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EDITORIAL BOARD

2017

AN UPDATE ON BIOTRANSFORMATIONAL STUDIES OF DYDROGESTERONE

By Azizuddin

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

Due to the result of enzymatic or metabolic activities by a living organism, the series of chemical reactions occur in a compound, especially a drug. Dydrogesterone (1) is a potent orally active progestogen. Biotransformation of dydrogesterone (1) by using human volunteers, rat, dog, mouse, rabbit and rhesus monkey, by fermentation with cell suspension cultures of Sepedeonium ampullos and Azadirachta indica, and fermentation with fungal cultures including Fusarium solani, Cephalosporium aphidicola, Fusarium lini, Rhizopus stolonifer, Cunninghamella elegans and Gibberella fujikuroi afforded metabolites 2-16. This review article will provide detail about metabolites 2-16, obtained by biotransformation of dydrogesterone (1) and have been reported up to 2012.

A 128-BIT SECRET KEY GENERATION USING UNIQUE ECG BIO-SIGNAL FOR MEDICAL DATA CRYPTOGRAPHY IN LIGHTWEIGHT WIRELESS BODY AREA NETWORKS

By M.V. Karthikeyan1 , J. Martin Leo Manickam2

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

In wireless Body Area Sensor Networks, the communication with the In-body Medical sensor node placed inside the patient must be crypto graphed to protect it. Existing wireless sensor network modes are not suitable for Wireless Body Area sensor Networks (WBAN) as these are resource constrained devices. Securing the implanted device in WBAN is essential for preserving not only the privacy of patient data, but also for ensuring safety of healthcare delivery. This paper presents a secret key generation scheme from the ECG signal parameters and allows device authentication. The proposed model allows the doctor to generate secret key from the ECG signal parameter of the patient without using the battery power of IBS node and providing authentication for both nodes without any initialization or pre-deployment of secret key. Simply we can deploy the sensor in a WBAN and make them to communicate securely (a plug and play model). In our analysis, result and compared with other key generation protocols. Showing that proposed method is a viable key generation and key agreement model for WBAN.

OPTIMIZATION OF CULTURE CONDITIONS TO PRODUCE SECONDARY METABOLITES BY PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS

By Maryam Rana1,2 and M. Umar Dahot1

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

The specie of mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus grown on the Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) medium for the activation and then inoculated in the fermentation medium to obtain maximum production of metabolite. Maximum production of metabolites produced by Pleurotus ostreatus at different incubation time periods. The effect of different carbon sources glucose, galactose, fructose, sucrose and starch was checked on the growth and production of metabolite by Pleurotus ostreatus and the higher production was achieved with glucose. The effect of different nitrogen sources like potassium nitrate, sodium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, casein and urea were checked on the growth and production of metabolites by Pleurotus ostreatus. Among the different nitrogen sources maximum metabolite were obtained with casein. The effect of pH on the growth and production of metabolites by Pleurotus ostreatus was studied in the range of 4.5-8.5 and maximum production was noted with 4.5 pH. The effect of temperature was checked on the growth and production of metabolite by Pleurotus ostreatus in range of 25 ?C-35 ?C and higher production of metabolites were achieved at 30 ?C.

ASSESSMENT OF HETEROTIC EFFECTS IN INTRA-HIRSUTUM CROSSES FOR YIELD AND FIBER TRAITS

By Shabana Memon†± , Sidra Nizamani† , Sadaf Memon† , Ghulam Hussain Jatoi# , Liaquat Ali Bhutto* and Arshad Ali Kaleri†

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

The present study aimed to determine the heterotic effect in ten F1 hybrids in upland cotton. The experiment was laid out in the experimental field of Botanical Garden, Sindh Agriculture University, Tando Jam with three replications during 2015. The hybrids Chandi-95 x CRIS-134 contributed positive heterosis for plant height (cm) and bolls plant-1 . NIAB-78 x Chandi provides better mid parent heterosis for plant height (cm), boll weight (g) and seed cotton yield. Heterobeltoisis seemed to be more in sympodial branches plant -1 and seed index (g). However, the cross Chandi-95 x Haridost observed to produce relative heterosis and heterobeltoisis for G.O.T %. Hence, the heterotic information provides the better hybrid production in a gene pool.

