability for hemolysin producing isolate which gave (0.95A) in conditions pH 4, (0.47A) in pH 10, (1.85A) in 30 Cş, (0.68A) in 45 Cş, (1.92A) in 48 hours and (1.04A) in 72 hours. the results found that the highest values of gene expression fold for the gene shlA in pH 4 (2.30) and pH 10 (0.51) while the highest values of fold for shlA gene at 30 Cş was (6.93) and at 45 Cş was (0.65) and the highest value of fold for shlA gene at 48 hours was (7.32) and at 72 hours was (2.64). It was apparent there was a direct proportion between absorbability for hemolysin values and folds of gene expression, therefore the change conditions growth of bacteria S. marcescens leads to change of gene expression. 16S rRNA gene expression results, which was used as reference gene, confirmed that this gene was well suited as housekeeping gene.

FRAGMENTATION OF GALLBLADDER STONES USING TRANSFORMER STREPTOCOCCUS SALIVARIUS AND MEASURING OF RNA EXPRESSION TO CHOLESTEROL LOWERING GENES

By Atheer Ahmed Majeed

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Recently, gallbladder stones have been contained bile salt saturated a proximal 70 % cholesterol. This led us to investigate how can use transformer Streptococcus salivarius with plasmid pMG36bsh to fragment cholesterol of gallstones in vitro. Total mRNA of S. salivarius was produced using easy-spinTM, total RNA extraction kit and PCR cDNA-RT to observe the change after percent pMG36bsh vector and prepare S. salivarius have two copies from bsh genes (cgh, bsh) to fragment gallstone in bacterial culture. Our data shows increase bacterial bsh expression help to reduce gallstones concentration in culture when bile salt presented as stimulating agent for the association bsh genes were 77% compare with wild type has the reducing concentration ratio was 66%.

GENETIC DIVERSITY ESTIMATION USING SSR MARKERS AND SOME YIELD COMPONENTS IN SEVEN FORAGE SORGHUM (SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.) MOENCH)

By Mohammed Hamdan Edan Al-Issawi

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a very important fodder crop, therefore the improvement of this crop productivity is required. This study investigated the genetic variability among seven forage sorghum progenies in an experiment that was laid out as CRD in the greenhouse. The genetic diversity was assessed by using SSRs technique as well as some agronomical traits. The results showed that a number of grains per head can be used as an indicator of selection in breeding programs of this crop. However, SSRs result showed that there is variability among progenies under study and showed that the progeny 5 and 6 can be used in breeding programs, as they were very divergent. It can be concluded that there are variability of those progenies and can be utilized in further studies. It can be also recommended using large number of progenies as well as using more DNA-based markers.

FLEXIBLE 2- TREE FUZZY C MEANS BASED IMAGE SEGMENTATION

By Nagaraj Balakrishnan, MithyaVaratharaj, Arunkumar.R

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

This paper presents an unsupervised optimized method for image segmentation. Generally, a FCM or FCM based image segmentation process is accomplished under the supervision of clustering algorithms. But these algorithms possess the demerit of depending upon supervised user inputs such as number of clusters, iteration required etc. The proposed method improves the Double Cluster Tree Structure (DCTS), which is an unsupervised preliminary process, by managing its boundary structure process before each iteration of FCM clustering. The combined structure of these two algorithms forms Flexible 2-tree Fuzzy C Means (F2TFCM). Unsupervised analysis as well as segmentation of the whole image dataset is attained with the aid of F2TFCM. Substantial improvement in segmentation performance is exhibited by this algorithm.

THE EFFECT OF ORGANIC MANURE, FOLIAR SPRAYING WITH BORON ON GROWTH, YIELD, QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF ACTIVE INGREDIENTS OF ANISE PALNT (PIMPINELLA ANISUM)

By Usama H. Mheidi, Imad M. Ali1* and Adil H. Abdulkafoor 1**

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Anise (Pimpinella anisum L) is one of the most popular medicinal plants that are used by 80% of the world population due to its therapeutic effects. Anise has many therapeutic benefits because it contains Anthole and other compounds. Thus, the importance of this study is to determine the effect of organic fertilization and foliar application of boron on the growth, yield, and quantity of the active ingredient of anise. This study was conducted during the winter season of 2014 in one of the private fields in the region of Yusufiya, Baghdad province to investigate the effect of organic fertilizer (0, 2.5 and 5ton ha -1 ) and foliar application of boron (0, 0.75 and 1.50kg ha-1 ) and their interaction. The result of this study showed increasing in the height and branching of the plant with the increase of organic fertilizer. Organic manure (5ton ha-1 ) showed the highest production of inflorescence number, fruit- setting and total seed per plant. A similar result has been demonstrated by boron foliar application (150kg ha-1 ). Organic fertilizer treatment (5ton ha-1 ) was given highest oil content of seed and degree of refraction while the boron (150kg ha-1 ) given highest oil content but the refraction was not significant with comparing with the control (0 kg ha-1 ). HPLC result demonstrated around 20-25 volatile oils. Anethole compound was the highest concentration with Organic manure (5ton ha-1) + boron foliar (150kg ha-1) treatment in comparison with other treatments.

CLONING, AND EXPRESSIONOF DPE GENE FROM AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS

By Riski Indradewi1, Miftahudin2, Budi Saksono3*

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

This study aimed to cloned and express the dpe gene encoding enzyme DPEase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens originated from Indonesia. Method: The dpe gene was amplified using PCR, ligated into pGEMTEasy vector and transformed into E. coli DH5?. Positive clones were confirmed by PCR amplification, restriction enzymes, and sequencing. The gene was then subcloned into pET21b vector and transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3) for expression. Gene expression was performed by induction of isopropyl-?-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) 1mM and analyzed by SDS PAGE. Result: The PCR product with size of 870 bp was obtained. The amino acid sequence analysis of the gene showed similarity level of 97.9% with those has previously been reported and showed eight amino acids differences in the position of 50,53,94,134,194,196,242, and 269, respectively. The gene expressed the D-psicose 3-epimerase (DPEase) in water soluble with a molecular weight of 32 kDa. Conclusion: The dpe gene was successfully cloned and expressed

IN VIVO THE DIRECT GENE INJECTION OF HEMATOPIOTIC STEM CELLS TRANSFORMATION USED AS GENE THERAPY

By Mona Al-Terehi, Ali H. Al-Saadi, Abbas N. Al-Sherefi, Haider K. Zaidan

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

The present study aims to estimation the efficiency of direct injection method to transform hematopoietic stem cell in vivo using rabbit animal lab (New Zealand White rabbits) as a model, a direct injected green fluorescence protein gene with polyethylene imine and glucose 5% in bone marrow used for cells transform under full anesthesia in femur bone morrow.

MOLECULAR AND BACTERIOLOGICAL DETECTION FOR BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM ENDODONTIC TREATMENT

By Rasha Jasim Alwarid

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Endodontic disease is the result of both the response of the host and the pathogenic effects of the microbes. Microorganisms can r caused primary infections that settle in the necrotic pulp tissue. It can be regarded as the initial or wild infection and are causing of primary apical periodontitis. Infected root canal system is a unique niche for the selective species of microorganisms. Certain isolated bacteria from clinical sample are difficult in growth supplies, it may give flexible effects with obtainable biochemical test, so it is not all the time detected or might be misidentified during the detection. Thet16S rRNA gene has delivered an original instrument for approximating bacterial phylogeny. The study population contained of sixty-two patients, ages ranged from twenty-one to fifty-five years awarding at the endodontic unit in the Dentistry College of the University of Babylon. Eleven isolates (17.7%) of P. gingivalis were reported as positive by 16S rRNA gene whereas only seven isolates (12.9 %) reported positive results by traditional culture and biochemical test. All isolates seem positive results for several virulence factors.

ESTIMATION OF FAS LIGAND PROTEIN (FASL) IN PATIENTS WITH VARICELLA ZOSTER VIRUS IN HILLA/IRAQ

By Nisreen kaddim Radi

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Twenty-eight serum samples were collated from patients with Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection who visited Marjan Hospital, Hilla, Iraq. Control groups represented by healthy individuals (22 people). The results of indirect immunofluorescence test to detect the presence of antibodies IgG and IgM in serum of patient show that 99% of the specimens gave positive reaction. The evaluation of fas ligand protein level in the serum showed highest concentration level with Mean ± S.E 84.50± 4.32pg/ml, while the level of protein in the control group revealed lower concentration 57.43± 1.63 pg/ml.

CLONING LasB GENE OF Pseudomonas aeruginosa EIASTASE 10104-2AI IN E. Coli BL21 AND E. Coli DH5 Alpha AND INVESTIGATED THEIR EFFECT ON THE STRIPPING OF VERO CELLS

By Bahaa Abdullah Laftaah Al-Rubii

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a causative agent of various infectious diseases throughout the world. Our study aimed to determine and amplify LasB gene that encode to Metalloprotease (elastase) virulent factor by PCR and cloning into pGEX KG plasmid then expression in E. coli, also aimed to investigate the effect of P. aeruginosa supernatant that contains crude elastase on monolayer Vero cell line. This bacterium is capable of secreting Metalloprotease (elastase) with specific activity 191 unit /mg and decreased to 78 unit / mg after adding casein as an alternative to trypton as nitrogen source in liquid production broth. The recombinant competent E. coli BL21 which contains pGEX KG-LasB was none inducible by IPTG and failed to express elastase. Also, taking into consideration all the steps that would make the success of the expression like changing the expression vector.

COMPARISON OF SUPERANTIGENIC TOXINS GENES BETWEEN MRSA AND MSSA ISOLATED FROM CLINICAL SPECIMENS IN IRAQ

By Qasim Obaid Bdaiwi1 , Sana’a Noori Hussein 2

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

One hundred fifteen isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were collected from different hospitals in Iraq. For preliminary design isolation of S. aureus culture media was used, and depending on features on cultures, Biochemical tests and (Vitek2 system). Different methods for screening to methicillin resistance S. aureus were used phenotypic method, disc diffusion method, the results showed that a 30/115(26.1%) of MRSA isolates, 79/115(68.7%) MSSA and 6/115(5.2%) intermediate resistance to cefoxitin, in genotypic methods PCR were used to detect housekeeping gene femA responsible to confirm species and mobile genetic element mecA inorder to confirm resistance of isolates to methicillin. The results revealed that all S. aureus isolates 100% contained femA gene while 61% isolates contained mecA gene (MRSA) and 39% isolates devoid mecA gene (MSSA). The most prevalence gene was sea 28.12% gene; seg 15.62%)gene; sei 10.93% gene; tst1 3.12% gene; seb, seh and selp 1.56% genes. Results showed a higher prevalence of the sea gene in MSSA isolates 32% compared with MRSA isolates 25.64%, seg gene in MRSA isolates17.94% compared with MSSA isolates 12%, sei gene in MSSA isolates12% compared with MRSA isolates 10.25%, tst1 gene in MRSA isolates 5.12% compared with MSSA isolates 0%, seh gene in MRSA isolates2.56% compared with MSSA isolates 0%, selp gene in MRSA isolates 2.56% compared with MSSA isolates 0% while seb gene in MSSA isolates 4% compared with MRSA isolates 0%. Higher prevalence of Superantigenic toxin genes in MRSA isolates 64.1% compared with MSSA isolates 60%. Superantigenic genes distributed in various clinical samples was: 22% in wound, 11% in burn, 7.8% in nasal, 6.3% in tonsil, 4.7% in urine, 4.7% in boils, 3.1% in ear, 1.6% for each of eye and pimples. The most common genotype S. aureus was sea 54.83% followed by ( seg, sei ) 16.12%, seg 9.67% and (seg, sei, tsst1), (sea, seg, sei), seb, selp, seh, tst1 3.22%.

INEXPENSIVE AND RELIABLE RAPID MANUAL PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING GENOMIC DNA FROM FROZEN BLOOD SAMPLES

By Rabab Omran1 and Ilham N.A. AL-Fatlawi2

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Objective: There are numerous procedures accessible to extract nucleic acid from many cellular sources such as whole blood samples and choosing an appropriate protocol still require consideration of numerous different factors, and perform more researches. The aim of this paper was improved special protocol for DNA extraction from frozen blood samples which is fast, inexpensive and reliable for downstream molecular applications. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 25 persons (from Hilah City-Iraq) for extracting genomic DNA using manual method (by using 500µL blood sample volume) and Geneaid purification kit as a control by using 200µL blood sample volume. The concentrations and purity of DNA extracts were estimated by NanoDrop spectrophotometer. The presence of enzyme inhibitors in the two extracts was tested via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by detection of the SOD2 gene. Results: The DNA extracts from frozen blood samples using a manual procedure had acceptable concentration and purity were 63.08±24.28 ng/µL and 1.39±0.16, respectively and the final volume of DNA extract about 300 µL, compared to control method (Geneaid purification kit) (86.91±32.97 ng/µl, 1.74±0.13, and 100 µL respectively). The DNA extracts were free enzyme inhibitors, which confirmed by PCR. Conclusion: Based on the experimental results the manual method could be recommended as a rapid and inexpensive Lab procedure for DNA extraction from either fresh or frozen blood samples.

ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF SILYMARIN IN INFECTED RATS AND EVALUATION OF SERUM IL-8

By Oruba K. Al-Bermani* , Sama J.Al-Zuwaini* , Nisreen Kaddim radi* and Wurood Alwan Kaddim*

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Silymarin extracted from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) was used for many deceases to cure acute and chronic liver infection in human that caused by viral infection, exposure to poisons and alcohols. Eighty-six white rats (albino) were used that were divided into two groups. First group had been treated with standard anti-inflammatory drugs and with different doses of Silymarin 125, 250, 500mg/kg. After 30 min, the experimental inflammation was induced by inoculation of egg albumin in paw of rats then the thickness of edema was measured after 1hr, 2hr and 3hr. The second group contains thirty rats to study the effective dose of silymarin 250 mg/kg in two models of administration. First model: rats were injected with silymarin in a pre-infection mode (as a prtectant). The second model: Silymarin was injected in a post infection mode as treatment. The two groups of rats were killed, and their serum was collected for IL-8 evaluation by ELISA. The result showed that the activity of silymarin against inflammation depended on the dose in comparison with standard compound (acetyalsalicylic acid, dexamethasone, meloxicam) and this activity was increased with dose quantity until 250mg/kg. The ELISA test showed that there is a significant difference between pre- and post-infection with the control group (p<0.05).

MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF FUNGI ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS WHICH PRODUCING TOXIN (AFB1) IN IRAQ

By Muna A. Alrawi and Halima Z. Hussein

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Mycotoxins are fungal toxic metabolites which naturally contaminate food and feed. Aflatoxins, when ingested, inhaled or adsorbed through the skin, have carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, teratogenic and mutagenic effects in human and animals. Genetically, Aspergillus was one of the best studied fungi and the complete genome sequence of A. flavus in addition to several strains of A. flavus group strains are available now at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) (Rodrigues et al., 2007). Phylogenetic analysis of ITS region seems to be a useful tool to provide taxonomical information about ecological genotypes. In this study, the results showed the DNA chain reaction using primers ITS1-ITS4 located within the ribosomal gene 18S rRNA and a clear band resulting from the process of doubled. It has been used BLAST tool to find parallelism and compared nucleotide sequence for ITS region in ribosomal gene S18 with nucleotide sequence data base the other strain in the National Centre for Biotechnology Information NCBI and Gene Bank results showed 98% ratio match for isolate.

DOSE AND TIME DEPENDENT EFFECTS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES (AGNPS) ON OVARIAN HISTOLOGY AND SERUM LEVELS OF SEX HORMONES IN FEMALE RATS

By Noori M. Luaibi and Hiba A. Qassim

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Background; Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the most commonly nanoparticles used in various areas of research, because of their characteristic physical properties as; optical, magnetic, mechanical properties, catalytic performance as well as the antimicrobial effects so that exposing human to increased levels of nanoparticles. However, not enough information's are accessible about their potential effect on endocrine physiology. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the time and dose dependent effects of AgNPs in ovaries function, sex hormones and histology in female rats. Method; Sixty adult female spargue-dawely rats were divided into Three main groups each of (20) animals treated for (10, 20, and 30) days duration. within each treatment duration, animals were assigned into 4 subgroups each of 5 rats as follows; control treated with vehicle and three experimental subgroups treated with sequential doses 12.5, 25 and 50mg/kg of AgNPs 20-30nm by intra-peritonial injection. At the end of each treatment duration, animals were sacrificed, and blood samples were collected and analyzed for serum levels of LH, FSH, Estrogen and Progesterone. Ovary was removed and kept in buffered formalin for microscopic examination. Result: Serum levels of Progesterone and FSH non-significantly altered by AgNPs in all treatment groups, while serum level Estrogen showed significant increase in short duration (10 days) with all treatment doses of 12.5, 25 and 50mg/kg but in long duration (30 days) showed significant decrease in serum level Estrogen in all treatment doses of 12.5, 25 and 50mg/kg, furthermore, Treatment for (20 day), with 12.5 mg/kg showed significant elevated in the level of Estrogen. While, 25 and 50mg/kg caused highly significant decrease in Estrogen levels for same duration (20 day) when compared to control groups. This result was confirmed by histological examination of ovary tissues. As well as, the study of ovary weight showed the long-term exposure 30 day to 50 mg/kg of AgNPs caused a highly significant increase in weights of ovaries.

INDUCTION OF SYSTEMIC RESISTANCE OF EGGPLANT AGAINST SCLEROTINIA SCLEROTIORUM INFECTION USING BIOCHAR AND BIO-HEALTH

By Aalaa K. Hassan

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

This study was initiated to assess the efficacy of plant biochar produced from Eucalyptus, Albizia and Citrus and Bio Health to control white rot disease on eggplant caused by S. sclerotiorum. Under greenhouse conditions, Pathogenicity tests revealed all S. sclerotiorum isolates were highly infective, with or without wounds on eggplant stem. Among other fungus isolates, Ssc4 scored the highest infection severity percentages ranged 60 and 90.67% respectively. Results showed charcoal produced from eucalyptus trees was the best among others when inhibited fungus growth on PDA medium to 100% at 3% concentration. Whereas, BioHealth inhibited fungal growth to 100% at 5% concentration. Eucalyptus + Albiziacharcoal combination treatment was the best decreased infection severity up to 2.67% compared to 4.00 and 6.67% respectively or for Eucalyptus + Citrus and Albizia + Citrus combinations compared with pathogenic fungus only (control) treatmentswith82.67% .Besides, it increased plant fresh and dry weights compared to other combinations. Among other charcoal combinations and BioHealth, Eucalyptus + Albizia was the best when increased protein content of plant up to 40.35%followed by Eucalyptus + Citruswith37.24. Whereas protein content of non-charcoal treated healthy and fungal infected plants were to 30.33% and 22.45%, respectively . BioHealth and charcoal treatments successfully induced systemic resistance when increase peroxidase activity in treated plants. Peroxidase activity was72.73, 76.20 and 58.54 for BioHealth, Eucalyptus + Albiziaand Eucalyptus + Citrus ,respectively compared to 39.66 for control treatment (fungus only treatment(.

THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF EARTHWORM POWDER ON THE PATHOGENESIS OF ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA IN VIVO

By Nebrass F. Chachain* and Hussein A. Jamil

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

This study was carried out in vivo to detect the effect of earthworm powder on the Entamoeba histolytica in white mice. The mice infected with the parasite were inoculated by earthworm powder with a concentration of 200 mg/ml for 11 days, during this period, the faeces were examined daily to observe the change in parasite numbers after inoculating with powder. Results showed that the earthworm powder was effective in reducing parasite numbers in mice gradually and when compared the therapeutic efficacy of the earthworm powder with the metronidazole where it was close (61.5 & 63.1) respectively. Histopathological change was study found that the parasite and metronidazole cause necrosis, infiltration of lymphocyte and mucosal damage and while powder of earthworm effectively in repair the damaged intestinal walls. In addition, there was an increased concentration of sIgA in the intestinal tissue, which was concentrated after 3,7,9 days in the treatment earthworm powder group (4.084 ± 1.29, 2.588 ± 0.82, 2.563 ± 0.81) ng/ml respectively. while in the metronidazole after 3,7,9days 4.057±1.28, 2.553±0.81, 2.528±0.71ng/ml respectively compared with control negative group. Also in the earthworm powder group (none infected) it noted after 3,7,9 days (2.064 ± 0.65, 2.17 ± 0.681.901 ± 0.60) ng/ml respectively, and in positive control group the concentration of IgA was 3.221±1.01, 3.370±1.06, 3.580±1.13ng/ml respectively after 3,7,9 days compared with control negative group.

PREDICTING THE HIGH-RISK PATIENT USING VIRTUAL PHYSIOLOGICAL HUMAN TECHNIQUE IN BIG DATA HEALTH CARE

By A. Jameer Basha1 , S. Suguna2 , M. Kowsigan3 , A. Sureshkumar4 , V. Roopa5

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Big data plays a key function in all aspects of organization especially in health science and clinical information. In the past days every health care related data contains data in the format of hard copy. (i.e.) Drug Prescription, consultants report, radiographs, laboratory prescription etc. But, nowadays with the increasing need for ample variety of clinical data access over the internet, every data is move towards cloud in the outward appearance of digitization. The immense quantity of information collected from the various health cares, hospitals, and physicians etc. which are stored remotely on the cloud on top of the internet is called big data. This big data is in the appearance of structured (Tables in the outward appearance of rows and columns), semi- structured (XML data) and unstructured data (videos, X-rays, scan report, Images, Audios etc.). This enormous size of information needs to store, processed and retrieved in the effective manner to provide accurate and valuable information to the doctors, patients, house surgeon and medical researchers. This manuscript is mainly focused to predict and analyze the symptoms and also categorize the high-risk patients. Here the association rule is applied in the VPH (Virtual Physiological Human) method. VPH technique is used for collecting, analyzing, observing, categorizing and indexing the data which are observed from various hospitals, Patient record, primary health care, Insurance Firms etc. Here the experts from various fields are analyze and verify the data. Associate rule is used for uncovering the association among the symptoms in the database. From the data collected, we apply Apriori algorithm to the data base and also gives the risk priority category and highest risk patient.

THE ROLE OF HLA-DRB1 ALLELE IN HYPOTHYROID PATIENTS WITH AND WITHOUT PERIODONTITIS

By 1Sahar H. Al-Hindawi, 2Batool H. Al-Ghurabi, 3Noori M. Luaibi

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Hypothyroidism is a frequent disorder in the general population, especially among women, is defined as a deficiency of thyroid activity that results from insufficient production or action of thyroid hormones leading to a total decrease of metabolic. Human leukocyte antigen is the most polymorphic genetic system in man. Genes of this region influence susceptibility to certain diseases. Objectives: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the role of HLA-DRB1 genotyping in hypothyroid patients with and without periodontitis. Sixty hypothyroid patients 30 of patients were with periodontitis and 30 without periodontitis compare with 30 healthy subjects as control enrolled in this study. DNA was extracted from blood samples, then HLA- genotyping performed by polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific oligonucleotide probes (PCR-SSO). The results showed the frequencies of HLA-DRB1*03 and *04 alleles are significantly increased in hypothyroid patients than control (P<0.001; P<0.05) respectively; whereas, the frequencies of HLA-DRB1*08 allele is significantly higher in control group as compared to patients group (P<0.05). Surprisingly comparison between groups of hypothyroid patients with and without periodontitis revealed significant higher frequency (P<0.05) of DRB1*03 allele among group of hypothyroid patients with periodontitis. The present findings suggested that the presence of HLA-DRB1*03 and HLA-DRB1*04 alleles may increase the susceptibility to hypothyroidism, while HLA-DRB1*08 allele could confer protective effects against this disease. Moreover, patients with HLA-DRB1*03 allele are more likely to develop periodontitis.

AN INTEGRATED DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC LOAD BALANCING SYSTEM IN A CLOUD ENVIRONMENT

By T. Rajesh kumar* , G. Remmiya devi, K. Abinaya, N.N. Deepika, S. Priyadharshini

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Density of road traffic is a severe problem in the present world. The objective of this work is to manage the traffic lights and to provide importance in emergency cases using cloud. Traffic control system is a density based system that can determine the density of the vehicles at each side of the junction road when vehicles are nearer to that junction and transfer the information to the cloud. The presented system works based on a PIC16F8 series microcontroller. Density of vehicles is detected using Infrared sensors, which are placed within a fixed distance. Priority is provided to the overcrowded side of the road in traffic.

ASSOCIATION OF VITAMIN D RECEPTOR GENE POLYMORPHISM AT THREE SNPS AND THEIR HAPLOTYPES WITH POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME RISK IN IRAQI WOMEN

By Ismail A. Abdul-hassan* and Ala Hazim Badr** Sanaa Jasim Kadhim *

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most endocrinological disorder,in young reproductive age women , Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene variants have been associated with metabolic co-morbidities in population. This study was carried out to examine whether the polymorphisms of VDR gene are correlated with the risk of PCOS. Polycystic ovary syndrome women (n=50) and apparently healthy control subject (n=50), were enrolled genotyping of VDR gene SNPs (rs2228570, rs7975232 and rs731236) were determined by using Taqman genotyping assay. The results showed that the distribution of genotypes and alleles frequencies at rs2228570 SNP of VDR gene, as related with TT, TC and combined TC+CC genotypes, no significant differences in frequency percentage were noted between PCOS patients and apparently healthy subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome. Whereas, the frequency of CC genotype was significantly (p<0.05) lower in PCOS patients compared with apparently healthy group. The genotypes and alleles frequencies distribution at rs7975232 C>A polymorphism, the frequency of wild CC genotype was significantly (p<0.05) lower in patients with PCOS than in apparently healthy subjects. In contrast, the frequency of heterozygous CA genotype was significant (p<0.05) higher in patients with PCOS compared with apparently healthy subjects. The frequency of TT genotype at rs731236 T>C polymorphism was significant (p<0.05) lower in patients with PCOS than in apparently healthy subjects. While as related with TC, CC and combined TC+CC genotypes, no significant differences in frequency percentage were detected between PCOS patients and apparently healthy subjects. Further, the three VDR SNPs presented eight possible haplotypes, with TTA and TTC being the most common in both groups (patients and controls). In particular, the TCC haplotype showed significant (p<0.05) distribution in PCOS patients compared with apparently healthy control and the frequency of TTC / CCA haplotype combination was significantly (p<0.05) higher in patients with PCOS than in apparently healthy subjects. This study found that no association between both heterozygous and homozygous mutants at rs2228570 and rs731236 of VDR gene with the incidence of PCOS, while heterozygosity at rs7975232 of VDR gene showed a risk for PCOS development susceptibility.

DEVICE POWER CONSUMPTION AVOIDANCE USING IMAGE PROCESSING

By Radha R., Sasikala E., Gayathri M. and S. Sharanya

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

In this paper we propose a system to prevent the unnecessary wastage of electricity using the various concepts and principles of Image processing. In our proposed system, the whole process is implemented and executed using MATLAB software. Initially, we obtain the feed from the video devices like camera, recorder, etc. From this, a still frame is obtained and pre-processed to enhance the input. Then, we process the data using a set of segmentation and extraction techniques to obtain the various objects from the data image by implementing Object Recognition techniques. This helps us in identifying the various unwanted objects that are scattered across the image and helps in eliminating them and processing only the necessary data. This concept is then applied to the various parts of the image to obtain their threshold values, and as such the overall threshold value of the frame is calculated. This value is used in the future instances to detect the change that occurs in the image and as such re-calculate the output of the scenario. According to the results that are obtained, it can be inferred that this method is more accurate and efficient than the other existing methods. Index Terms— Image Processing, Edge

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF Arachis hypogaea L. SEED COAT EXTRACT CULTIVATED IN IRAQ

By Ahmed H. AL-Azawi1 * and Zainab H. Hassan2

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

The present study aimed to assess the antibacterial activity of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) skin extracts. The phytochemical analysis of the peanut skin extracts was investigated, the result showed a strong presence of flavonoids, phenols, alkaloids and tannins in methanol and ethyl acetate extracts. Antibiotic susceptibility of the bacterial isolates was performed on seven antibiotics represented by Amikacin, Tetracycline, Ciprofloxacin, Chloramphenicol, Ticarcillin, Cefotaxime and Gentamicin by disc diffusion method. The antibiogram for studied isolates revealed high level resistance of A. baumannii to all of the antibiotics under test except amikacin, while Staph. aurous was resistance to Chloramphenicol and Cefotxime and sensitive to Amikacin, Tetracycline, Ciprofloxacin, Ticarcillin and Gentamicin. The antibacterial activity of the peanut skin extracts was studied on some pathogenic microorganisms like (Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Serratia marcescens and Escherichia coli). The results show that the best effect was seen against Staph. aureus with inhibition zone (10.67 ± 0.67, 13.00 ± 1.00 and14.67 ± 0.88) in concentration (25, 50 and 100 mg/ml) respectively, with significant difference (P<0.01), while the lowest effect was seen against A. baumannii with inhibition zone (4.67 ± 0.33, 7.33 ± 0.33 and 10.33 ± 0.33) in concentration (25, 50 and 100 mg/ml) respectively with significant difference (P<0.01) for methanolic extract.

SEQUENCES OF MITOCONDRIAL D-LOOP REGION IN IRAQI PERSONS

By Athraa H. Hassoon1 , Harith K. Buniya2 and Almuthana Kh. Hameed2

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Mitochondrial DNA is a circular genome placed in the mitochondria. It had 1.1 kbp fragment and named the displacement loop. The using of sequencing technique and then find the degree of variation of this fragment are the aims of study. Geneaid extraction kit was used for extracted the completely genomic DNA, and then amplified the displacement loop region by polymerase chain reaction through specific primers. The PCR products were sequenced and detected variation by using the MEGA7 program. Different polymorphisms were discovered in this region for both blood and muscle samples from Iraqi population. The accumulation of SNPs in D-loop may be associated with ageing. SNPs in D-loop region of blood and muscle samples were identified in this study, and their association with ageing was estimated. The majority of polymorphism were located in D-loop. The nucleotide transition,transversion, insertion and deletion were causes the important variations in nucleotide sequencing. The total number of mutations in blood samples of young individuals was 37 (4.3%) and 48 (5.6%) in muscle samples for same individuals while the total number of mutations in blood samples of older individuals was 667 (78%) and 93 (10.8%) in muscle samples for same individuals. There were high differences in the number of mutations in older people, specifically for blood samples incidence and frequency of mutations were greater than those of younger age groups were. The analysis of genomic single nucleotide polymorphisms in D-loop may help to detect the most important variation in both young and adult Iraqi individuals.

ALTERNATIVE CULTURE MEDIA FOR GROWTH AND SPORULATION OF TRICHODERMAHARZIANUM

By Liqaa Y. Mohsen1 , Haider J. Kadhim2 , Jawad K. Abood Al-Janabi1 and Zahraa, A. N. Al-Yassiry1

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Microorganisms need nutrients for their biological activities and reproduction. Culture media such PDA, used for growing fungi in laboratories. Because of high cost and don’t available at all time. The present study was conducted to supersede Potato in PDA medium with powdered leaves of either Moringa oleifera or mint and to examine their effect on mycelial, conidial and biomass production of bioagent fungus Trichoderma harzianum and pathogenic fungi: Fusarium graminearum and F. oxysporum. The patterns of T. harzainum growth was substantially affected by Moringa Dextrose Agar (MoDA) and Mint Dextrose Agar (MiDA). Both the media were found to magnify the mycelial growth of bioagent fungus as compared to pathogenic fungus F. oxysporum. MoDA characterized by enhancing spore production in T. harzainum (19.6×108 ), in comparison to Fusarium graminearum (7.13×108 ) and F. oxysporum (8.73×108 ) after 9 days of inoculation. Dry weights of T. harzainum (0.75 mg) and F. oxysporum (0.35 mg) mycelia were also sharply incremented in MoDB compared to PDB (0.2 and 0.15gm) respectively in which the dry weight not inhibited by modified media. It was concluded that the utilization of M. oleifera or Mint leaves as a component of culture media in laboratories is a feasible and cheap source as compared to commercially prepared PDA. Furthermore, the present formulated media could be subsidiary act as a selective medium for the magnification and sporulation of T. harzianum. In integration, the leaf powders of both sources can be stored for longer time periods in comparison to potato.

MODELLING AND OPTIMIZATION OF CASSAVA STARCH BASED FILM FOR FOOD PACKAGING APPLICATIONS

By Paramanantham Hema Prabha1 and Thottiam Vasudevan Ranganathan2

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

The growing concern on environmental pollution and increasing difficulties of waste disposal that causes land pollution are the prime factors that contribute towards the threat of global warming and this in turn, emphasizes the research into biodegradable packaging material. The use of biodegradable packaging material as an alternative to plastic polymers is therefore evoking considerable interest in the present scenario. Biodegradable films can be used to reduce the migration of moisture, oxygen and carbon dioxide through the film which improves the shelf-life of the packaged food products. This study focuses on developing three factors Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology (RSM) for optimizing and evaluating the interactive and individual effects of the process variables used in the development of the cassava starch-based biodegradable films. Filmogenic solutions comprising of starch, glycerol and acetic acid were prepared according to three level, four-factors Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology for the development of cassava starch based biodegradable films. Second order polynomial models were derived from the results obtained using Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA) for all the responses and it showed good fit of the data along with a close agreement between experimental and predicted values. The association between the process parameters and the responses were illustrated by constructing response surfaces and contour plots.

HORMONAL ASSESSMENT OF PATIENTS WITH BEHCET DISEASE IN BABYLON PROVINCE- IRAQI

By Sawsam Jassim Al-Harbi*, Haider Kamil Zaidan**, Ali Hmood, Al-Saadi** and Mona N. AlTerehi**

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Background: Behcet’s disease (BD) is a rare disorder affecting vascular and nervous system which might lead to death due to complications of inflamed, ruptured vessels as well as aneurysms. Aim of Study: to determine the risk factors of Behcets Disease and to determine mean differences of study hormones between patients and control groups. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based case-control study design was carried out on (34) patients with Behcet disease and control group seen atthe Rheumatology outpatient clinicat Merjan Teaching Hospital in Babylon – Iraq, all patients and control were from the same ethnic group (Arabic).Pearson’s X2 and independent sample t-test have been used. A p-value of ? 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The overall mean age of patients and control was 36.15±14.23 and 30.20±11.36 years old, respectively.Behcet disease was two times more likely to have a family history of disease.There were significant mean differences of Testosterone, Estradiol, Prolactin and Epidermal growth factorHormones by study groups. Conclusion: Hormonal assessment for patients with Behcet disease of valuable informations in patients and can be helpful in determining the activity of the disease and Sex hormonesplay asignificant roleinits relationship withBehcet's disease.

EFFECTIVE VIDEO RETERIVAL USING CLUSTERING TECHNIQUE

By Dennis Joseph and D.Saravanan

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Knowledge extraction is one of the fastest growing fields today. Proper extraction of the needed information presents a challenging job for many researchers. This becomes even more complicated in the case of multimedia content. Clustering is a useful technique for finding useful patterns from the given data set. Video clustering is done on video files for video data mining. Existing clustering techniques works well for only a few particular types of inputs. It has been experimentally verified that the proposed clustering technique offers the best clustering solution for a majority of input files.

CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM CITRUS LIMON (L.) AND EVALUATING THE BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS ON THYROID HORMONE AND CELLULAR TOXICITY

By Lahib Mohammed Al-Abbassi and Kareem Talib Al-Hatemy

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

The present study was carried out to estimate the vital effects of the water and alcohol extract of Citrus limon (L.) seeds in thyroids hormone levels secretion in adults female Albino rats. Plant Seeds was extracted with distilled water and alcohol using ethanol. Then phytochemical compound detected using classical methods and thin layer chromatography (TLC). animal’s groups were injected with L-Thyroxine and plant extracts. Blood samples were collected from all animals after the end of the trial time of 10 days. The results of study showed that the water and ethanol extract contain many bioactive substances, including carbohydrates, tannins, glycoside, saponin, terpenes, alkaloids and phenols. Meanwhile, Glycosides detection by (TLC) plate from water and alcohol extracts of C. limon showed 4 and 5 bands using the BAW (4: 1: 5) solvent system respectively, 4 and 5 bands with alkaloids, showed 4 and 5 bands of terpenoids compound, 4; 5 spots with tannins compounds were observed.