EXPLORING ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIA ORIGIN FROM Jatropha curcas L. AND THEIR POTENTIAL TO ENHANCE PLANT GROWTH IN EGGPLANT

By Ahmed. I. A. Yousif1, 2, Abdul Munif*2, Kikin. H. Mutaqin2

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

Endophytes are often microorganisms that live within plants without causing apparent diseases. They are ubiquitous and have been found in all species of plants studied to date. However, most of the endophyte to plant relationships is not well understood. In this research, we isolated and studied the properties of the endophytic bacteria from Jatropha curcas. L. as plant growth promoter’s agents. In this study, were isolated 195 isolates of endophytic bacteria, of which 44 passed the hemolytic and hypersensitive test using blood agar media and tobacco leaves host as an indicator. Twenty-three of the 44 endophyte bacteria isolates exhibited different biochemical properties. Out of these 44 isolates, 12 were able to dissolve phosphate and 5 isolates were able to fix nitrogen through in vitro test making them 23 candidates for plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB). These 23 isolates were developed as PGPB to enhance the eggplant seedlings under in vivo test. Based on SAS multiple range test data analysis, two of the isolates FJS23 and FJS24 showed higher result among the rest of the isolates. Our results, therefore, indicated that these two isolates assayed are perfect candidates to be used as bio-control and growth enhancer for eggplant.

IMPROVED IMAGE SEARCHING USING USER INPUT IMAGE FUNDAMENTAL FEATURE TECHNIQUE

By D. Saravanan

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

Image processing plays a key role in every human’s life today. The use of images has widely increased due to many factors, but technology makes it very easy to upload images from any corner of the world. Information is exchanged via images easily and effectively and is an important mode of communication today. Searching for images on the web has its own advantages as well as disadvantages. The latest technique involves searching the content by using traditional text retrieval, and it never gives any guarantee to find the required information. For searching image content today most of the researchers spend time for creating various indexes to bring the effective result. This research paper brings one image searching technique which uses image feature based searching with the help of image fundamental feature. The experimental results also confirmed that the proposed approach can always retrieve intended targets even with poor selection of initial query points.

STUDY OF CUMIN ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ALCOHOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS

By Sarmad Ghazi Al-Shawi, Zena Kadhim Al-Younis, Nada Fawzi Abd Al-Kareem

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) studied on Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Study results showed that carbohydrate, protein, fat, moisture, ash and fiber percents in Cumin were 33.8, 16.3, 25.3, 6.1, 8.6 and 9.6 respectively. Alcoholic extract of Cumin had higher antibacterial activities against all tested bacteria comparing to the aqueous extracts. Antioxidant activities of Cumin extracts were compared to butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). Results showed that alcoholic extracts had the highest antioxidant activity comparing to the aqueous extracts.

POTENTIAL OF TREATING UNSTERILIZED PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT (POME) USING FRESHWATER MICROALGAE

By Saidu Haruna1,3, Shaza Eva Mohamad2* , Haryati Jamaluddin1

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

Untreated Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) is a wastewater that contains high amount of chemical substances that when discharge directly into the waterways causes acute water pollution crises especially to Malaysia where palm oil is cultivated extensively. This research was carried out in order to evaluate the potential of utilizing Chlorella sorokiniana for the phycoremediation of POME. C. sorokiniana grew in POME under different dilutions of 80%, 60%, 40% and 20%. C. sorokiniana removed nitrate, total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium at ranges of 33-71%, 29-64%, 19-91% and 70-98% over 15 days culture. This study proved the successful cultivation of microalgae in unsterilized POME which could contribute to the effort in finding effective method of treating POME

EVALUATION OF SEROTONIN HORMONE LEVELS ASSOCIATED WITH OBESITY IN SOME ADULT MEN

By Noran Jameel Ibraheem1 and Ghadeer hamid AL-Ardhi 2

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

To evaluate whether serum concentration of serotonin in some healthy adult's men influenced by their characteristics of anthropometric measurements. Ninety-eight volunteer adult's men non-smoking (20-50) years in this study, the blood samples were taken from subjects at the morning during 8:30-10:30 am during November 2015 till April 2016. ELIZA kit was used to assay the serum level of serotonin hormone, and the anthropometric measurements have been done such as; body weight, height and waist circumference(WC) to calculated body mass index (BMI), and percentage of body fat (BF%) by a special formula and the subjects were assorted depending on classes of anthropometric (physical) measurements. The results showed a significant decrease in serum level of serotonin hormone(p<0.05) in obese groups like the classes of anthropometric (physical) characteristics as compared with the leaner groups. Our results suggest that the state of anthropometric (physical) characteristics which included (BMI, body fat percentage, and WC) have worked to influence on the level of serum circulating serotonin hormone in these subjects. Other words, the lake of serotonin secretion may can alter the characteristics of anthropometric measurements to individuals

DETECTION OF TRICHOTHECENE OF Fusarium solani ISOLATES BY USING HPLC IN MELON PLANTS

By Halima Z. Hussein

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

Fusarium solani is one of the important phytopathogenic causing serious losses on cucurbit plant in Iraq, which are responsible for crown, and Root rots of melon. Ability of Fusarium solani isolates to produce T2-toxen and DON analyzed by using HPLC. The results indicated that the F. solani has potential capacity to produce trichothecene. Thirty-nine isolates investigated with the HPLC method were identified to produceT2 toxin. Also, F. solani isolated that demonstrated a potential capacity for the synthesis of trichthecence DON

DOSE RESPONSE CURVE OF VARIOUS PLANT EXTRATS ON G+ve AND G-ve BACTERIAL ISOLATES

By Nazir Ahmed Brohi, Agha Asad Noor and Muhammad Ashraf Sial

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

The plant extracts are being significantly used in the treatment of various infectious diseases and have a greater impact in Unani medicines. This presentation explores the effects of test plant extracts of garlic and ginger juice and aqueous extracts of coriander and mint prepared in ethanol, methanol and acetaldehyde with the comparison of chloramphenicol and gentamycin antibiotics as control. Our observation revealed that, garlic juices at 25 µl concentrations are effective on S. aureus and E. coli whereas ginger showed maximum activity on Ps. aeruginosa, S. aureus whereas 20 µl concentration revealed antibacterial activity against E. coli respectively. The aqueous extracts of coriander and mint extractsprepared in ethanol has greater antimicrobial activity against Ps. aeruginosa and E. coli respectively as compared to Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Spectroscopic observations showed antibacterial activity at 20 and 25 µl concentrations of mint and coriander0.121 and 0.118against E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli as compared to other strains at A600respectively.