COMBINED EFFECT BETWEEN DEXTRAN PRODUCED BY LEUCONOSTOC MESENTEROIDES SSP. MESENTEROIDES AND ANTIBIOTICS AGAINST MDR BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM CATHETERS

By Jehan Abdul Sattar Salman and Mustafa Z. Salim

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Evaluation of the effect of dextran produced from locally isolate Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. mesenteroeides with different antibiotics against multi drug resistance (MDR) bacteria isolated from catheters. Samples of urinary catheters from patient were collected to isolate the contaminating bacteria. All isolates were subjected to the cultural, microscopical and biochemical tests as well as Vitek2 system. Moreover, these isolates were tested for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobial agents. The combined effect between dextran produced from L. mesenteroides ssp. mesenteroides and antibiotics was investigated against MDR bacteria isolated from catheters. Forty-two isolates were obtained from catheters as; 11 isolates (26.19%) belonged to Escherichia coli, 8 isolates (19.04%) to Proteus mirabilis, 6 isolates (14.28%) to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and one isolate (2.38%) to Morganella morganii, 10 isolates (23.80%) belonged to Staphylococcus epidermidis and 6 isolates (14.28%) to S. aureus. All isolates were resistance to tetracycline while they were sensitive to imipenem. The antibacterial activity of Cefepime, Cefoxitin and Gentamycin have been increased in the presence of dextran against all bacterial isolates.

RELATION OF CLASS1 INTEGRON GENE WITH MULTI-DRUG RESISTANCE SALMONELLA TYPI ISOLATES

By Israa Abdul Ameer AL-Kraety and Mahdi Al-Ammar

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

This study aimed to detection the intI gene and its relationship with multi-drug resistance of Salmonella typhi. isolates. The results of the antibiotic sensitivity test showed that the S.typhi isolates were highly resistant to the antibiotic; the results of PCR technique for intIgene amplification show that there are where 14/30 S. typhi isolated had positive results of amplification.

COMPARISON OF BIOFILM FORMATION BY DIFFERENT SPECIES OF KLEBSIELLA

By Saad H. Abood* and Israa AJ. Ibrahim**

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

From September 2016 to January 2017, we have collected ninety isolates of Klebsiella spp. isolated from the clinical sample. There are three Klebsiella spp. were identified: Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia, Klebsiella pneumoniae ozaenae and Klebsiella oxytoca. Classical methods such as microtiter plate method with different experimental condition and tube method were used to determine biofilm formation. The result showed all isolates were formation biofilm in microtiter plate assay supplemented with glucose media, however in microtiter plate assay non-supplemented with glucose media the result showed that 42/53(79%) of Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumoniae isolates, 29/29 (100%), Klebsiella pnemoniae ozaenae isolates, and 8/8(100%) isolates of Klebsiella oxytoca, respectively. In glass tube method showed, 43/53(81%) K. pneumoniae pneumoniae, 28/29(96%) Klebsiella pnemoniae ozaenae and 6/8(75%) Klebsiella oxytoca were formation biofilm. In other hand, using plastic poly ethylene tube method revealed, 49/53 (92%) Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumoniae, 28/29 (96%) Klebsiella pnemoniae ozaenae and 7/8 (87.5%) Klebsiella oxytoca were formation biofilm. Finally, the present study confirms previous study about biofilm formation is one of the common virulence factor shares with many bacteria in different degree.

EVALUATION OF SOME IMMUNOLOGICAL BIOMARKERS IN PATIENTS INFECTED WITH SARCOPTES SCABIEI

By Saleem Khteer Al-Hadraawy*, Harth Rajab Haider, Ali Hassan Abood

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

The present study was conducted on 60 patients and 30 healthy persons (17 male and 13 female) to determine the effects of scabies disease in some immunological biomarkers it was IL-8, IL-5 and IgE levels. The results of the current study showed a significantly elevated (P<0.05) in level of IL-8, in patients infested with Sarcoptes scabiei parasite in 356.047 ± 0.201pg /ml in compared to the control group 240.815 ± 0.081pg /ml, also serum concentration of IL-5 was significantly increased (P<0.05) in Sarcoptes scabiei infection patients which were 42.128 ±0.415pg /ml in compared to the control group 14.512 ± 0.021pg /ml, whereas the level of IgE in patients was 401.654 ±0.618pg /ml)in compared to the control group 179.092 ± 0.109ng /ml. The current study concluded that the infection with Sarcoptes scabiei was affected in some immunological biomarkers of human represent by IL8, IL-5 and IgE.

ROLE OF BIO FERTILIZATION ON WHEAT AND WATER PRODUCTIVITY UNDER WATER SCARCITY

By *Alaa Salih Ati **Abdualkareem Hassan **Sana Abd-Aljabar ** Ammar Salah

Vol-14 No-4

Abstract

Field experiment was conducted by using two fertilization systems (i.e.) biofertilizers (inoculation with Pseudomonas putida and with Azotobacter chroococcum and non – inoculation) and chemical fertilization (100%, 50% and 25% of recommended by Ministry of Agriculture) to study the influence of these system and interaction on water and grain yield productivity, some growth phytohorones and number of bacterial cells in soil rizosphere of root of wheat crop under water scarcity. The result showed that the integrate fertilization (inoculation with Pseudomonas putida and Azotobacter chroococcum bacterial + 50% of the recommended chemical fertilizer) recorded 5.70 and 5.55 t ha-1 , respectively with reducing the chemical fertilizer applied in these systems as single application to the half. The number of bacterial cells of Azotobacter chroococcum increased with age of wheat crop and had 34.34 × 10-6 and 37.82 × 10-6 CFU g-1 soil for inoculation with Pseudomonas putida and Azotobacter chroococcum bacterial + 50% of the recommended chemical fertilizer, respectively during the maturity stage. The integrated fertilization system offered an alternative system instead of using chemical or biofertilizers system when they use separately.

A REVIEW ON PRECISION MEDICINE AND ITS ADVANTAGES

By Gandikota Ramu and Appawala Jayanthi

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Today's healthcare industry is growing rapidly; this delivers both excellent opportunities and difficulties. Quality healthcare is one of the very significant circumstances in how people notice theirs quality of life. Nowadays, your medication policy doesn’t have all that satisfying to do with you particularly. Precision Medicine is an emerging discipline. It recognizes distinct biological disorder using diagnostic methods, usually genic, to identify the best treatment individually not like trial and error. By integrating this data with personal health records (PHRs), Precision Medicine provides physicians and patients to improve aimed prevention and therapy strategies. The purpose is to implement the best medicine with accurate dosage to the correct patient in just-in-time. In this survey, we present a synthesized overview of the current state of research on precision medicine and compare the precision medicine over the traditional medicine. We also identify the current research problems in the areas of precision medicine implementation.

DESIGN OF SMART VILLAGE USING INTERNET OF THINGS AND CLOUD COMPUTING

By S. Subhakala 1, S. Muthulakshmi2 , A.Geetha3 , Dhanya K4, Meenakshi Sundara Nath T.M.5

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

This paper concentrates on implementing smart village through Internet of Things (IoT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI). IOT is used to control the working of great things with our free hands. It enables the path to connect anytime, anywhere, with everything and everyone can use. Meaning of “Smart” represents useful information which is analyzed through sensors used with the Internet Technologies. To improve the agriculture and to create the world optimization in all the fields, anything can be connected through internet. This in turn connects to smart irrigation as smart farming and converging into a Smart Village through IOT. Sensors related to moisture of soil and humidity of temperature are used to record the values. The data stored can be retrieved using cloud technology. The proposed result of the project is to make the village wholly connected through internet.

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT BY USING GLASS POWDER AND FLY ASH IN CONCRETE

By Deepa Shri S.1 and Dhivya K.2

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

This experimental study shows the properties of concrete manufactured with waste glass powder as a cement replacement material. The use of wastes or by-products in concrete production has advantages for improving some or all of the properties of concrete. Waste glass contains about 75.31%, SiO2.When it was grounded to the fineness of around 90 ?m, SiO2 in it reacts with alkalis in cement (pozzolanic reaction) to form supplementary cementitious products. This work examines the possibilities of using Glass powder as a partial replacement of cement for M25 concrete. The Glass powder was partially replaced as 10%, 15% and 20% and fly ash content kept constant at 15% and tested for its mechanical properties up to 7 and 28 days of age and was compared with the properties of conventional concrete.

ACTIVITY OF THUJA (Thuja orientalis) ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT IN INHIBITION ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS GROWTH AND DETOXIFICATION OF AFLATOXIN B1 IN CONTAMINATED CORN SEEDS

By Amna M.Ali

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

The study was conducted to evaluate the activity of Thuja alcoholic extract to inhibit Aspergillus flavus growth and detoxify the aflatoxin B1 that produced. The results showed high activity of Thuja extract in inhibition of A. flavus growth on culture media that attained to 70 – 25, 85 – 40, 100% with the concentrations 0.2, 0.5, and 1% respectively. The activity of the extract in A. flavus growth inhibition was found associated with high activity in detoxification of afla B1 from contaminated corn seeds. The treatment of contaminated corn seeds with 2% of Thuja extract induced high reduction in afla B concentration. The afla B1 concentration was found to be 752.40 ng/g in treated corn seeds compared with 2620.20 ng/g in control representing 71.35% reduction in the first month reached to 100% in the second month.

CALIBRATION - FREE FINGERPRINT BASED SUPPORT VECTOR REGRESSION FOR INDOOR POSITION SYSTEM

By A. CHRISTY JEBA MALAR1, G. KOUSALYA2

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Indoor positioning system uses wireless devices or other communication technologies to locate the position of a movable object within an indoor environment for providing various emergency services as well as business interest services. WLAN (802.11b Wireless LANs) based techniques are broadly utilized and additional hardware installation is not necessary for user location determination. The measured signal strength values from various WiFi access points (AP) are measured and fingerprint data base is constructed by a crowd sourcing technique. This avoids calibration (site survey) cost for recording the received signal strength value from various access points. The measured signal strength property will differ in each point as it depends on the distance, the type of mobile device and signal attenuation. The location can be found by mapping the current signal strength with already collected radio-maps. Statistical measurement, like support vector regression with multiple output, will be used as an approach to optimise the accuracy of localization algorithm.

IN -VITRO EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT FUNGICIDES AND THE BIO-CONTROL AGENT TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM AGAINST BOTRYODIPLODIA THEOBROMAE, THE CAUSE OF GUAVA DECLINE

By Adnan Baloch1+2*, Manzoor Ali Abro1**, Ghulam Husain Jatoi1+5, Nazir Ahmed Abro3, Shah Dad1, Mohammad Rafique2, Rahmat Ali2, Shabana Memon4 and Naimatullah Mangi4

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Guava decline disease, caused by Botryodiplodia theobromae is becoming the countrywide threat in Pakistan and annually it brings severe economic losses to the guava production. The management of this disease is very essential. In-vitro evaluation of four different fungicides viz. Nativo, Antracol, Aliette and Topas, with different concentrations (30, 50, 100 ppm) and the bio-control agent Trichoderma harzianum (5mm mycelial disk) were tested against B. theobromae. The result revealed that the effectiveness of the fungicides increased with increased dosage rate. Nativo was proved to be the most effective fungicide; Antracol was moderately effective, whereas Aliette and Topas were found to be less effective in reducing the mycelial growth of B. theobromae. Similarly, invitro evaluation of the bio-control agent Trichoderma harzianum against B. theobromae was found to be very effective, resulting maximum inhibition of 40.34% in the colony growth of the test fungus within seven days. Thus, farther different fungicides and bio-control agents must be evaluated under in-vitro conditions and then applied in field conditions

AGGREGATE PRODUCTION PLANNING: MIXED STRATEGY

By Anand Jayakumar A.a, Krishnaraj C.b, Nachimuthu A.K.c

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

This article is a mathematical model to make decisions in the aggregate production planning of a pump manufacturing company. The mathematical formulation proposed is based on process selection and lot-sizing models. The aim is to help the planners in selecting the industrial processes used to produce pumps and the inventory strategy. The planning period is one year and decisions are taken on a discrete time. A case study was developed in a pump manufacturing company. Under mixed strategy, both inventory and workforce levels are allowed to change during the planning horizon. Thus, it is a combination of the “chase” and “level” strategies. This will be a good strategy if the costs of maintaining inventory and changing workforce level are relatively high. Optimization models are generally used to determine an optimum mixed strategy. In this paper, we use Python program to optimize the problem.

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF STEEL SLAG AS COARSE AGGREGATE

By S. Priyanka1, S.D. Shri2 S. Poovizhi3

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

The main aim of the environmental protection agencies and government are to seek ways and means to minimize the problems of disposal and health hazards of by- products. Some of the industrial by-products have been successfully used in construction industry for the production of cement concrete. Steel slag is one of the materials that are considered as a waste material which could have a promising future in construction industry as partial substitute of either cement or aggregate. Many researchers have already found it possible to use steel slag as a concrete aggregate. The effect of partial replacement of coarse aggregates by steel slag(SS),on the various strength and durability properties of concrete, by using the mix design of M30 grade. The optimum replacement of coarse aggregate by steel slag is found.

THE EFFECTS OF LASER RADIATION ON VISCOSITY (PCV) OF BLOOD

By Huda Kadhem Mohseen

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

In this study, the effect of the laser (532nm) studied on blood viscosity by using Laser (532nm), power 4mw and the time of exposure (15and 20 min), the sample was divided into two sample for irradiation and control. Blood samples withdraw from man ages (35-45) years and to suffer from hyper-viscosity. The results of this study show the decreases of viscosity in blood with effect of laser where the decrement was 2% after 15 min and 8% after 20 min. of laser irradiation. The aim of the research In this research, we use effect of Laser (532nm), power 4mw to treat or reduce the high blood viscosity for some patients with high viscosity as a result of smoking or genetic factors or any other reasons.

STUDY ON PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE USING GLASS POWDER AS PARTIAL REPLACEMENT FOR CEMENT

By Elumalai M1*, Divya Krishnan K2, P.T. Ravichandran3, Karthik N4

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Out of major three carbon dioxide emitting sources, cement manufacturing industry is one along with deforestation and burning of fossil fuels. The radiation of greenhouse gases, such as CO2, to the atmosphere is one of the reasons for the global warming. By considering this fact, it is necessary to address the environmental effects due to the manufacturing of cement andthere is a need to identify the sustainable alternative [1] binders to make concrete. Many extensive researches are going on to identify the potential pozzolanic replacement materials for cement by using many waste materials and industrial by products. In this study, fine glass powder is used as aPozzolana for partial replacement of cement in concrete and its characteristics are compared with ordinaryconventional concrete. The glass powder was partially replaced for cement as 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% and tested for its compressive, tensile and flexural strength at 7 days, 14days and 28 days of age and were compared with those of conventional concrete properties.Among the various percentages of glass powder, the 15% partial replacement of glass powder for cement in concrete give satisfactory results in compressive, split and flexural while compared with conventional concrete mix.The experimental results of split tensile and flexural strength are verified according to the codal provisions of IS and ACI building code. Rapid Chloride Penetration Test (RCPT) was also conducted to understand the performance of concrete with partial replacement glass powder for cement. Hence the replacement of 15% glass powder can be used in the concrete to minimize the cost as well as the disposal problems associated with glass [2].

IL-1 BETA AND IL-6 CYTOKINES PROFILE IN OBESE AND OVER WEIGHT WOMEN IN HILLA CITY-IRAQ

By Zainab Al-Mahdi*, Roqia Ewad**, Haider Qassim Raheem **, Israa Adnan Ibraheam***, Nada Khalid Abo-Khumra**

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

The occurrence of obesity has augmented fast through new year. Our previous study showed obesity was related with diseases and or infections recorded, adipose tissue mediates immune system. Present study aim is evaluation some immune aspect related with IL-1- Beta as pro-inflammatory cytokine and IL-6 cytokine as both pro and antiinflammatory cytokine) production in obese versus normal weight women. Enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) used for detecting and quantifying cytokines. Results shows that the concentration of the IL-1Beta as pro inflammatory cytokine stood greater in obese and overweight women (186.2 ± 58.54, n=17) than in normal weight women (control group (20.41 ± 9.387, n=3), (F=220.4, P < 0.05) while here stayed not any substantial variances in IL-6 concentrations between test group (198.5 ± 34.93, n=15) in compare with control group (212.6 ± 122.9, n=3), (F=2.475, P=0.240). In conclusion, our result improved that obesity responsible in elevation level of proinflammatory cytokine IL-1 Beta and interleukin 6 play important role as both anti and proinflammatory cytokine.

CORPORATE WATER STEWARDSHIP: A STUDY ON WATER FOOTPRINT IN PAPER INDUSTRY

By Agalshri S.K.

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

The Present study attempts to make an account of existing water footprint (WF) in Paper industry for different source of raw materials and also to analyze water management strategies with prime focus on reuse of treated wastewater. Two different industries which uses two different raw materials such as recycled paper and sugarcane bagasse were selected. All the data were collected using Key Informant Interview and Semi- structured interview. This study also reveals the benefit of using the treated waste water within the operational process of industry which helps to save our scarce resource.

SECURE COMMUNICATION USING LIGHT-WEIGHT CRYPTOGRAPHY AND 2-FACTOR VERIFICATION FOR IOT DEVICES

By R. Kanmani, K. Induja, S. Madumidha, M. Malathi and Siddarth Rajesh

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Internet of Things (IoT) is an ecosystem of physical objects connected to each other that are accessible through the internet. The concept of IoT involves the characteristics of Big data and cloud computing for the transmission and storage of data, which naturally implies several threats to the data. The Internet of things(IoT) security is the domain involved in defending the connected devices and networks from unauthorized access.In this paper, we propose a light-weight cryptography technique, SHA-256 algorithm which is used for encrypting the data as it provides high level of security to the data. Two-factor verification is a very efficient security mechanism and an excellent alternative to other security mechanisms as it provides an extra layer of security to the data. It is also known as multi-factor authentication, which requires not only the two correct passwords but also the temporary security PIN sent to the authorized user.