EVALUATING SEED RATE, CUTTING AND NITROGEN LEVEL STUDY OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF TRITICALE

By Uzair Ahmad

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

This field experiment was conducted at New Development Farm, The University of Agriculture Peshawar to evaluate the seed rate, cutting and nitrogen level study of yield and yield components of triticale. Randomized complete block (RCB) design with split plot arrangement having four replications of each treatment was used. A control treatment was also included for comparison. The size of the sub plot was 1.5 m × 3 m. The row-row distance was 30 cm with five rows. Phosphorous was also applied at the rate of 90 kg ha-1 at the time of sowing. Irrigation was done as per required by the crop. All of the phosphorus and sulphur were applied at sowing time. Finding of the experiment illustrated that maximum emergence m-2 (118), fresh fodder yield (136 g m-2 ), days to heading (117 days), plant height (98.6 cm) and delayed maturity (151 days) with seed rate of 140 kg ha-1 , while higher number of productive tillers (233 m-2 ), grains spike-1 (44) was recorded at seed rate of 100 kg ha-1 . Higher unproductive tillers (17 m-2 ) was obtained at the seed rate 120 and 140 kg ha-1 . Application of N at the highest level in (150 kg ha-1 ) delayed day to heading (117 days), days maturity (150 days), produced taller plants (210 m-2 ), higher fresh and dry weight (129 and 75 g m-2 ), more number of grains spike-1 (42) as compared with other levels of N. Higher productive tillers (222 m-2 ), CGR (14 g m-2 day-1 ) were recorded at 120 kg N ha-1 . It can be concluded from the study that increase in seed rate at140 kg ha-1 and increase in nitrogen levels enhances the emergence m-2 , fodder yield, days to heading, plant height, and delayed maturity.

STUDIES ON DIFFERENT LEVELS OF PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZER AND PHOSPHORUS SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA L.)

By Niaz Ali Sial1*, Shafique Ahmed Abro2 , Muhammad Abbas1 , Muhammad Irfan1 and Muhammad Yousuf Memon1

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

A field experiment on mungbean was conducted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five treatments and three replications. Treatments were T1 = control, T2 = 75 kg P/ha, T3 = Bacillus polymyxa @ 25 ml/kg of seed (122 x 108 cells/ml); T4 = 37.5 kg P/ha; T5 = Bacillus polymyxa @ 25 ml/kg of seed (122 x 108 cells/ml) + 37.5 kg P/ha. . The results showed that plant height, no. of pods/plant, single plant dry weight, no. of branches/plant, no. of panicles/plant, 100-grain weight, biological and grain yield recorded the highest values in T2, followed by T3, T4 and T5 respectively. However, the lowest values were observed in control treatment. Total bacterial count was highest (185 x 106 and 174 x105 ) at 0-15 and 15-30 cm in T2 after sowing of crop. Even after crop harvest, T2 recorded the highest total bacterial count of 181 x 104 and 161 x104 at 0-15 and 15- 30 cm soil depths, respectively. The control treatment showed the lowest bacterial counts at both soil depths after sowing as well as harvesting of crop. It was further revealed that the application of Bacillus polymyxa alone contributed at par with T4 (37.5 kg P/ha) to the most of yield and yield contributing parameters of mungbean crop. Although T2 was superior to all other treatments, the application of P solubilizing bacterial inocula alone may contribute to mungbean yield potential to some extent in resource poor farming systems.

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON DEFORMATION AND DENSIFICATION PROPERTIES OF SINTERED ATOMET 4601+TIC ALLOY STEELS UNDER COLD UPSETTING

By M. Venkat Krishna1 , T.K. Kandavel2 , K. Palaksha Reddy, A. Jayaprakash

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

The present investigation is focussed on to develop and study the densification and deformation of cold forged prealloyed ATOMET 4601 and admixed with 2% TiC high strength alloy steels. Elemental TiC powder was homogeneously mixed with ATOMET prealloyed powder through Powder Metallurgy (P/M) route. The physical properties of P/M alloy steel powders were measured as per the ASTM Standards. The cylindrical sintered preforms of size Ř25x12 mm were used for the present work. In order to study the plastic deformation and densification characteristics of the alloy steels preforms, the specimens were subjected to cold upset with an incremental load. The axial load was increased upto the appearance of fine cracks on the lateral surface of the deformed alloy steel preforms. Physical measurements have been taken on deformed and undeformed specimens to calculate stress and strain values. The density of specimens was evaluated by the Archimedes’ principle for the as sintered and the specimen after each deformation. The influencing parameters such as true axial stress, true height strain, true lateral strain, density and hardness were correlated each other for the deformation and densification studies of the alloy steels. Microstructures of alloy steels taken by optical microscope were also corroborated with deformation properties. It is found from the plots that addition of TiC to prealloyed powder deteriorates the plastic deformation and densification properties of ATOMET 4601 alloy steel. The titanium carbides embedded between the ferrite gains drastically affect the plastic flow of TiC added alloy steel.

PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF RICE (Oryza sativa L.) TO ZINC TREATMENTS UNDER DROUGHT STRESS

By Nonvide Nicolas Adiko1 , Diah Ratnadewi2 and Miftahudin2*

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

Rice, as one of the major cereal crops, is severely affected by water deficit in many regions. To better understand zinc role under drought stress, a hydroponic trial was conducted in the Bogor Agricultural University greenhouse where daytime temperature were 34oC to investigate the effects of zinc on plant growth, antioxidant enzyme activities, and malondialdehyde content in two rice cultivars IR64 and INPAGO5 under drought stress. Rice seedlings were grow on modified Yoshida nutrient solution with three different zinc concentrations, i.e., 0.15, 0.3 and 0.6?M and one control. The results showed that zinc promoted rice growth subjected to drought by increasing leaf length, plant height and root length in both rice cultivars except leaf length of INPAGO5 prior drought stress. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were significantly increased in IR64. In INPAGO5, increase of catalase activity was not significant, whereas superoxide dismutase activity was significantly increased. Peroxidase activity was less in INPAGO5 than that of IR64. Malondialdehyde accumulation resulting from lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced in root cell of both cultivars under zinc treatment after 8 days of drought. These results suggest that zinc application increased antioxidant enzyme activities and resistance to drought stress. Among zinc concentrations applied, 0.3?M seems more beneficiary for rice to overcome drought stress. An adequate zinc concentration could be useful in preventing any damage in case of short period of drought.

GENETIC DIVERSITY ANALYSIS IN COMMERCIAL SUGARCANE (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUML.) GENOTYPES

By 1Abdul Wahid Baloch, 1Mansoor Ahmed Kumbhar, 2 Inayat Ali Mallano, 3Abdul Majeed Baloch, 4Tauqeer Ahmad Yasir, 5Salim Muhammad Sarki, 6Ghulam Shah Nizamani, 1Faiza Nizamani and 1 Irfan Ahmed Baloc

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

The present research was carried out to analyze the genetic diversity of commercial sugarcane varieties for various quantitative and qualitative traits including plant height (cm), tillers plant-1 , internodes plant-1 , internodes length (cm), cane girth (cm), weight stool-1 , brix (%), sucrose (%), fiber (%), commercial cane sugar (%), sugar recovery (%) and purity (%). In total, six genotypes of sugarcane were evaluated using analysis of variance, principal component analysis, cluster analysis and coefficient of parentage. Results displayed that sugarcane genotypes differed highly significantly for all the studied traits, registering the significant genetic diversity among the genotypes for further evaluation. With regards to genetic distance, out of the 15 pairs of comparisons, a good number of pairs exposed greater genetic distance; consequently, these pairs can further be utilized in sugarcane breeding for getting useful clone with great hybrid vigor. In cluster analysis, all genotypes divided into three clusters, indicating the existence of wider genetic diversity among the tested sugarcane genotypes. From PCA analysis, three components were isolated from twelve studied characters. The first, second and third components attributed 54.10, 26.70 and 13.10 % of total variation, respectively. The cumulative percent of variance accounted for 93.90% in the first three components, demonstrating a considerably high variability that can be exploited for further breeding programs in sugarcane breeding.

COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF PROMISING ADVANCED WHEAT GENOTYPES WITH COMMERCIAL WHEAT CULTIVARS IN SINDH

By Saima Arain, Mahboob Ali Sial, Khalil Ahmed Leghari and Karim Dino Jamali

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

An experiment was carried out to evaluate the comparative performance of promising advanced wheat genotypes. Fourteen genotypes with three check varieties viz. Kiran-95, T.J-83 and T.D-1 were evaluated for yield and yield associated traits. Experiment was laid-out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) consisting of three replications during the crop year 2012-2013. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences between varieties for different traits of advanced lines and commercial checks. The highest grain yield was produced by the genotype BWS-78 (7708 kg ha-1 ) followed by EST-29/9 (6979 kg ha-1 ) although non-significant for each other. The high yielding genotype BWS-78 also took less number of days (124) to maturity, semi-dwarf plant height and comparatively better 1000-grain weight. However, maximum 1000-grain weight (45.3g) among the test genotypes was obtained by NIA-25/5 which was not significantly different than check variety T.D-1 (46.3g). Similarly, EST- 29/9 had tall-dwarf plant height, early maturity and comparatively higher 1000-grain weight (45.0g) and ranked as second highest grain yielding genotype but was not significantly different than NIA-28/4, D-H-6/6 and D-H-6/7. The newly selected genetically improved genotypes possesses early maturity will be further confirmed and could be grown under late planting conditions.

HEART DISEASE PREDICTION BY ANALYSING VARIOUS PARAMETERS USING FUZZY LOGIC

By M. Kowsigan1 , A. Christy Jebamalar2 , S. Shobika3 , R. Roshini4 , A. Saravanan5

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

In modern world, heart diseases are rapidly increased due to the food habit, stress, genetic reason and also lack of exercise. The prediction of the heart disease helps the people to take care of their health. Nowadays, Health care institutes contains huge amount of information, which contains hidden information of patients health. This hidden information is useful for making effective decisions. This research mainly focuses on the patient even before facing a sign of angina pectoris. This heart disease attacks a person so instantly that it hardly gets treated with. Hence medical fraternity has a challenging task to diagnose a patient correctly on time. Till now, a minimum of 13 to 15 parameters were used to predict the heart disease. But as an advancement of the existing system, only five main parameters are used in this. The factors such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure, blood sugar level, obesity are the major risk causes heart diseases. We designed the system using Matlab. Computer based information along with advanced Data mining techniques like fuzzy logic is used for predicting Heart disease diagnosis

XYLANASE PRODUCTION FROM BACILLUS SUBTILIS IN SUBMERGED FERMENTATION USING BOX-BEHNKEN DESIGN

By Sobia Naz1 , Muhammad Irfan1 , Muhammad Umar Farooq2

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

In this study, an attempt was made to optimize the nutritional conditions for xylanase production by Bacillus subtilis in submerge fermentation process using agricultural waste like corn cobs as substrate. Three variables with three levels such as corn cobs loading (1, 3, 5, % w/v), peptone (0.05, 0.275, 0.5%) and KH2PO4 (0.1, 0.3, 0.5%) were optimized through Box-Bhenken design of response surface methodology. It was revealed that the maximum yield of xylanase (295 U/ml) was achieved with 3% corn cobs as substrate, 0.05 (%) peptone, and 0.5 (%) KH2PO4. Analysis of variance reveals that the proposed model was significant having an F value of 188.77 and its corresponding p values 0.000 and, P>F<0.0001 shows the model’s accuracy. Higher R2 values (98.93) of the model depicted that only 1.07% variations could not be explained by the model. Findings of this study could be utilized for industrial exploitation of the enzyme.

EXPRESSION RESPONSES OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS IN TOLERANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE Hevea brasiliensis CLONES TO THE WHITE ROOT DISEASE