UTILIZATION OF TANNERY WASTE (TANNERY SLUDGE) IN CONCRETE

By Manojgan G1 and Sabarigirivasan L2

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Tannery waste is considered to be one in every of the main industrial wastes. The wastes made from these industries are troublesome in disposal. The disposal of such waste is often done either by combustion or by land filling that ends up in air or land pollution severally. The current study covers the employment of the work waste as a partial replacement for fine combination and to see the mechanical properties of the concrete when substitution. As work wastes have less capability to soak up water not degrade simply after they are disposed by land filling. Fine combination is associate integral half in concrete. The increase within the construction activities the need of fine combination is a lot of. In alternative hand work waste is bumper in nature; a correct replacement of work waste over the fine combination won't solely scale back the work waste however additionally scale back demand for fine combination. The concrete made thanks to this replacement can have reduced weight and additionally possess higher strength than the traditional concrete. Thus, to avoid pollution and scale back the price of construction the experiment is applied and therefore the results are inferred.

INVESTIGATION ON BEHAVIOUR OF EXTERIOR BEAM-COLUMN JOINT UNDER CYCLIC LOADING

By V.Kalaivani1, S. Veeradhithyan2, G. Amarnath3, G.S. Thirugnanam4

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Beam column joint is more important structural element subjected to damage during cyclic earthquake loading which risks the entire structure with insecure design. Inadequate design may lead to extensive cracks and increased shear stresses within the joint during ground shaking which affects strength and stiffness to a greater extent. This study investigates on the flexural behaviour of beam column joint with high strength reinforced and normal reinforced concrete under cyclic loading. Two test specimens modeled on 1:4 scale from a multi storey building were cast and tested using M30 and M60 graded concrete to examine the parameters such as load carrying capacity, stiffness degradation, ductility factor and energy absorption capacity. The test specimens are detailed as per the guidelines given in ductile detailing code IS13920:1993. The study indicates that the High Strength Reinforced Concrete (HSRC) enhances the seismic performance of the beam column joint to a numerous level.

SCREENING OF DIFFERENT CHICKPEA VARIETIES AGAINST GRAM POD BORER HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA (HUB). AND ITS LABORATORY REARING ON CHICKPEA, B.T COTTON AND CONVENTIONAL COTTON

By Nazir Ahmed Abro1, Manzoor Ali Abro2*, Imran Khatri1, Ghulam Hussain Jatoi2, Shabana Naz Mazari3, Rehana Kandhro1, Naimatullah Mangi4

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

In Integrated Pest Management host plant resistance is very important against the insect pests. In the recent work, the different Chickpea varieties were screened out for their resistance against the Gram Pod Borer (Helicoverpa armigera) under the natural field conditions at the Latif Farm Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam. The pest was also reared under laboratory conditions on three different hosts i.e. chickpea, conventional cotton and B.t cotton. Results on the screening of different chickpea genotypes revealed that the genotypes NCS 0530 and NCS 0523 produced significant results in term of lower Gram pod borer infestation (Helicoverpa armigera). Whereas susceptible effect against Gram Pod Borer was appeared in the varieties, NCS 0605 and NCS 9917 showing significantly higher population of Gram pod borer. The rest of the varieties were intermediate in tolerance or susceptibile to the attack of gram pod borer. Studies showed that tolerant Chickpea varieties can produce good yield and can reduce the use of chemicals in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) against the Gram Pod Borer. The laboratory rearing of (Helicoverpa armigera) on different natural hosts e.g Chickpea, B.t Cotton and Conventional Cotton was done in laboratory conditions results revealed that chickpea was the most preferred food followed by conventional cotton (Sadori variety). However different life history parameters of Helicoverpa armigera were severely affected by Bt cotton (IR-FH-901) where maximum mortality of first and second larval instars and prolong life cycle of all other instars was recorded.

PRODUCTION OF BIOGAS FROM VARIOUS BIOMASS WASTE

By A.Vijin Prabhu1*, S. Antony Raja1, C. Lindon Robert Lee1, P. Jeba2

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

The anaerobic digestion(AD) of different biomass wastes [Prosopis juliflora (PJ) pods, PJ leaves, grass clippings (GC), dry leaves (DL), parthenium (P), water hyacinth (WH), and cow manure (CM)] were investigated. Two stage of experiments were carried out, to find the daily biogas yield, biogas composition, and the cumulative biogas production. In the first stage of experimentation, anaerobic digestion of seven materials was carried out in the different reactor to find out the biogas yield. The best three materials in terms of biogas production were selected for the second stage of experimentation. In the second stage of experimentation co-digestion of three combinations (PJ pods + DL, PJ pods + WH, and PJ pods + DL + WH) were analyzed. In the first experiment, PJ pods showed the maximum biogas production (45.69 l/kg) and WH showed the highest biogas composition (CH4:79.89% and CO2:19.87%). However, parthenium performed worst in the biogas production (20.12 l/kg) and biogas composition (CH4:13.45% and CO2:66.57%). CM has quicker production of biogas (maximum from 12–15 days) than other materials. The second experiment PJ pods + DL + WH combination showed the maximum biogas production (65.41 l/kg) and the biogas composition (CH4:75.89% and CO2:23.81%).

ATTITUDE OF A SAMPLE OF GENERAL PHYSICIANS WORKING IN SOME PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTERS IN BAGHDAD, AL-KARKH TOWARDS FAMILY MEDICINE

By Saba Samir Salman1, Sinaa Kareem Abdullah1, Reem Jameel Hassan1

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Worldwide, there is a general agreement that primary care is the linchpin of effective health care delivery, family medicine as a cornerstone in the modern health system would be the best to achieve a more efficient and effective health care delivery. The aim of this study was to explore the attitude of a sample of general physicians working in some primary health care centers in Baghdad towards family medicine. A cross- sectional study was implemented by collected, data using filling the questionnaire by general physicians. A convenient sample including 200 general physicians working in twenty selected primary health care centers. This study was conducted from first of January 2016 till end July 2016. The results show that present study found that the responses were really encouraging and promising; out of the 200 respondents (90%) have shown scores of good responses and overall agreement for family medicine in Iraq. The socio demographic characteristics in the present study including age, gender, years of employment were shown no significant association with the participant’s responses. The percentage of agreement carried among statements with highest percentage of agreement was for statement no.1 family physician is the point of first medical contact within the health care system (97 %) and the lowest percentage of agreements was for statement no. 2 (family physician providing open and unlimited access to its users) (61%). The present study concluded that it reflected the existence of good family physician's role could greatly impact on family medicine and can reflected a promising trend toward changing the current system.

GENERALIZED GAUSSIAN QUADRATURE RULES OVER AN N-DIMENSIONAL BALL

By Sarada Jayan1 and K.V. Nagaraja2

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

A nearly-optimal quadrature rule is developed to evaluate integrals over an n-dimensional ball, using an effective transformation which maps an n-dimensional ball to an n-dimensional cube and then again to a zero-one n-cube. The derivation of this formula over a 2-dimensional ball (circular disc), a 3-dimensional ball (sphere) and an ndimensional ball is given along with numerical results for various types of integrals.

A PILOT STUDY FOR THE TREATMENT OF MICROBIAL SKIN INFECTIONS CAUSED BY BACTERIA PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA BACTERIA THAT RESISTANCE TO ANTIBIOTIC IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL BY (ND: YAG LASER) TECHNOLOGY

By Zahra M. Al-Hakak

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa is the second most important of the Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria for humans and animals. They cause high mortality rates in hospitals because of their resistance to detergents and a large number of chemicals and antibiotics. This study was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and impact of the laser (ND: YAG laser) technology to kill the bacteria Pseudomonas Aeruginosa. Use most common laser And yak (ND: YAG laser) with a wavelength of 532 nm and strongly 200 megawatts, we shed light of laser on the dishes of bacterial implant of bacteria Pseudomonas Aeruginosa free of antibiotics or containing bacterial colonies only for periods of time (1 to 6) minutes and then shed light of laser on the dishes implant bacterial used to examine resistant bacteria to antibiotics and measure the diameter of the constituent circle around each antibiotic and then measure the diameter Circle Counting shed laser on these dishes and the presence of antibiotics together also for periods of time (1 to 6) minutes, the result show that not killed Pseudomonas Aeruginosa in the case of the use of laser alone wavelength and strength of the above for the time periods mentioned above, and in the case of the use of antibiotics alone. While when the combination of antibiotic treatment and use of laser was the best result as bacteria began to weaken and increased sensitivity to antibiotics when using laser light for one minute and the presence of antibiotic and weakened bacteria more and killed about half the number of colonies when the light of laser shed for (3 minutes) and the use of antibiotic also the sensitivity of bacteria to antibiotics increased to (100%) where bacteria killed and the elimination of all colonies when using antibiotics and laser irradiation for (6 minutes) in one. We use an antibiotic (Penicillin, terramycine, ciprofloxacin, azactam, maxipime, cephalexin, amikacin,gentamicin). The result was better when using gentamicin antibiotic than the rest of antibiotics and amikacin.

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON STABILIZATION OF BLACK COTTON SOIL USING TEXTILE SLUDGE WASTE TREATED WITH HYDRATED LIME

By E. S. KARTHIKEYAN and R. VINOTHKUMAR

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Construction industry is very crucial for infrastructure improvement because it gives enormous rise to country's economy. Since black cotton soil are very fertile soil, so they are not good for pavement and foundation [1]. Black cotton soil is expansive clay, since it processes high swelling and shrinkage characteristics due to change in moisture content. Soil enhancement skill like stabilization and reinforcement are hired to improve geotechnical properties of soil, thereby strengthening the reliability of construction. Textile sludge waste was added to black cotton soil in varying proportions of 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 % and 50 %. Hydrated lime was added to soil in varying proportions of 2 %, 4 %, 6 %, 8 % and 10 % with the optimum proportions obtained from textile sludge waste. The outcome drawn from this debate is that black cotton soil stabilized with textile sludge waste and hydrated lime showed optimum performance in prescription of 20 % and 6 % correspondingly by weight of soil.

STUDY EFFECT THE EXTRACT OF CLADOPHORA GLOMERATE CLADOPHORA GLOMERATE ALGAE ON THE PARASITE OF ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA

By Shatha Khudhaier Abbas

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Was isolated parasitic amoeba fabric E.histolytica in samples bloody diarrhea mucosa of patients infected with Wales a hot amoebic Amoebic dysentery and has its own development in the center of Luc-eggs (LE) axis to add protein pro complex) GALNER) instead of white emulsion, the results showed the success of the implant in the middle, accompanied bacteria, growth continued for two weeks, included this term secondary farm to perpetuate the amoeba. The effectiveness of selected two concentrations chloroform extract cladophora glomerat first concentration 128 mg / ml and second concentration 256 mg / ml. The results showed the effect of two concentrations against amoeba condition of the fabric in the glass. the effectiveness of the extract with the increase mixture focus, where it came from homicide rate of 80% when using the extract 128 mg / ml and 90% when using concentration 256 mg / ml, has influence came to extract a higher content of alkaloids, phenols and Alsabonyat and Alkleikosadat. In-vitro was, VFD was measuring enzyme AIP in the positive control 0.28± 28.6 K.A.U / 100ml and dosed Group by concentration 128 mg / ml was 11.48± 0.6 K.A.U/ 100ml and7.42± 0.055 K.A.U/ 100ml in the second concentration as compared with the negative control group5.23± 0.072 K.A.U/ 100ml treated falagel 7.21± 0.080 K.A.U/ 100ml. enzyme LDH results were in the range of positive control 68.82± 0.3425 U/ L dosed group by concentration 128mg/ ml was50.28± 0.1398 U/ L. As the second concentration 36.36± 0.3425 U/ L. As compared to negative control Group25.28± 0.3425 U/ L group dosed by flagel 51.11± 0.16 U/ L. The cholesterol was in the positive control group and the group141.3± 10.1 U/ L dosed group 128mg/ ml was 156± 0.3422.9 U/ L the second concentration 174.17± 4.40 U/ L as compared to the negative control group184.53± 0.26 U/ L by filagel treatment group 180.5.± 0.221 U/ L, Keriaten was within the normal boundaries (1.2-0.5) mg/dl. A concentration of glucose in the positive control group was 92.28± 5.55 U/ L and the dosed group by low concentration was 86.6± 0.34211 U/ L. The high concentration was 95.5± 5.11 U/ L compared to the negative control group 99.32± 3.41 U/ L and the treatment group95.5± 5.11 U/ L. The total protein concentration, was positive in the control group 6.65± 0.33 U/ L and the dosed by the low first concentration 7.71± 2.84 U/ L and the higher 6.53± 0.561 U/ L as compared with the negative control control 7.21± 0.802 U/ L and treatment by filagel 6.25± 0.31 U/ L.

PARAMETRIC STUDY ON GEOGRID – REINFORCED FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT

By A. Nivedhitha1, K. Sekar2, P.T. Ravichandran3

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Due to the rapid increase in the growth of traffic, there is frequent occurrence of various damages in the pavement. To rectify the damage in the pavement many improvement methods are adopted using chemicals, admixtures, industrial waste, etc. Even though it cannot fulfil the strength requirement of the pavement for traffic flow. In view of this for the past four decades, the attempts were made to use geosynthetics in the pavement. In this line, the attempt is made to investigate the effect of reinforcement in the flexible pavements. The models are made with and without reinforcement and their performances are perceived by analysis made using finite element programme PLAXIS 8.2. The analysis of pavements involves the parametric study of displacement, effective stress and effective strain. Results of unreinforced and reinforced pavement obtained and are compared. From the comparisons, it is observed that the strength of the geosynthetic reinforced pavement is prominently higher than the unreinforced pavement (nearly 11 times). This technique helps to analyze the pavement on weaker soil with geosynthetics.

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE ANTERIOR AND POSTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT AFTER KNEE REPLACEMENT: CORRELATIONS WITH VITAMIN D, CALCIUM AND C- REACTIVE PROTEIN IN IRAQI PATIENTS WITH OSTEOARTHRITIS

By Nabaa S. Abdul Sahib1, Sahar A. H. Al-Sharqi2 and Mahmood Shihab Wahab3

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic disease and the most common arthritis forms which involving deterioration of articular cartilage. The present study is a case control study aimed to examine some histopathological change with knee OA patients and biochemical test in both patients and controls. Tissue samples anterior cruciate ligament and Posterior cruciate ligament (ACL, PCL) obtained from 50 knee OA patients (35 females and 15 males) during total knee replacement for histological study. Blood sample were obtained from 50 knee OA patients and 25 controls. The tissue sample and whole blood were collected during the period from October 2015 to June 2016. In the current study, there are many histopathological changes in knee OA tissues (ACL and PCL) such as congestion of blood vessels, edema, fibrocystic proliferation and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Likewise, the assessment of vitamin D revealed that there was significant difference (p < 0.05) between (Healthy or Patients). Although vitamin D concentration was lower in patients than controls but the difference was not statistically significant, but there is a significant difference in serum vitamin D concentration between male OA patient and female OA patient. Also, there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in serum Calcium concentration of males in patients group when compared with males in controls group. Calcium concentration showed no-significant difference between male and female in patients group. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in concentration of C- reactive protein (CRP) among all groups.

DETECTION OF P53 and Bax genes ASSOCIATED WITH HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION

By ASEEL H. AL-SABARY, MOHAMMED S. ABDUL RAZZAQ, MOSHTAK A. WTWT

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

H. pylori is considered one of the most common human pathogen worldwide, with infection rates much higher in developing countries than in developed nations. The aim of this study is the investigation of some candidate genes include P53 and Bax genes mutation associated with H. pylori infection and study the role of H. pylori virulence genes on the induction of P53 and Bax genes mutation. The results show a total of 92 gastric biopsies gave positive results for the presence of H. pylori diagnosed by molecular technique. Only (49) cag a positive H. pylori strains obtain from gastric biopsy of patient suffering from H. pylori infection which also harboring cag E and vacA genes. Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) technique used to identify mutations in the p53 gene in several exons. Where 16 alterations in exon E5A, 19 alterations in exon E5B6A, 17 alterations in exon E7 and only two in exon E6B; but no alteration was appeared in exon E8 of P53 gene. In the same way, PCR-SSCP analysis detected alterations in Bax gene where only 14 positive samples gave alteration in the sequence of Bax gene in exons E1, E4 and E6. Regarding to exon 1 of Bax gene, it was appeared that only 10 samples gave positive gene locus mutation. This may attribute to H. pylori which stimulate Bax mutation through its ability to produce cag A protein which has the ability to cause changing in gene sequence and function. It is concluded that p53 and Bax genes mutation is important tool in the screening of genetic alteration associated with H. pylori infections.

TO STUDY THE FLEXURAL BEHAVIOUR OF NON-PRISMATIC BEAMS USING SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE

By Imran Sharik M.1, Joshua Daniel A.2

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is a type of concretethat consolidates under its own weight without external compaction. The extremely fluid nature of SCC makes it appropriate to use in difficult conditions and in sections with congested reinforcement.Non prismatic beams have non uniform cross section and so congestion arises due to closely spaced stirrups and bars. Compaction by vibrator is difficult, to overcome this beam are studied with self-compacting concrete. The present paper focuses on investigating the characteristics of M50 grade of self- compacting concrete where cement is replaced with ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and Micro Silica (MS) with six different proportions. Fresh concrete properties of the concrete were studied. Cubes and prisms were casted and tested to obtain the optimum proportion. This is further used in fabrication of non- prismatic beams. Flexural behavior of these beams are tested and compared with that of the conventional beam

COMPARATIVE ANALYTICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY BASED ON STRENGTHENING OF RC BEAM USING TEXTILE FIBER AND ARAMID FIBER

By Sharmilee S.1, Pavithra C.2, Karthiga S.2

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Textile fiber and aramid fiber is being used as the polymer used in the strengthening of the beam in tensile and flexure. The jute textile fiber's tensile and flexural property is compared with the kevlar aramid fiber. The jute textile fiber is readily available in the Indian market as it is been used in many other fields. The jute fiber reinforced polymer is cheap when compared with the kevlar fiber reinforced polymer. Kevlar is the material used in the armor jackets, gloves since it has great resistance except to direct contact with the ultra-violet rays. This work carries out the comparative study of the jute fiber reinforced polymer and kevlar fiber reinforced polymer in strengthening of material using the wrapping technique. The fiber is externally wrapped on the beam. The wrapping is placed on the beam and coated with the primer. The fiber reinforced polymer is wrapped around the beam in single layer with different percentages. The percentages used here in this beam are 25%, 50%, 90% in experimental and in analytical.

SOME HEPATIC AND RENAL HISTOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF THE ARTIFICIAL TESTOSTERONE (SUSTANON) ON FEMALE RATS

By Ekhlas Abd Hamza*, Kareem Hameed Rashid**

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

This experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of three different doses of artificial testosterone (sustanon) on the histological structure and the function of liver and kidney. For this experiment 48 adult female rats divided into four groups received 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 mg/kg respectively in addition to one control group for a period of 42 days. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experiment for liver enzymes levels analysis. Then the animals were sacrificed and dissected out to remove liver and kidneys for histopathological study. The results showed significant changes in liver enzymes compared with control group. All treated groups showed enlargement and congestion in hepatocytes and nephrons. In addition to that, Cellular swelling, vacuolar degeneration, fatty changes and apoptosis were noticed in all treatment groups. It was concluded from this study that artificial testosterone at the above doses had hepatic and renal histological and physiological changes in female rats and these findings suggesting a similar effect in human

REMOTE SENSING AND GIS-MULTICRITERIA DECISION ANALYSIS FOR GROUND WATER RESOURCES MAPPING OF THALAVADI BLOCK - ERODE DISTRICT IN TAMIL NADU

By P. MUTHUKUMAR, E. SAKTHIVEL

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Water is one of the most vital natural resources for our daily life. This essential resource is obtained mainly from surface water and ground water. Inconsistency and unequal availability of surface water leads to the search for ground water. Ground water is profoundly utilized in irrigation, industries and for domestic purposes. Therefore, the quality of ground water is equally important as its quantity. The present study makes use of geo-spatial technology in mapping the spatial variability [Choudhary, et al.,1996] of ground water quality. Ground water samples were collected in study area. The major water quality parameters such namely pH, Electrical Conductivity[EC], Total Dissolved Solids, Total hardness, Iron, Chloride, Nitrate and Fluoride have been estimated for all the sampling locations. The spatial variation maps of these ground water quality parameters were generated and utilize as thematic layers. The thematic layers were given ranks based on their relative importance. Different classes within each thematic layer were assigned weight ages in numerical rating from 1 to 3 as attribute values in GIS environment. Summation of these attributes [Ganesh and Sashikkumar, et al., 2015] values and the corresponding rank values of the thematic layers were utilize to generate the final ground water quality map. The final map shows the different classes of ground water quality within the district. This can be utilized in giving guideline for the suitability of ground water uses.

SEROPREVALENCE OF RUBELLA, CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, HERPES, AND TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN RECURRENT ABORTED WOMEN IN BAGHDAD

By Roua Jamal Abdulkhaliq1, Sabaa Taher Mohammed2, Ahmed Abdul-Hassan Abbas3

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Recurrent Abortion (RA) in the general populations is common occurrence and often changes among different communities. This study was to determination the prevalence of Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, herpes, and Toxoplasma Gondii in Baghdad. Blood samples were collected from 210 women, 180 women with recurrent abortion (three or more abortions) in the first trimester and 30 women with a healthy pregnancy. Based on the clinical examination, and diagnostic laboratory findings of the rapid lateral immune chromatography assay (RLICA), and Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for TORCH examination measured serum levels of immunoglobulin (IgM and IgG) for Toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, herpes, and rubella in aborted women. Depending on the result of ELISA test the patients were included women with recurrent abortion with sero-negative for TORCH test was 50 (27.8%), women with recurrent aborted with sero-positive for antitoxoplasma antibodies was 44 (24.5%), women with recurrent abortions suffering from infected with different causes such as cytomegalovirus, Rubella or Herpes ratio were 86 (47.7%) and women with a healthy pregnancy (normal third delivery or more and with no previously recognized miscarriage) was 30 (14.3%). Also the results pointed out that the seropositivity rate for CMV IgG, T. gondii IgG, Rubella IgG, and HSV IgG were higher in recurrent aborted women compared with CMV IgM, T. gondii IgM, Rubella IgM, and HSV IgM also in recurrent aborted women with highly significant difference (P<0.05). The results indicated that the efficacy of ELISA test was higher than rapid test in detecting of TORCH infections. Aim of this Study: Determination the prevalence of Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, herpes, and Toxoplasma Gondii gondii in Baghdad and to detect the efficacy of ELISA test in detecting of TORCH infections.

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY TO INVESTIGATE THE LATERAL LOAD RESISTING BEHAVIOUR OF SHEAR WALL USING SCC

By Goutham L., Joshua Daniel A.

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Self-compacting concrete (SCC) has low yield stretch, high deformability and appropriate thickness to guarantee uniform suspension of strong particles amid transportation, arrangement without outer compaction. Shear wall is a structural system which provides stability to the structure. Since reinforcement in shear wall has closely spaced, compaction is difficult which necessitate the incorporation of self-compacting concrete. The present paper focuses on investigating the characteristics of M50 grade of self-compacting concrete where cement is replaced with ground granulated impact heater slag (GGBS) and Micro Silica (MS)with six different proportions. Fresh concrete properties of the concrete were studied. Cubes, cylinders were casted and tested to obtain the optimum proportion. This is further used in fabrication of shear wall and shear wall with opening. Shear behavior of these walls were tested and compared with that of the conventional beam.

MOLECULAR DETECTION OF ENTAMOEBA GINGIVALIS USING POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

By RAFLAA S. H. HUSSIAN

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Background and objective: Periodontitis is still until now not understood, it's being recorded as public health problems. This disease is caused by bacteria and parasite. Two parasites found in mouth Trichomonas tenax and Entamoeba gingivalis. Entamoeba gingivalis; opportunistic parasite finding in mouth, has only trophozoite form. This parasite possibly has a connection with Periodontitis. The objective of the study: compares between multi – methods for E. gingivalis detection, including microscopic examination, culturing the parasite in a modifying TrypticaseYeast Extract-Serum-Gastric Mucin-9 (TYSGM-9) medium and molecular detection of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Methods: 100 Cotton swab samples from patients with Periodontitis were collected using three or two sterile cotton swabs for everyone. The 50 samples were diagnosed by microscopic examination and 50 samples culturing on modifying TYSGM-9 media and then using PCR to insure found Entamoeba gingivalis grew on media and The 50 samples were diagnosed by PCR using specific primers of the SSU rDNA gene (Small Subunit of the ribosomal DNA gene). The No. of sample under testing 100 or 150 . Result: About 18 (36%) samples positive by microscope, and 20 (40%) samples positive by culture. Whereas the result of PCR positive for these 20samples of culture. So the PCR technique is the best method to detect E. gingivalis and modify TYSGM-9 media is perfect to grow this parasite. You mean all patients under study infections by parasite but no bacteria? Conclusions: The modifying TYSGM-9 medium and molecular detection by PCR using specific primers of the SSU rDNA gene are the best methods for E. gingivalis detection as ceasing to periodontal diseases and distinguished from other pathogens.

STUDY ON SIGNIFICANT SUCCESS FACTORS FOR LABOUR SUBCONTRACTORS IN INDIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

By G. Smrithi1, V.P. Golda Percy2 , V. Visalan3, P. Aravind4

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

In current scenario, construction industry is growing tremendously with huge and complex projects. The large quantity and complexity of work puts the various construction project in a challenging environment. In order to successfully complete the project within the scheduled time and available resources there is a requirement for more amount of skilled labours which the construction industry is in demand of. So the contractors undertaking high budget construction projects with more quantity of work opt to allot their huge proportion of works to labour subcontractors. In this paper the significant success factors for subcontractors who are specialist in providing manpower for various construction works are identified and assessed. Initially a questionnaire survey was conducted and significant success factors were identified through statistical analysis of the data. Further a qualitative analysis technique was approached by semi structured interview with the concerned experts for assessment of the identified significant success factors

IoT BASED PATIENT MONITORING SYSTEM USING RASPBERRY PI 3 and LabVIEW

By K. Mohanraj1, N. Balaji2, R. Chithrakkannan3

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Continuous monitoring of critical patients and their biological parameters are transmitted to doctor’s console, and doctor’s domain address in person using Internet of Things technology (IoT). The design involves measurement of all critical parameters of patients using sensors. Vital parameters measured are temperature, respiration, and pulse rate, humidity and oxygen saturation level using dht11 sensor, MQ sensor, pulse sensor and pulse oximeter sensor. The input sensors are interfaced with an Arduino board and then the signals are transferred to the Raspberry Pi controller and the vital parameters are transmitted to the centralized monitor, where the front end is designed using Lab VIEW software. Using IoT, physicians are notified about the sudden change in patient’s condition. The graphical representation of the patient’s data is displayed in the doctor’s console using Lab VIEW, and the critical readings of the patient are sent to the doctor’s domain address through IoT. Thus, critical patients can be monitored by the doctors from wherever they are, enabling more care and attention towards the patient’s health by the doctor.

EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON TRENGTHENING OF RCC BEAMS BY USING THE FLAX SEEDS AS A PARTIAL REPLACEMENT FOR CEMENT

By V. Visalan1, L. Sabarigirivasan2, P. Aravind3, G. Smrithi4

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

The role of fibres plays a vital role in modern construction field, the natural form of fibres are said to be the most studied material. The flax seed is the natural forms of fibre possess condescending mechanical properties where the young’s modulus rate and tensile strength are in good range and it is eco-friendly. The flax seeds are powdered in a fine manner and it is used as the partial replacement of cement. By adding the flax seeds in the ratio of 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2% in RCC beams and it is further tested under cyclic loading to determine the flexural strength and stiffness value. Finally the mechanical properties and strengthening capacity of the flax seed beams are compared with conventional RCC beams.

THE EFFECT OF POLYSACCHARIDE IN THE FERMENTATION MEDIUM ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BACTERILA CELLULOSE FROM Gluconacetobacter xylinus BTCC B796

By Yunan Kholifatuddin Sya’di1,3*, Endang Tri Wahyuni2, Enandg Sutriswati Rahayu1, Muhammad Nur Cahyanto1*.

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Effect of addition of starch, agar, and alginate on the physical properties of Bacterial Cellulose produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus BTCC B796 has been studied. The strain was grown in Hestrin Schramm medium supplemented by either starch or agar or alginate with various concentrations at room temperature for 7 days without shaking. The cellulose produced was analyzed for crystallinity index, functional groups, cellulose morphology, tensile strength, water holding capacity, and rehydration ratio. The addition of starch, agar and alginate decreased the crystallinity of Bacterial cellulose, in which the strongest effect was shown by starch. Furthermore, it was observed that the addition of polysaccharide led to decrease in tensile strength, increase in the rehydration ratio and water holding capacity, except agar. Addition of starch gave more pronounced effects than that of agar or alginate.The addition of starch in the medium resulted in decreasing the crystallinity and changes the physical properties greater than agar and alginate

RISK MANAGEMENT ON BOT SCHEME ON POST CONSTRUCTED TOLL ROADS

By P. ARAVIND1, V. P. GOLDA PERCY2, V. VISALAN3, G. SMRITHI4, A.M. SNEHA5

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

BOT (Build, Operate, Transfer) scheme means the government transfers the concession to private company where the company is responsible for building and operating the project, and transfers the project back to the government when the concession expires. This kind of BOT (Build, Operate, and Transfer) projects is currently fashionable worldwide. The important issues concerning a highway B-O-T project is the risk factors which have been involved on the post constructed toll roads. This paper deals with the factors on risk which have been involved on a constructed toll road. Different toll roads were considered. Risk identification and classification based on risk factors has been done on the toll roads. The risk parameters are measured by the collection of details from various experts from toll road projects. AHP (analytic hierarchy process) is used for analyzing the data to determine the risk factors and their impact at different stages in road project. The comparative study is made between city and highway toll roads where many differences in management of roads were obtained. Keywords: BOT, Highway, Risk Factors, Toll Roads, AHP Analysis

COCKROACHES (Periplaneta americana ): RESERVOIRS OF METALLO ? LACTAMASE AND EXTENDED SPECTRUM ?-LACTAMASE PRODUCING BACTERIA IN MEDICAL CITY HOSPITAL IN BAGHDAD, IRAQ

By Mohammed F. AL-Marjani, Raghad A. Abdulrazaq, Zahraa A. Khadam, Reyam I. Daham and Khiaria J. Tothli

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Cockroaches are usually major carriers of pathogenic bacteria, prompting economic and serious health risk problem for humans by carrying bacteria and allergens. This study focuses on isolation of bacteria from Periplaneta americana in Medical City Hospital in Baghdad. In total, thirty adult cockroaches were collected randomly in February 2017. Antibiotic susceptibility test was done for each bacterial species. In total, 21 bacterial isolates were identified. The most common diagnostic bacterium isolated from the cockroaches was found to be Klebsiella pneumoniae (33.33%). Coagulase -ve Staphylococci were found in 19% of the isolates. About 42.8% of cockroach bacterial isolates were found to express ES?Ls trait while 19% of isolates expressed M?Ls trait. Two isolates harbored the blaTEM ES?Ls gene. None of the isolates harbored blaIMP, blaCTX or blaVIM. Current study indicates that Periplaneta americana is reservoirs for bacterial isolates which produce ES?Ls and M?Ls.

EVALUATION OF EFFICIENCY OF REHABILITATION SCHEME OF VIERENDEEL GIRDER

By Avinash Kumar P.S.1 and Satyanarayanan K.S.2

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

The significant advantage of vierendeel beam system in building construction is that they can be used in portal frames, taken suitable advantage of the member flexural and compression resistances eliminating the need for extra diagonal members. For this reason, they allow greater interaction with building services, enabling a free space for pipes, ducts, etc. Due to tremor, this-structures are damaged partly or totally. In general, such structures are repaired and used again. In this study, two bay single storey R.C. bare frame is carried out in experimental manner. The R.C bare frame is retrofitted by using infilled, strut, GFRP and CFRP. All these frames were tested under static cyclic loading. This paper summarises the tests experimentally carried out to develop an efficient strengthening method for seismically affected vie rend eel structures. The experimental results were compared by using a finite element software. In this study shows that the retrofitted vierendeel girder shows more stiffness than the R.C. frames.

IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL PROTEINS INVOLVED IN INULIN METABOLISM FROM COLONDERIVED LACTOBACILLUS CASEI STRAINS

By Widodo1,2*, Dwi Aditiyarini1 and Tutik Dwi Wahyuningsih1,3

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

The Lactobacillus casei strains AP and AG are lactic acid bacteria originating in the gastrointestinal tract. The strains were grown in inulin as the only carbon source to identify inulin-degrading proteins and their metabolism. To examine their inulin metabolism, sugar analysis was performed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for intracellular- and supernatant-derived samples. Sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDSPAGE) was used to identify inulin-degrading proteins; this was followed by electrospray ionisation - liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (ESI-LC-MS/MS) analysis of specific protein bands. The cell wall protein profiles of bacterial cells grown in inulin showed different band sizes at 30 and 50 kDa from those grown in glucose. The 30-kDa proteins belonged to the phosphotransferase system mannose/fructose/sorbose-specific IID component, ATP-binding cassette transporter and ATP-binding cassette transporter substrate-binding protein. These proteins may be involved in the intracellular inulin transport in the L. casei strains AP and AG.

ANALYTICAL STUDY ON FUNICULAR SHELLS WITH VARYING RISES

By P.M. Siddharth1, C. Pavithra2, S. Karthiga3

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

The construction of buildings has started by using concrete many years ago and from then there hasn’t been much improvement in terms of structural design of buildings. In this project, a new way of designing the structure of building by using funicular shells as roof is explored. Funicular shells are the structural systems, which has a special nature and the load is carried on the curvature of shell. Funicular shells which consists of zero percentage steel reinforcement are used for both flooring and roofing systems. The study aims to investigate funicular shells of varying spans of 1 m to 2 m with varying rises of L/10 to L/20 are analyzed. The results suggest that the L/D ratio plays an important role in the deflection, tensile stress, compressive stress and strain values. The accession in rise of the shell is more advantageous in reducing the deformation values. Conclusions are drawn based on the results produced from the software.

ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC VARIABILITY OF OPEN-POLLINATED OIL PALM IN SOUTHERN THAILAND USING SSR MARKERS

By Thanet Khomphet1, Theera Eksomtramage1,2, Saowapa Duangpan1,2*

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Genetic variability of plant materials is very crucial when they are used for breeding purpose. In this present study, genetic variation of 100 open pollinated seeds of tenera hybrid (dura x pisifera) from five provinces in southern Thailand including Phang-nga, Krabi, Surat Thani, Trang and Chumphon were assessed using SSR markers. Seven SSR primers produced 20 alleles with the average of 2.86 alleles per locus. AMOVA analysis based on sampling locations indicated that 99% of genetic variation was observed within populations rather than among populations. Therefore, oil palm populations from different provinces were not significantly diverged. The genetic relationships among oil palm genotypes were further analyzed using cluster analysis and PCoA based on Jaccard’s similarity coefficient. One hundred oil palms were clustered into two groups, regardless of sampling locations. These analyses are useful information for establishing material for breeding program and for crossing scheme. High genetic variability to be included in breeding population can be achieved by selecting oil palms from two different clusters identified.

SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF ADJACENT BUILDINGS WITH POUNDING EFFECT

By S. PRAGADEESWARAN, S. PRADEEP

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

During major earthquakes, pounding between two adjacent structures will be an important phenomenon which may cause severe damages to the structures. Structural components of those pounded structures will be greatly damaged during earthquake excitation. Insufficient distances between the structures are the main reason for the pounding effect. To mitigate the effect of the pounding the simplest form is to provide maximum separation distance to the structures. Thus, it is very important to find out the pounding effect of two closely spaced structures during an earthquake excitation. Non-linear seismic analysis has been done to investigate the effect of pounding damage between the two MDOF adjacent buildings subjected to ground motion and the time history analysis has been used for this paper. The results are observed in the form of story shear, story drift and displacement which are helpful to find the occurrence of pounding between the two structures.