By Natthakorn Woraathasin1,2 . Korakot Nakkanong1 . Charassri Nualsri*1,2

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

Pathogenesis-related proteins play crucial functions in the plant defense with antimicrobial activity response to pathogen infections. In this study, cDNA parts of selected antifungal genes (HbPR-2, HbPR-4 and HbPR-5) were isolated from Hevea brasiliensis, the parts spanning 1,120, 233, and 517 bp, respectively. In BLASTP analysis HbPR- 2 showed a Glyco_hydro_17 domain; HbPR-4 showed a Barwin domain; and HbPR-5 contained a GHG-TLP-SF domain. The sequence alignment of amino acids indicated high similarities to the PR-2, PR-4 and PR-5 genes found in other plants. Transcriptional profiles from quantitative real time-PCR were compared in three Hevea clones, namely PB5/51 (a tolerant clone), BPM24 and RRIM600 (susceptible clones), after inoculation with Rigidoporus microporus at 0, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. The results revealed that these gene transcripts were more active in the tolerant clone than in the susceptible clones. These clearly indicate varied defense responses across clonal varieties, in the important context of host-pathogen interactions between the white root disease and rubber trees. This gives the priming strategy for tolerant rubber selection.

HYPEROSMOTIC STRESS TOLERANCE OF TRANSCRIPTION ACTIVATOR Msn2- OVEREXPRESSION STRAIN AND PROLINE-NO SYNTHESIS STRAIN OF Saccharomyces cerevisiae IN VERY HIGH GRAVITY BIOETHANOL FERMENTATION

By Dwi Aryanti Nur’utami 1 , Liesbetini Haditjaroko 2 , Hiroshi Takagi 3 , Khaswar Syamsu 2

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess the tolerance of two modified commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ethanol Red, Pro1(I150T)/Mpr1(K63R) and MSN2-OP in hyperosmotic stress and to measure the kinetic parameters of the best yeast from both of them in the production of bioethanol in very high gravity ethanol fermentation. The results show that Pro1(I150T)/Mpr1(K63R) yeast strain is more tolerant to hyperosmotic stress than MSN2-OP. The Pro1(I150T)/Mpr1(K63R) yeast strain is tolerant up to 70% sucrose and 13% ethanol, while the MSN2-OP yeast strain has been inhibited by 70% sucrose and 11% ethanol. The Pro1(I150T)/Mpr1(K63R) yeast strain produces about 14.6 ± 0.3% (w/w) ethanol for 48 h fermentation with final residual sugar about 9.43% and 83.9 ± 0.6% substrate consumption efficiency

Introduction of Hd3a gene in IPB CP1 potato cultivar through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation under the control of use 35S CaMV promoter

By Nonozisokhi Gea1 , Suharsono2,3, G A Wattimena2 Utut Widyastuti2,3

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

IPB CP1 (Chip potato 1) potato cultivar is a new potato varieties obtained by irradiating the Atlantic potatoes at a dose of fifteen gray by the Indonesian National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) and researchers at the Bogor Agricultural University. In Indonesia, these potatoes are used as chips. Tuber is a plant organ that serve as storage organ for nutrient and it is used for survival during dry season. One way to increase production of potato is through induction of its tuber. Heading date gene 3a (Hd3a) is one of the genes that can regulate flowering time in rice. In addition to inducing flowering, this gene have proven to induce the formation of tuber in Andigena potato cultivar. In this study we introduced Hd3a gene under the control of 35S CaMV promoter into the IPB CP 1 potato cultivar to induce formation of its tubers. Genetic transformation was done by co-cultivation method using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 carrying Hd3a gene. From the transformation of 157 explants from internodes, we obtained 16.4% and 23.1% as value of transformation efficiency and regeneration efficiency respectively. Six putative transgenic shoots survive on callus induction medium containing 15mg/L of hygromycin antibiotic. Molecular analysis was carried out by using 35S-F primers and Hd-R primers to prove if Hd3a gene was integrated into IPB CP 1 potato. PCR analysis showed that all of the six putative transgenic IPB CP 1 potato contained the Hd3a gene under the control of 35S CaMV promoter