EVALUATION OF SOME CHEMOKINES LEVELS IN IRAQI PATIENTS INFECTED WITH VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS

By 1Ali Nazar Yaseen, 2Israa Kasim Al- Aubaidi and 3Thikra Falih Hasan

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), or kala-azar, is one of the deadliest and most disregarded of all tropical maladies. The presence of inflammatory mediators in serum could hypothetically control the disease. However, there is likewise liberation of anti-inflammatory mediators that could intervene with the control of parasite multiplication. The objective of the current work is to determine levels of some serum chemokines that incorporate granulocytes-macrophages colonies stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) of Iraqi patients with VL which can be considered as a biomarkers for VL infection. Sixty people were included in the present study; thirty- five of them were infected with VL while 25 uninfected people were considered as control. Patients were recognized on the premise of clinical and parasitological criteria. Sera (GM-CSF, IP-10 and VEGF) levels were determined by ELISA using a quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique. The results showed that there were no significant differences (0.05) between males and females infected with VL, while sera levels of GMCSF, IP-10, and VEGF were significantly higher in patients group than healthy subjects (P<0.01).

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF R.C.C. AND COMPOSITE STRUCTURES WITH DIFFERENT VERTICAL IRREGULARITIES

By S. Prabhu Booshan*, S. Sindhu Nachiar, S. Anandh

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

Overall development of the country is based on the infrastructural development. Hence for the construction, nowadays RC structures are being replaced with steel-concrete composite structure due to their structural efficiency which also include cost and time efficiency. During an earthquake, damage occurs due to the discontinuities in the structure. Discontinuities are caused by the presence of irregularities in the structure. Irregular structures are highly vulnerable to seismic forces. Hence structures with different irregularities must be analysed for their performance under seismic force. In this paper, different vertical irregularities such as stiffness, mass and geometric irregularities are analysed for both RC and composite structure.10 storey RC and steel-concrete composite structure are modelled and analysed using response spectrum method in ETABS 2015. On comparison, steel-concrete composite structures with different vertical irregularities perform better than irregular RC structures.

GALACTOSIDASE FROM WATERMELON (Citrullus lanatus) SEEDLINGS: PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND PROPERTIES.

By Asma Saeed1, Muhammad Salim1, Umber Zaman2, Rubina Naz2, Saleem Jan3 and Ahmad Saeed4*

Vol-14 No-3

Abstract

?-Galactosidase from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seedlings was partially purified. Extract was fractionated in two steps with ammonium sulfate at 30 & 80% saturations. Ammonium sulfate precipitated enzyme yielded 60% recovery and two folds purification of the enzyme. Further, the enzyme was subjected to CM-Cellulose and Sephadex G-100 chromatography to obtain 24-folds purification. The specific activity was increased to from 1.5 U to 36 U per milligram of protein. The overall yield was 13.2%. The enzyme had optimum pH 4.8 and pH stability between pH 4.0 and 7.0 was observed. Optimum temperature was 50°C and temperature stability was also shown up to 50°C. Thereafter enzyme activity fell and inactivated completely at 70°C. The Km and Vmax were found to be 0.2 mM and 34Umin-1mg-1of protein, respectively. ?-mercaptoethanol exhibited very small activation at moderate concentration, but the inhibition was displayed at high concentrations. Heavy metal ions such as Al+3, Ag+1, Hg+2, etc. inhibited the enzyme strongly. The inhibition by heavy metals and SH-reacting reagents suggests that cystein was necessary for enzyme activity. On the addition of ?-mercaptoethanol to pre-incubated enzyme with metal ions, the inhibition was relieved. The ?-Galactosidase activity was increased in the presence of alcohols. This activation reflected glycosyltransferase activity.

AN UPDATE ON BIOTRANSFORMATIONAL STUDIES OF DYDROGESTERONE

By Azizuddin

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

Due to the result of enzymatic or metabolic activities by a living organism, the series of chemical reactions occur in a compound, especially a drug. Dydrogesterone (1) is a potent orally active progestogen. Biotransformation of dydrogesterone (1) by using human volunteers, rat, dog, mouse, rabbit and rhesus monkey, by fermentation with cell suspension cultures of Sepedeonium ampullos and Azadirachta indica, and fermentation with fungal cultures including Fusarium solani, Cephalosporium aphidicola, Fusarium lini, Rhizopus stolonifer, Cunninghamella elegans and Gibberella fujikuroi afforded metabolites 2-16. This review article will provide detail about metabolites 2-16, obtained by biotransformation of dydrogesterone (1) and have been reported up to 2012.

A 128-BIT SECRET KEY GENERATION USING UNIQUE ECG BIO-SIGNAL FOR MEDICAL DATA CRYPTOGRAPHY IN LIGHTWEIGHT WIRELESS BODY AREA NETWORKS

By M.V. Karthikeyan1 , J. Martin Leo Manickam2

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

In wireless Body Area Sensor Networks, the communication with the In-body Medical sensor node placed inside the patient must be crypto graphed to protect it. Existing wireless sensor network modes are not suitable for Wireless Body Area sensor Networks (WBAN) as these are resource constrained devices. Securing the implanted device in WBAN is essential for preserving not only the privacy of patient data, but also for ensuring safety of healthcare delivery. This paper presents a secret key generation scheme from the ECG signal parameters and allows device authentication. The proposed model allows the doctor to generate secret key from the ECG signal parameter of the patient without using the battery power of IBS node and providing authentication for both nodes without any initialization or pre-deployment of secret key. Simply we can deploy the sensor in a WBAN and make them to communicate securely (a plug and play model). In our analysis, result and compared with other key generation protocols. Showing that proposed method is a viable key generation and key agreement model for WBAN.

OPTIMIZATION OF CULTURE CONDITIONS TO PRODUCE SECONDARY METABOLITES BY PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS

By Maryam Rana1,2 and M. Umar Dahot1

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

The specie of mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus grown on the Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) medium for the activation and then inoculated in the fermentation medium to obtain maximum production of metabolite. Maximum production of metabolites produced by Pleurotus ostreatus at different incubation time periods. The effect of different carbon sources glucose, galactose, fructose, sucrose and starch was checked on the growth and production of metabolite by Pleurotus ostreatus and the higher production was achieved with glucose. The effect of different nitrogen sources like potassium nitrate, sodium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, casein and urea were checked on the growth and production of metabolites by Pleurotus ostreatus. Among the different nitrogen sources maximum metabolite were obtained with casein. The effect of pH on the growth and production of metabolites by Pleurotus ostreatus was studied in the range of 4.5-8.5 and maximum production was noted with 4.5 pH. The effect of temperature was checked on the growth and production of metabolite by Pleurotus ostreatus in range of 25 ?C-35 ?C and higher production of metabolites were achieved at 30 ?C.

ASSESSMENT OF HETEROTIC EFFECTS IN INTRA-HIRSUTUM CROSSES FOR YIELD AND FIBER TRAITS

By Shabana Memon†± , Sidra Nizamani† , Sadaf Memon† , Ghulam Hussain Jatoi# , Liaquat Ali Bhutto* and Arshad Ali Kaleri†

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

The present study aimed to determine the heterotic effect in ten F1 hybrids in upland cotton. The experiment was laid out in the experimental field of Botanical Garden, Sindh Agriculture University, Tando Jam with three replications during 2015. The hybrids Chandi-95 x CRIS-134 contributed positive heterosis for plant height (cm) and bolls plant-1 . NIAB-78 x Chandi provides better mid parent heterosis for plant height (cm), boll weight (g) and seed cotton yield. Heterobeltoisis seemed to be more in sympodial branches plant -1 and seed index (g). However, the cross Chandi-95 x Haridost observed to produce relative heterosis and heterobeltoisis for G.O.T %. Hence, the heterotic information provides the better hybrid production in a gene pool.

EXPLORING ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIA ORIGIN FROM Jatropha curcas L. AND THEIR POTENTIAL TO ENHANCE PLANT GROWTH IN EGGPLANT

By Ahmed. I. A. Yousif1, 2, Abdul Munif*2, Kikin. H. Mutaqin2

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

Endophytes are often microorganisms that live within plants without causing apparent diseases. They are ubiquitous and have been found in all species of plants studied to date. However, most of the endophyte to plant relationships is not well understood. In this research, we isolated and studied the properties of the endophytic bacteria from Jatropha curcas. L. as plant growth promoter’s agents. In this study, were isolated 195 isolates of endophytic bacteria, of which 44 passed the hemolytic and hypersensitive test using blood agar media and tobacco leaves host as an indicator. Twenty-three of the 44 endophyte bacteria isolates exhibited different biochemical properties. Out of these 44 isolates, 12 were able to dissolve phosphate and 5 isolates were able to fix nitrogen through in vitro test making them 23 candidates for plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB). These 23 isolates were developed as PGPB to enhance the eggplant seedlings under in vivo test. Based on SAS multiple range test data analysis, two of the isolates FJS23 and FJS24 showed higher result among the rest of the isolates. Our results, therefore, indicated that these two isolates assayed are perfect candidates to be used as bio-control and growth enhancer for eggplant.

IMPROVED IMAGE SEARCHING USING USER INPUT IMAGE FUNDAMENTAL FEATURE TECHNIQUE

By D. Saravanan

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

Image processing plays a key role in every human’s life today. The use of images has widely increased due to many factors, but technology makes it very easy to upload images from any corner of the world. Information is exchanged via images easily and effectively and is an important mode of communication today. Searching for images on the web has its own advantages as well as disadvantages. The latest technique involves searching the content by using traditional text retrieval, and it never gives any guarantee to find the required information. For searching image content today most of the researchers spend time for creating various indexes to bring the effective result. This research paper brings one image searching technique which uses image feature based searching with the help of image fundamental feature. The experimental results also confirmed that the proposed approach can always retrieve intended targets even with poor selection of initial query points.

STUDY OF CUMIN ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ALCOHOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS

By Sarmad Ghazi Al-Shawi, Zena Kadhim Al-Younis, Nada Fawzi Abd Al-Kareem

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) studied on Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Study results showed that carbohydrate, protein, fat, moisture, ash and fiber percents in Cumin were 33.8, 16.3, 25.3, 6.1, 8.6 and 9.6 respectively. Alcoholic extract of Cumin had higher antibacterial activities against all tested bacteria comparing to the aqueous extracts. Antioxidant activities of Cumin extracts were compared to butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). Results showed that alcoholic extracts had the highest antioxidant activity comparing to the aqueous extracts.

POTENTIAL OF TREATING UNSTERILIZED PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT (POME) USING FRESHWATER MICROALGAE

By Saidu Haruna1,3, Shaza Eva Mohamad2* , Haryati Jamaluddin1

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

Untreated Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) is a wastewater that contains high amount of chemical substances that when discharge directly into the waterways causes acute water pollution crises especially to Malaysia where palm oil is cultivated extensively. This research was carried out in order to evaluate the potential of utilizing Chlorella sorokiniana for the phycoremediation of POME. C. sorokiniana grew in POME under different dilutions of 80%, 60%, 40% and 20%. C. sorokiniana removed nitrate, total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium at ranges of 33-71%, 29-64%, 19-91% and 70-98% over 15 days culture. This study proved the successful cultivation of microalgae in unsterilized POME which could contribute to the effort in finding effective method of treating POME

EVALUATION OF SEROTONIN HORMONE LEVELS ASSOCIATED WITH OBESITY IN SOME ADULT MEN

By Noran Jameel Ibraheem1 and Ghadeer hamid AL-Ardhi 2

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

To evaluate whether serum concentration of serotonin in some healthy adult's men influenced by their characteristics of anthropometric measurements. Ninety-eight volunteer adult's men non-smoking (20-50) years in this study, the blood samples were taken from subjects at the morning during 8:30-10:30 am during November 2015 till April 2016. ELIZA kit was used to assay the serum level of serotonin hormone, and the anthropometric measurements have been done such as; body weight, height and waist circumference(WC) to calculated body mass index (BMI), and percentage of body fat (BF%) by a special formula and the subjects were assorted depending on classes of anthropometric (physical) measurements. The results showed a significant decrease in serum level of serotonin hormone(p<0.05) in obese groups like the classes of anthropometric (physical) characteristics as compared with the leaner groups. Our results suggest that the state of anthropometric (physical) characteristics which included (BMI, body fat percentage, and WC) have worked to influence on the level of serum circulating serotonin hormone in these subjects. Other words, the lake of serotonin secretion may can alter the characteristics of anthropometric measurements to individuals

DETECTION OF TRICHOTHECENE OF Fusarium solani ISOLATES BY USING HPLC IN MELON PLANTS

By Halima Z. Hussein

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

Fusarium solani is one of the important phytopathogenic causing serious losses on cucurbit plant in Iraq, which are responsible for crown, and Root rots of melon. Ability of Fusarium solani isolates to produce T2-toxen and DON analyzed by using HPLC. The results indicated that the F. solani has potential capacity to produce trichothecene. Thirty-nine isolates investigated with the HPLC method were identified to produceT2 toxin. Also, F. solani isolated that demonstrated a potential capacity for the synthesis of trichthecence DON

DOSE RESPONSE CURVE OF VARIOUS PLANT EXTRATS ON G+ve AND G-ve BACTERIAL ISOLATES

By Nazir Ahmed Brohi, Agha Asad Noor and Muhammad Ashraf Sial

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

The plant extracts are being significantly used in the treatment of various infectious diseases and have a greater impact in Unani medicines. This presentation explores the effects of test plant extracts of garlic and ginger juice and aqueous extracts of coriander and mint prepared in ethanol, methanol and acetaldehyde with the comparison of chloramphenicol and gentamycin antibiotics as control. Our observation revealed that, garlic juices at 25 µl concentrations are effective on S. aureus and E. coli whereas ginger showed maximum activity on Ps. aeruginosa, S. aureus whereas 20 µl concentration revealed antibacterial activity against E. coli respectively. The aqueous extracts of coriander and mint extractsprepared in ethanol has greater antimicrobial activity against Ps. aeruginosa and E. coli respectively as compared to Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Spectroscopic observations showed antibacterial activity at 20 and 25 µl concentrations of mint and coriander0.121 and 0.118against E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli as compared to other strains at A600respectively.

EVALUATING SEED RATE, CUTTING AND NITROGEN LEVEL STUDY OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF TRITICALE

By Uzair Ahmad

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

This field experiment was conducted at New Development Farm, The University of Agriculture Peshawar to evaluate the seed rate, cutting and nitrogen level study of yield and yield components of triticale. Randomized complete block (RCB) design with split plot arrangement having four replications of each treatment was used. A control treatment was also included for comparison. The size of the sub plot was 1.5 m × 3 m. The row-row distance was 30 cm with five rows. Phosphorous was also applied at the rate of 90 kg ha-1 at the time of sowing. Irrigation was done as per required by the crop. All of the phosphorus and sulphur were applied at sowing time. Finding of the experiment illustrated that maximum emergence m-2 (118), fresh fodder yield (136 g m-2 ), days to heading (117 days), plant height (98.6 cm) and delayed maturity (151 days) with seed rate of 140 kg ha-1 , while higher number of productive tillers (233 m-2 ), grains spike-1 (44) was recorded at seed rate of 100 kg ha-1 . Higher unproductive tillers (17 m-2 ) was obtained at the seed rate 120 and 140 kg ha-1 . Application of N at the highest level in (150 kg ha-1 ) delayed day to heading (117 days), days maturity (150 days), produced taller plants (210 m-2 ), higher fresh and dry weight (129 and 75 g m-2 ), more number of grains spike-1 (42) as compared with other levels of N. Higher productive tillers (222 m-2 ), CGR (14 g m-2 day-1 ) were recorded at 120 kg N ha-1 . It can be concluded from the study that increase in seed rate at140 kg ha-1 and increase in nitrogen levels enhances the emergence m-2 , fodder yield, days to heading, plant height, and delayed maturity.

STUDIES ON DIFFERENT LEVELS OF PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZER AND PHOSPHORUS SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA L.)

By Niaz Ali Sial1*, Shafique Ahmed Abro2 , Muhammad Abbas1 , Muhammad Irfan1 and Muhammad Yousuf Memon1

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

A field experiment on mungbean was conducted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five treatments and three replications. Treatments were T1 = control, T2 = 75 kg P/ha, T3 = Bacillus polymyxa @ 25 ml/kg of seed (122 x 108 cells/ml); T4 = 37.5 kg P/ha; T5 = Bacillus polymyxa @ 25 ml/kg of seed (122 x 108 cells/ml) + 37.5 kg P/ha. . The results showed that plant height, no. of pods/plant, single plant dry weight, no. of branches/plant, no. of panicles/plant, 100-grain weight, biological and grain yield recorded the highest values in T2, followed by T3, T4 and T5 respectively. However, the lowest values were observed in control treatment. Total bacterial count was highest (185 x 106 and 174 x105 ) at 0-15 and 15-30 cm in T2 after sowing of crop. Even after crop harvest, T2 recorded the highest total bacterial count of 181 x 104 and 161 x104 at 0-15 and 15- 30 cm soil depths, respectively. The control treatment showed the lowest bacterial counts at both soil depths after sowing as well as harvesting of crop. It was further revealed that the application of Bacillus polymyxa alone contributed at par with T4 (37.5 kg P/ha) to the most of yield and yield contributing parameters of mungbean crop. Although T2 was superior to all other treatments, the application of P solubilizing bacterial inocula alone may contribute to mungbean yield potential to some extent in resource poor farming systems.

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON DEFORMATION AND DENSIFICATION PROPERTIES OF SINTERED ATOMET 4601+TIC ALLOY STEELS UNDER COLD UPSETTING

By M. Venkat Krishna1 , T.K. Kandavel2 , K. Palaksha Reddy, A. Jayaprakash

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

The present investigation is focussed on to develop and study the densification and deformation of cold forged prealloyed ATOMET 4601 and admixed with 2% TiC high strength alloy steels. Elemental TiC powder was homogeneously mixed with ATOMET prealloyed powder through Powder Metallurgy (P/M) route. The physical properties of P/M alloy steel powders were measured as per the ASTM Standards. The cylindrical sintered preforms of size Ř25x12 mm were used for the present work. In order to study the plastic deformation and densification characteristics of the alloy steels preforms, the specimens were subjected to cold upset with an incremental load. The axial load was increased upto the appearance of fine cracks on the lateral surface of the deformed alloy steel preforms. Physical measurements have been taken on deformed and undeformed specimens to calculate stress and strain values. The density of specimens was evaluated by the Archimedes’ principle for the as sintered and the specimen after each deformation. The influencing parameters such as true axial stress, true height strain, true lateral strain, density and hardness were correlated each other for the deformation and densification studies of the alloy steels. Microstructures of alloy steels taken by optical microscope were also corroborated with deformation properties. It is found from the plots that addition of TiC to prealloyed powder deteriorates the plastic deformation and densification properties of ATOMET 4601 alloy steel. The titanium carbides embedded between the ferrite gains drastically affect the plastic flow of TiC added alloy steel.

PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF RICE (Oryza sativa L.) TO ZINC TREATMENTS UNDER DROUGHT STRESS

By Nonvide Nicolas Adiko1 , Diah Ratnadewi2 and Miftahudin2*

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

Rice, as one of the major cereal crops, is severely affected by water deficit in many regions. To better understand zinc role under drought stress, a hydroponic trial was conducted in the Bogor Agricultural University greenhouse where daytime temperature were 34oC to investigate the effects of zinc on plant growth, antioxidant enzyme activities, and malondialdehyde content in two rice cultivars IR64 and INPAGO5 under drought stress. Rice seedlings were grow on modified Yoshida nutrient solution with three different zinc concentrations, i.e., 0.15, 0.3 and 0.6?M and one control. The results showed that zinc promoted rice growth subjected to drought by increasing leaf length, plant height and root length in both rice cultivars except leaf length of INPAGO5 prior drought stress. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were significantly increased in IR64. In INPAGO5, increase of catalase activity was not significant, whereas superoxide dismutase activity was significantly increased. Peroxidase activity was less in INPAGO5 than that of IR64. Malondialdehyde accumulation resulting from lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced in root cell of both cultivars under zinc treatment after 8 days of drought. These results suggest that zinc application increased antioxidant enzyme activities and resistance to drought stress. Among zinc concentrations applied, 0.3?M seems more beneficiary for rice to overcome drought stress. An adequate zinc concentration could be useful in preventing any damage in case of short period of drought.

GENETIC DIVERSITY ANALYSIS IN COMMERCIAL SUGARCANE (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUML.) GENOTYPES

By 1Abdul Wahid Baloch, 1Mansoor Ahmed Kumbhar, 2 Inayat Ali Mallano, 3Abdul Majeed Baloch, 4Tauqeer Ahmad Yasir, 5Salim Muhammad Sarki, 6Ghulam Shah Nizamani, 1Faiza Nizamani and 1 Irfan Ahmed Baloc

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

The present research was carried out to analyze the genetic diversity of commercial sugarcane varieties for various quantitative and qualitative traits including plant height (cm), tillers plant-1 , internodes plant-1 , internodes length (cm), cane girth (cm), weight stool-1 , brix (%), sucrose (%), fiber (%), commercial cane sugar (%), sugar recovery (%) and purity (%). In total, six genotypes of sugarcane were evaluated using analysis of variance, principal component analysis, cluster analysis and coefficient of parentage. Results displayed that sugarcane genotypes differed highly significantly for all the studied traits, registering the significant genetic diversity among the genotypes for further evaluation. With regards to genetic distance, out of the 15 pairs of comparisons, a good number of pairs exposed greater genetic distance; consequently, these pairs can further be utilized in sugarcane breeding for getting useful clone with great hybrid vigor. In cluster analysis, all genotypes divided into three clusters, indicating the existence of wider genetic diversity among the tested sugarcane genotypes. From PCA analysis, three components were isolated from twelve studied characters. The first, second and third components attributed 54.10, 26.70 and 13.10 % of total variation, respectively. The cumulative percent of variance accounted for 93.90% in the first three components, demonstrating a considerably high variability that can be exploited for further breeding programs in sugarcane breeding.

COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF PROMISING ADVANCED WHEAT GENOTYPES WITH COMMERCIAL WHEAT CULTIVARS IN SINDH

By Saima Arain, Mahboob Ali Sial, Khalil Ahmed Leghari and Karim Dino Jamali

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

An experiment was carried out to evaluate the comparative performance of promising advanced wheat genotypes. Fourteen genotypes with three check varieties viz. Kiran-95, T.J-83 and T.D-1 were evaluated for yield and yield associated traits. Experiment was laid-out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) consisting of three replications during the crop year 2012-2013. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences between varieties for different traits of advanced lines and commercial checks. The highest grain yield was produced by the genotype BWS-78 (7708 kg ha-1 ) followed by EST-29/9 (6979 kg ha-1 ) although non-significant for each other. The high yielding genotype BWS-78 also took less number of days (124) to maturity, semi-dwarf plant height and comparatively better 1000-grain weight. However, maximum 1000-grain weight (45.3g) among the test genotypes was obtained by NIA-25/5 which was not significantly different than check variety T.D-1 (46.3g). Similarly, EST- 29/9 had tall-dwarf plant height, early maturity and comparatively higher 1000-grain weight (45.0g) and ranked as second highest grain yielding genotype but was not significantly different than NIA-28/4, D-H-6/6 and D-H-6/7. The newly selected genetically improved genotypes possesses early maturity will be further confirmed and could be grown under late planting conditions.

HEART DISEASE PREDICTION BY ANALYSING VARIOUS PARAMETERS USING FUZZY LOGIC

By M. Kowsigan1 , A. Christy Jebamalar2 , S. Shobika3 , R. Roshini4 , A. Saravanan5

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

In modern world, heart diseases are rapidly increased due to the food habit, stress, genetic reason and also lack of exercise. The prediction of the heart disease helps the people to take care of their health. Nowadays, Health care institutes contains huge amount of information, which contains hidden information of patients health. This hidden information is useful for making effective decisions. This research mainly focuses on the patient even before facing a sign of angina pectoris. This heart disease attacks a person so instantly that it hardly gets treated with. Hence medical fraternity has a challenging task to diagnose a patient correctly on time. Till now, a minimum of 13 to 15 parameters were used to predict the heart disease. But as an advancement of the existing system, only five main parameters are used in this. The factors such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure, blood sugar level, obesity are the major risk causes heart diseases. We designed the system using Matlab. Computer based information along with advanced Data mining techniques like fuzzy logic is used for predicting Heart disease diagnosis

XYLANASE PRODUCTION FROM BACILLUS SUBTILIS IN SUBMERGED FERMENTATION USING BOX-BEHNKEN DESIGN

By Sobia Naz1 , Muhammad Irfan1 , Muhammad Umar Farooq2

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

In this study, an attempt was made to optimize the nutritional conditions for xylanase production by Bacillus subtilis in submerge fermentation process using agricultural waste like corn cobs as substrate. Three variables with three levels such as corn cobs loading (1, 3, 5, % w/v), peptone (0.05, 0.275, 0.5%) and KH2PO4 (0.1, 0.3, 0.5%) were optimized through Box-Bhenken design of response surface methodology. It was revealed that the maximum yield of xylanase (295 U/ml) was achieved with 3% corn cobs as substrate, 0.05 (%) peptone, and 0.5 (%) KH2PO4. Analysis of variance reveals that the proposed model was significant having an F value of 188.77 and its corresponding p values 0.000 and, P>F<0.0001 shows the model’s accuracy. Higher R2 values (98.93) of the model depicted that only 1.07% variations could not be explained by the model. Findings of this study could be utilized for industrial exploitation of the enzyme.

EXPRESSION RESPONSES OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS IN TOLERANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE Hevea brasiliensis CLONES TO THE WHITE ROOT DISEASE

By Natthakorn Woraathasin1,2 . Korakot Nakkanong1 . Charassri Nualsri*1,2

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

Pathogenesis-related proteins play crucial functions in the plant defense with antimicrobial activity response to pathogen infections. In this study, cDNA parts of selected antifungal genes (HbPR-2, HbPR-4 and HbPR-5) were isolated from Hevea brasiliensis, the parts spanning 1,120, 233, and 517 bp, respectively. In BLASTP analysis HbPR- 2 showed a Glyco_hydro_17 domain; HbPR-4 showed a Barwin domain; and HbPR-5 contained a GHG-TLP-SF domain. The sequence alignment of amino acids indicated high similarities to the PR-2, PR-4 and PR-5 genes found in other plants. Transcriptional profiles from quantitative real time-PCR were compared in three Hevea clones, namely PB5/51 (a tolerant clone), BPM24 and RRIM600 (susceptible clones), after inoculation with Rigidoporus microporus at 0, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. The results revealed that these gene transcripts were more active in the tolerant clone than in the susceptible clones. These clearly indicate varied defense responses across clonal varieties, in the important context of host-pathogen interactions between the white root disease and rubber trees. This gives the priming strategy for tolerant rubber selection.

HYPEROSMOTIC STRESS TOLERANCE OF TRANSCRIPTION ACTIVATOR Msn2- OVEREXPRESSION STRAIN AND PROLINE-NO SYNTHESIS STRAIN OF Saccharomyces cerevisiae IN VERY HIGH GRAVITY BIOETHANOL FERMENTATION

By Dwi Aryanti Nur’utami 1 , Liesbetini Haditjaroko 2 , Hiroshi Takagi 3 , Khaswar Syamsu 2

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess the tolerance of two modified commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ethanol Red, Pro1(I150T)/Mpr1(K63R) and MSN2-OP in hyperosmotic stress and to measure the kinetic parameters of the best yeast from both of them in the production of bioethanol in very high gravity ethanol fermentation. The results show that Pro1(I150T)/Mpr1(K63R) yeast strain is more tolerant to hyperosmotic stress than MSN2-OP. The Pro1(I150T)/Mpr1(K63R) yeast strain is tolerant up to 70% sucrose and 13% ethanol, while the MSN2-OP yeast strain has been inhibited by 70% sucrose and 11% ethanol. The Pro1(I150T)/Mpr1(K63R) yeast strain produces about 14.6 ± 0.3% (w/w) ethanol for 48 h fermentation with final residual sugar about 9.43% and 83.9 ± 0.6% substrate consumption efficiency

Introduction of Hd3a gene in IPB CP1 potato cultivar through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation under the control of use 35S CaMV promoter

By Nonozisokhi Gea1 , Suharsono2,3, G A Wattimena2 Utut Widyastuti2,3

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

IPB CP1 (Chip potato 1) potato cultivar is a new potato varieties obtained by irradiating the Atlantic potatoes at a dose of fifteen gray by the Indonesian National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) and researchers at the Bogor Agricultural University. In Indonesia, these potatoes are used as chips. Tuber is a plant organ that serve as storage organ for nutrient and it is used for survival during dry season. One way to increase production of potato is through induction of its tuber. Heading date gene 3a (Hd3a) is one of the genes that can regulate flowering time in rice. In addition to inducing flowering, this gene have proven to induce the formation of tuber in Andigena potato cultivar. In this study we introduced Hd3a gene under the control of 35S CaMV promoter into the IPB CP 1 potato cultivar to induce formation of its tubers. Genetic transformation was done by co-cultivation method using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 carrying Hd3a gene. From the transformation of 157 explants from internodes, we obtained 16.4% and 23.1% as value of transformation efficiency and regeneration efficiency respectively. Six putative transgenic shoots survive on callus induction medium containing 15mg/L of hygromycin antibiotic. Molecular analysis was carried out by using 35S-F primers and Hd-R primers to prove if Hd3a gene was integrated into IPB CP 1 potato. PCR analysis showed that all of the six putative transgenic IPB CP 1 potato contained the Hd3a gene under the control of 35S CaMV promoter

Nrf2: A MASTER REGULATOR OF CELLULAR DEFENSE MECHANISM AND A NOVEL THERAPEUTIC FACTOR

By Shahzadi Javeed1, Maha Almas1, Muhammad Shahid2, Aleena Sumrin1, Hamid Bashir1, Muhammad Bilal1, Zafar Saleem1, Ghulam Zahra Jahangir1, Samia Afzal2, Muhammad Idrees1, Iram Amin2*

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

Nrf2 is a potent regulator for the cellular defense system and belongs to a member of the cap ‘n’ collar (CNC) subfamily of transcription. Nrf2 senses the chemical, electrophilic and radiation-induced oxidative stress under basal conditions. Nrf2 is repressed and retained in cytoplasm by its negative regulator Keap1 and is polyubiquitinated by cullin E3 ubiquitin ligase complex for its proteasomal degradation, but stress induces the modification in cullin E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and leads towards its reduced ability to polyubiquitinate Nrf2 and results in Nrf2 escape from Keap1 and mediates the transcription of antioxidant electrophile response element (ARE) to encode antioxidant enzymes that neutralize the effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we highlighted the activity of Nrf2 as a therapeutic agent in oxidatively stressed diseases such as heart failure, cancer, neurological, bone and joint disorders and it can be induced by numerous natural and synthetic compounds.

RUBBER ELONGATION FACTOR (REF) AND SMALL RUBBER PARTICLE PROTEIN (SRPP) GENE EXPRESSION RESPONSES TO VARIATION OF SEASONAL CHANGE IN FOUR SELECTED RUBBER CLONES

By Auksorn Klaewklad1, Korakot Nakkanong1, Chatchamon Daengkanit Nathaworn2 and Charassri Nualsri*1

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

Applying molecular marker for estimating the amount of production yield will help to reduce time for selecting rubber clones. In this study, gene expression analyses under different seasons were performed in rubber tree since seasonal change is one of the most important factors to latex yield. Four rubber clones (SK1, NK1, T2 and SK3) that have high latex yield potential were used in this study. The latex yields and gene expression levels of REF and SRPP genes were compared over two year, using RRIM 600 clones in the same fields as their paired controls. Moreover, the seasonal effects on gene expression were analyzed. The average yields and gene expression were obtained from 13 years old mature trees in the early rainy season, the late rainy season and the summer season. This study revealed that all four selected clones gave higher production yield and exhibited superior REF and SRPP gene expressions than compared-control RRIM 600. Gene expressions of REF and SRPP had positive relationships with latex yield. Moreover, we found that the highest REF and SRPP gene expressions were recorded in late rainy season that agreed with the amount of production yield. The late rainy season was a good period to investigate differential expression of the candidate molecular marker genes. The results corroborate the two genes’ expression as surrogate selection criteria for high yield rubber clones.

CAUSE AND EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION - AIR, WATER, NOISE &LIGHT

By 1D. Saravanan and 2S. Vijaya lakshmi

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

As the of population increases the country faces different form of pollution which creates challenging environmental issues and cause climate changes in India. Pollution includes air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, light pollution, garbage pollution, industrial pollution etc. Due to these factors, the environment gets polluted and, it spoils the natural environment. Air and noise pollution in India is creating serious issues with, most Indian cities violating the central government norms. This paper is a comparative study of the various pollution causes and effects.

EFFECT OF INDUCED MUTATION BY UV RADIATION ON COTTON GROWTH, SEEDS AND PROTEASE ACTIVITY

By Kaleemullah Kalwar1,2 and M. Umar Dahot2

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

The cotton has great economical value. The aim of this study to determine the variation in cotton by induced mutation. As cotton seed treated with ultraviolet rays and sodium azide, it has affected on germination of whole plant. The weight as control 1.34 g/boll, UV 1 hour 1.68 g/boll and UV 2 hours 1.82 g/boll measured from cotton plant. The protease activity also determined from aqueous extract of cotton seed as control 43.7 mg/ml, UV 1 hour 24.36 mg/ml and UV 2 hours 26.7 mg/ml respectively.

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND ANALYSIS OF FUME EXTRACTION AND FILTRATION EQUIPMENT

By 1Ramakrishnan, H. and P. Vinoth2

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

Often, Human kind is permitted to inhale the emission of fumes is in the range of 2 to 3 mg/m3. However, it is the most challenging task for the human safety and environmental pollution. It induced to do the work for reducing the toxic content in the fumes released from chemical manufacturing, metal production process and metal joining process. Thus, the investigation carried out in this work to safeguard the human kind by introducing the new design of filter setup as layers. The filtration is done by using different filters, each having the tendency to absorb the toxic particles that are present in the fumes. The filters used are Silicone crystal, Alum filter and layer of cotton. This work helps the industry to reduce the particulate matter and heavy smoke produced by the fumes of metal joining process.

ETIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF PANCYTOPENIA IN CHILDREN AND ADULT PATIENTS BASED ON BONE MARROW BIOPSY

By 1Shahzad Ali Jiskani, 2Shah Muhammad Mahesar and 3Ammara Mahesar

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

To assess the etiological background of pancytopenia based on bone marrow biopsies in children and adult patients was conducted at tertiary care hospitals of Hyderabad Pakistan. It is a retrospective study in which 134 pancytopenic patients from both pediatric and adult groups were included. Clinical background and microscopic findings of bone marrow biopsies were examined. In children age group, it was assessed that acute lymphoid leukemia was most striking cause (25%), followed by infection related changes (21.66%), reactive bone marrow (11.66%), and megaloblastic anemia (10%).While in adult age group the most widespread cause of pancytopenia was megaloblastic anemia (24.32%), followed by infection related changes (17.56%), hypocellular bone marrow (8.1%) and others. Urgent evaluation of pancytopenic patients is very necessary at earlier stage before it turns in to diverse and dangerous etiological changes.

PREVALENCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AMONG GINGIVITIS IN PATIENT WITH ORTHODONTIC WIRES IN KUFA CITY /IRAQ.

By Manar Hussain Abbas*, Ahlam Kadhum Al-Yasseen*, Wisam Wahab Alhamadi**

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the role of orthodontic wire on bacterial community in oral cavity as well as its effectiveness on Staphylococcus aureus. A total of 78 gingival swab samples have been collected from patient with orthodontic wires suffering from gingivitis and 71 samples were collected from healthy without orthodontic wire during four months from private dental clinics. The results of conventional isolation and identification of bacterial isolates as well as biochemical test showed that S. aureus was the commonest causative pathogens among acute gingivitis (46%) followed by Granulicatella adiacens (29.6%) where 36 isolates were isolated from acute and chronic gingivitis in comparison with 27 isolates from healthy. A mutation experiment was carried out to explain the role of orthodontic wires on S. aureus. The results revealed the same change has been obtained when using both of Nikletitanium (NiTi) and stainless steel wire on S. aureus after 24-96 hr from incubation. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of both original and treated isolates with NiTi and stainless steel wires explained increased in antibiotic resistance of S. aureus to bacitracin, ceftazidim, ogmentin, and erythromycin while other antibiotic remain sensitive such as cefotaxim and amikacin.

DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF DUAL BAND RFID ANTENNA USING HYBRID COUPLER WITH CSRR

By Gayathri, R. and M. Maheswari

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

Nowadays wireless communication devices are flourishing. The performance of the wireless devices must be improved and should have small size and less weight. There are many miniaturization techniques to enhance the characteristics and it gathered a widespread concentration. Microstrip patch antenna is widely used as it has better performance such as higher bandwidth, virtuous efficiency. This paper proposes design of dual band circularly polarized (CP) patch antenna with incorporation of branch line coupler with complementary split ring resonator (CSRR). The design has aperture coupled feeding technique designed for UHF and ISM band. FR-4 substrate is used for the proposed antenna. The relative permittivity of the FR-4 substrate is 4.6 and thickness of 1.6 mm which has greater design flexibility, reduced weight, low cost. The branch line coupler is evaluated in terms of Sparameters. Moreover, the antenna with the dual band coupler with separate transmit and receive ports is evaluated in terms of its impedance bandwidth, isolation, antenna gains, and axial ratios. The results showed that the coupler has good return loss and isolation loss characteristics. The proposed structure covered the band of 900 MHz and 2.4 GHz which can be used for UHF and RFID applications.

PHYCOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON MICROSPORA FLOCCOSA (VAUCHER), THURET ALGA COLLECTED FROM THE PONDS OF HYDERABAD, SINDH

By Jamaluddin Mangi1*, Noor-ul-Ain Soomro1, Sarfraz A. Tunio2, A. Hayee Memon1, M. A. Kazi3 and A. Rauf Jamali1

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

Microspora floccosa (vaucher) Thuret is a rich source of fibers, vitamins and proteins. Present study was conducted to analyze the fatty acids and sterol composition of the fresh water green alga Microspora floccosa present in semipermanent ponds near Hyderabad Sindh. The acids were isolated and then converted into methyl esters. Subsequently they were identified by GC-MS, which revealed the presence of methyl undecylate, myristate, tridecylate, pentadecylate, palmitate, margarate stearate and nonadecylate among saturated and methyl pentadecatrienoate, hexadecatrienoate and heptadecylenate among un-saturated fatty acids. Besides above two sterols such as 24-methylcholesterol and cholesterol were also identified through EI-mass spectrometry and 1HNMR spectroscopy.

A HIGH-PERFORMANCE HTK BASED LANGUAGE IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM FOR VARIOUS INDIAN CLASSICAL LANGUAGES

By aKarthick, M., T. Muruganandamb, C.Jeyalakshmic and A.Revathid

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

Language identification is one of the major research areas in the field of speech processing and tremendous works has been done on that. One of the great bottleneck of language identification system is, for languages which are having closely related pronunciation, it is very difficult to classify them. In our experiments, we have considered seven Indian classical languages and Mel frequency cepstrum with their delta cepstral feature are utilized as features and HMM is used as a classifier. Performance of the system is analysed using HTK based continuous density HMM with MFCC features. The state of the art HTK with MFCC features produced 98.1% with 3 Gaussian mixtures and 100% accuracy with 10 Gaussian mixtures even with small amount of training samples. The same method can be utilized for other languages also.

EARLY ISOLATION OF CELL CYCLE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN KINASE (OSWEE) GENE IN RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.)

By Netty Ermawati1and Yossi Wibisono2

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

The developments of grain are regulated by specific genes that control the size and filling of nutrients during the period of post-fertilization, those specific genes are often known as the cell cycle genes. This study aimed to isolate and characterize genes that are involved in regulation of cell cycle. Using yeast two-hybrid screening, we isolated a gene and identified as a OsWee which belongs to a member of cell cycle genes. This gene has an importance role in regulation of cell division during mitosis, based on the expression level analysis using RT-PCR, and highly expressed in kernels 5 days after pollination (5DAP). The sequence analysis showed, a full-length OsWee gene 1239 bp in size encodes for 413 amino acids. Database searches revealed that OsWee contains protein kinase C-like superfamily (PKc-domain), which is known to play a role in phosphorylation of the hydroxyl groups of serine and threonine amino acid to control the function of proteins. Detailed functional analyses of the OsWee may provide more information concerning the complex regulation of protein kinase in rice and for the molecular breeding leading to improve productivity of various agricultural crops.

RECOGNITION OF EMOTIONS IN BERLIN SPEECH: A HTK BASED APPROACH FOR SPEAKER AND TEXT INDEPENDENT EMOTION RECOGNITION

By C. Jeyalakshmi, B. Murugeswari and M. Karthickc

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

Emotion recognition is one of the recent research area in speech processing to recognize the emotions from the human’s speech. It finds various applications in different fields such as, education, gaming and in call centers to improve Human machine interaction. Researchers utilized different data bases and achieved different recognition accuracies. In this paper, we have proposed HTK based emotion recognition using EMO_DB Berlin database. This contains only ten speakers, uttered each emotion 10 times and the emotions considered are Anger, Boredom, Disgust, Fear, Happy, Neutral and Sad. Speaker and text independent emotion recognition is done by using the HMM models with MFCC features, implemented by HTK. The no. of states and mixtures are varied to validate the performance of the system. This system provides recognition accuracy of 68% for HMM models with 3mimtures and 3states. The system performance is also evaluated for speaker dependent and text independent emotions which produces a recognition accuracy of 81.7%. Even with very small amount of database the system produces better accuracy which can be improved by large amount of database.

DEVELOPMENT OF SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS (SNPS) MARKER FOR OLEIC ACID CONTENT IN OIL PALM (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

By Allen Johnny Borlay1*, Suharsono2, 3, Roberdi4, Tony Liwang4

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is an important economic crop species due to the versatile applications of its crude and kernel oils. The necessity to improve oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), which is the world’s most productive oil producing plant under cultivation currently for high yield and oil quality to meet the growing global demand especially in term of its healthy component, oleochemical industrial needs and biodiesel utilization has become a major area of focus for oil palm breeders. Marker assisted selection have played a crucial role in oil palm breeding programs and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) maker is one of those technologies that has recently attracted breeders. High content of oleic acid (18:1) has proven to be that needed component of oil palm and other vegetable oils that can greatly contribute to oil quality improvement. Stearoyl Acyl-carrier-protein Desaturase (SAD) is a key enzyme for oleic acid biosynthesis which plays an important role in determining the composition of unsaturated fatty acids in oil palm. In this study, we identified 9 SNP loci (4 in the exon and 5 in the intron) in SAD gene fragment and developed an allele-specific single nucleotide amplified polymorphism (SNAP) marker for oleic acid content prediction. . Four out of the nine SNAP marker developed and tested on 25 oil palm accessions were polymorphic and reasonably informative. The average expected and observed heterozygosities were 0.391 and 0.404, respectively. The mean polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.312. Our results showed that these SNAP markers will be useful if validated in larger oil palm population in predicting oleic acid composition and genetic variation in oil palm breeding programs based on SAD gene fragment.

DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF LOW NOISE AMPLIFIER WITH FILTERS FOR WBAN BASED HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM

By M. Maheswari*, R. Gayathri and S. Vimal

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

In this paper, the design of LNA with filters structure is proposed for wireless health monitoring system. The receiver in wireless health monitoring system should have efficient LNA as received bio-medical signal should be analyzed very accurately for continuous monitoring of the patient’s health. Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) plays an important role in communication system to suppress the noise in the received signal. This paper proposes a novel design of LNA with band pass filter, butter worth filter and chebychev filter. The proposed LNA has been designed using Advanced Design System tool. The performance of the LNA is analyzed for Gain, Input return loss, Output return loss Noise Figure. The performance of the LNA for different filters has been analyzed and it is found out that LNA with band pass filter provides good performance compared to LNA with butter worth filter and chebychev filters. The proposed LNA with band pass filter can be used for health monitoring system for providing accurate received signal.

APPLICATION OF MICROENCAPSULATED SYNBIOTIC TO IMPROVE THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND HEALTH STATUS OF COMMON CARP (Cyprinus carpio) CULTURED IN THE PONDS

By Ricky Djauhari1, Widanarni*2, Sukenda2, Muhammad Agus Suprayudi2, Muhammad Zairin Jr.2

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

This study aimed to determine the best dose of microencapsulated synbiotic to improve the growth performance and the health status of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) cultured in the ponds. Synbiotic microencapsulation was performed using the spray drying technique. The microencapsulated synbiotic was then administered through feed to common carp (4.81±0.25 g) reared in ponds using hapa net cages sizing 1x1x1 (m3) (30 fish/hapa net cage) for 30 days. This study used the Completely Randomized Design, consisting of four treatments with three replications, a control and microencapsulated synbiotic supplementation at doses of 5, 10 and 20 g/kg feed. Supplementation of the microencapsulated synbiotic could improve the growth performance and the health status of common carp with the best results obtained at a dose of 10 g/kg feed.

GENETIC ENGINEERING OF POTATO PLANT (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. JALA IPAM WITH MmPMA GENE ENCODING PLASMA MEMBRANE H+-ATPASE

By A Farhanah1,2, Suharsono2,3, G A Wattimena2, Utut Widyastuti2,3

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

Plasma Membrane (PM) H+-ATPase has important function as primary transporter driving secondary active transport systems in plant. Some plants overexpressing PM H+-ATPase showed increased light-induced open stomata number and plant growth. This study has an objective to overexpress PM H+-ATPase expected can increase productivity of potato. Genetic transformation was done by cocultivation method using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 carrying pGWB502-MmPMA. Efficiency of transformation in this study is 3.46%. Molecular analysis with PCR was carried out by using primer 35S-F and PMA-R1 to ensure integration of MmPMA into Jala Ipam potato. PCR analysis showed that all of six putative transgenic Jala Ipam potato lines are containing MmPMA gene under the control of 35S CaMV. This study showed that genetic transformation process in Jala Ipam potato with MmPMA gene was successful with enhancing light-induced open stomata percentage, open stomata pore width, and root elongation-under low pH condition.

GENETIC DISTANCE, HERITABILITY AND CORRELATION ANALYSIS FOR YIELD AND FIBRE QUALITY TRAITS IN UPLAND COTTON GENOTYPES

By 1FaizaNizamani, 1Muhammad Jurial Baloch, 1Abdul Wahid Baloch, 2Mehmoda Buriro, 3Ghulam Shah Nizamani, 4Muhammmad Rashid Nizamani and 1Irfan Ahmed Baloch

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

The present research was carried out to determine the genetic distance, heritability and correlation coefficients for yield and fibre quality traits in fifteen upland cotton genotypes. The traits studied were; plant height, sympodial branches plant-1, number of bolls plant-1, boll weight, ginning outturn (%), seed index, seed cotton yield plant-1 and staple length. The genetic distance was further supported by statistical procedures like cluster analysis, coefficient of parentage and principal component analysis. The mean squares from analysis of variance revealed that genotypes differed significantly at 5 % probability level for all the traits except that seed index and staple length were nonsignificant. The mean performance of genotypes suggested that IR-524 produced the tallest plants; Sadori produced the maximum number of sympodial branches plant-1, Sohni formed highest number of bolls plant-1; Tarzan-1 yielded heaviest bolls and gave highest seed cotton yield plant-1; NIA-Ufaq ginned maximum lint % and Chandi-95 recorded highest seed index and measured longest staple length. The correlation coefficient indicated that all the morpho-yield traits were significantly associated with seed cotton yield and with each other suggesting that one or more yield traits can be used as selection criteria to improve the seed cotton yield. The higher heritability estimates (h2b.s) were recorded for almost all the studied traits except seed index. Such results revealed that improvement in those traits can be made through direct phenotypic selection. Cluster analysis arranged all the 15 genotypes into four different groups. Cluster third characterized the genotypes as having more number of plants and with higher seed cotton yield plant-1, hence genotypes of this group may prove promising in producing higher seed cotton yield plant-1. While concerning genetic distance, out of 105 pair wise comparisons, some pairs manifested greater genetic distance; consequently, those genotypes can be utilized in heterosis and backcross breeding programmes for the introgression of novel genes. From principal component analysis (PCA), eight components were extracted for studied characters. The first two components accounted for about 99 % variation from total variation, thus the cumulative percent of variance was 99.0 % in first two components. The first two PCAs demonstrated significantly higher variability that can be exploited for further breeding programmes in cotton.

USE KILLER TOXIN EXTRACTED FROM BAKERY YEAST FOR EXTENDING SHELF LIFE OF FRUITS

By *Mohammed A. Alsoufi and **Raghad A. Aziz

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

Dry Bakery yeast was used to production of killer toxin. Purification steps included use of (NH4)2SO4 30-70% saturated solution and Sephacryl S-200, giving two peaks that collected to give inhibition zones of 28 and 22mm diameter for Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium respectively, with 10.6% yield from the total protein 13.7mg\ml of yeast crude extract. The effect of killer toxin and pullulan coating on growth of some selected microorganism's strains showed inhibition of growth of E. coli, S. typhimurium, Aspergillus ssp., Penicillium ssp., Candida albicans and Pichia jadinii a was 71, 62, 52, 59, 68 and 76% respectively, at a rate of 64.6% for killer toxin (K), and was 68, 70, 42, 48, 61 and 63% respectively, at a rate of 58.6% for pullulan (P), and 74, 68, 65, 68, 71 and 73% respectively, at a rate of 69.83% for 25% P+75% K, and was 83, 76, 72, 81, 76 and 87% respectively, at a rate of 79.16% for 50% P+50% K, and was 67, 72, 54, 56, 64 and 69% respectively, at a rate of 63.66% for 75% P+25% K. The percentage values of weight loss for uncoated and coated apples with 100% (K), 100% (P), 50% K+50% P, 25% K+75% P and 75% K+25% P solutions were 3.2, 4.8, 6.1, 7, 7.2, 8.3 and 9.1%; 3.3, 4.2, 5.1, 5.6, 6.1, 7.2 and 8.3%; 2.9, 3.8, 4.1, 4.6, 5.8, 6.4 and 7.6%; 2.6, 2.8, 3.2, 3.3, 4, 4.7 and 5.1%; 2.9, 3.3, 3.5, 4.1, 5.3, 5.7 and 6%; 3, 3.5, 3.7, 4.4, 5.6, 5.9 and 6.5% respectively, when storage at 25°C for 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 day respectively, while observe spoilage time (days) during apples storage at 25°C showed that the spoilage began to appear at 4, 14, 7, 19, 9 and 12 day for uncoated and coated apples with 100% (K), 100% (P), 50% P+50% K, 25% K+75% P and 75% K+25% P respectively.

PGPR MEDIATED BIO-FORTIFICATION OF TOMATO FRUIT METABOLITES WITH NUTRITIONAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE

By Sabin Fatima1*, Tehmina Anjum1, Riaz Hussain2and Basharat Ali3

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

There is a growing interest in producing food plants with increased nutritional and medicinal values. The purpose of this study was biofortification of nutritionally and pharmacologically important metabolites of tomato fruits by using a PGPR strain “Pseudomonas aeruginosa PM12”. Tomato plants were co-cultivated in the presence of this bacterial strain and changes in fruit metabolites were discovered. Metabolites were quantified and identified by performing GC/MS analysis. The fruit extracts from the tomato plants receiving bacterial strains showed significant up-regulations in quantities of sugars, flavonoids, terpenoids, carotenoids, and total phenolic contents. Principal component analysis well separated both treatment groups to show their significant effects. In support of these findings, metabolomic changes were incorporated in primary metabolic pathways to show that upon exposure to this beneficial bacterial strain, extensive re-modulations were induced in the bio-synthesis pathways of sugars, phenolics, carbohydrates and amino acids. These results suggest that application of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PM12 can induce plants for increased production of various bioactive compounds.

FRY TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus) ANTIBODY IMPROVEMENT AGAINST Streptococcus agalactiae THROUGH BROODSTOCK VACCINATION

By Khairun Nisaa1, Sukenda2*, Muhammad Zairin Junior2, Angela Mariana Lusiastuti3, Sri Nuryati2

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

Maternal immunity through brood stock vaccination could improve antibody of seed to pathogenic infections. This study was aimed to determine the appropriate time to vaccinate tilapia brood stock using a combination of extracellular product and formaline-killed whole cells S. agalactiae. Therefore, experiments were divided into brood stock injected on day seven after spawning (Group 1), brood stock injected on day 14 after spawning (Group 2) and non-vaccinated brood stock as a control group. Vaccination was performed according to gonadal development stages. Macroscopic observation of gonadal development was conducted on the field using fresh specimen, and then analyzed using histological method. The second stage of gonadal development was observed on day seven, and the third stage (peak of vitellogenesis) on day fourteen post-spawning. The results indicated that vaccination time directly affects the antibody accumulation in fish eggs and seeds and the appropriate time to vaccinate broodstock was on the second stage of their gonadal development.

EFFECT OF INJECTION OF HUMAN MENOPAUSAL GONADOTROPHIN AND HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN HORMONE ON SPERMATOGENESIS OF ADULT MALE MICE

By Shaima Ahmed Rahim

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

This study was designed to investigate the effect of the widely-used gonadotrophin hormones (Human Menopausal Gonadotrophin and Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin) on spermatogenesis of adult male albino mice. Thirteen mature swiss mice of Balb/C strain were used in this study. They were divided randomly into control and treated groups. Male mice in the first and second treated groups had been injected intramuscularly with (75 IU of hMG) and (500 IU of hCG) Every 48 hr, for 35 days of this dose. While the mice of the control groups had been injected with (0.9%) normal saline in the same way. The results revealed the following significant differences , when compared with control groups : There were no significant differences in weights of the reproductive organs and there were no significant differences in average of the percentage of spermatogonia and spermatocytes, While the study reports a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the percentage of spermatids of animals treated with hMG hormone and a significant increase (P<0.01) in the percentage of spermatozoa of animals treated with hMG hormone and also A significant decrease (P<0.01) in the average numbers of Leydig cells for the animals treated with hMG and hCG hormones and A significant decrease (P<0.01) in the average diameters of epididymal tubules and the height of epithelial cells of caput epididymis tubules for two animals with hMG and hCG .