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF VARIOUS SPICE EXTRACTS AGAINST BACTERIAL AND FUNGAL STRAINS

By Sania Sahar, Komal Siddiqui, Arsalan Uqaili* and Khalil Ahmed Laghari

Vol-14 No-2

Abstract

Various cultures of microbes; including gram positive, gram negative and fungi were grown in presence of spice extracts to test their antimicrobial properties. The results revealed that for E. aerogens bacterial strains, ceftriaxone antibiotic was found effective whereas for soil bacteria and staphylococcus aureus gentamicin was having inhibitory effects. No, any antibiotic was effective for the fungal strain. Various spice extracts were concerned cumin and chili inhibited the growth of E. aerogens and cumin extract controlled soil bacterial growth. No, any extract inhabited staphylococcus aureus multiplication. The extract of the cinnamon positively controlled growth of Aspergillus niger. Antioxidant activity was found higher in cinnamon (0.57). In methanol extract, cumin, cinnamon, and red chili showed higher phenolic content (0.098, 0.096 and 0.094 respectively). Flavonoid data showed that cumin (0.63) had more flavonoid content in water extract. In methanol extract, Red chili and cinnamon had more flavonoid content (1.98 and 0.959). This biochemical analysis showed that antioxidant activity, phenolic content, and Flavonoid content was higher in cinnamon, cumin, and red chilies. This may be the reason that these spices had also shown strong inhibitory effect on microbial population

Nrf2: A MASTER REGULATOR OF CELLULAR DEFENSE MECHANISM AND A NOVEL THERAPEUTIC FACTOR

By Shahzadi Javeed1, Maha Almas1, Muhammad Shahid2, Aleena Sumrin1, Hamid Bashir1, Muhammad Bilal1, Zafar Saleem1, Ghulam Zahra Jahangir1, Samia Afzal2, Muhammad Idrees1, Iram Amin2*

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

Nrf2 is a potent regulator for the cellular defense system and belongs to a member of the cap ‘n’ collar (CNC) subfamily of transcription. Nrf2 senses the chemical, electrophilic and radiation-induced oxidative stress under basal conditions. Nrf2 is repressed and retained in cytoplasm by its negative regulator Keap1 and is polyubiquitinated by cullin E3 ubiquitin ligase complex for its proteasomal degradation, but stress induces the modification in cullin E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and leads towards its reduced ability to polyubiquitinate Nrf2 and results in Nrf2 escape from Keap1 and mediates the transcription of antioxidant electrophile response element (ARE) to encode antioxidant enzymes that neutralize the effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we highlighted the activity of Nrf2 as a therapeutic agent in oxidatively stressed diseases such as heart failure, cancer, neurological, bone and joint disorders and it can be induced by numerous natural and synthetic compounds.

RUBBER ELONGATION FACTOR (REF) AND SMALL RUBBER PARTICLE PROTEIN (SRPP) GENE EXPRESSION RESPONSES TO VARIATION OF SEASONAL CHANGE IN FOUR SELECTED RUBBER CLONES

By Auksorn Klaewklad1, Korakot Nakkanong1, Chatchamon Daengkanit Nathaworn2 and Charassri Nualsri*1

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

Applying molecular marker for estimating the amount of production yield will help to reduce time for selecting rubber clones. In this study, gene expression analyses under different seasons were performed in rubber tree since seasonal change is one of the most important factors to latex yield. Four rubber clones (SK1, NK1, T2 and SK3) that have high latex yield potential were used in this study. The latex yields and gene expression levels of REF and SRPP genes were compared over two year, using RRIM 600 clones in the same fields as their paired controls. Moreover, the seasonal effects on gene expression were analyzed. The average yields and gene expression were obtained from 13 years old mature trees in the early rainy season, the late rainy season and the summer season. This study revealed that all four selected clones gave higher production yield and exhibited superior REF and SRPP gene expressions than compared-control RRIM 600. Gene expressions of REF and SRPP had positive relationships with latex yield. Moreover, we found that the highest REF and SRPP gene expressions were recorded in late rainy season that agreed with the amount of production yield. The late rainy season was a good period to investigate differential expression of the candidate molecular marker genes. The results corroborate the two genes’ expression as surrogate selection criteria for high yield rubber clones.

CAUSE AND EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION - AIR, WATER, NOISE &LIGHT

By 1D. Saravanan and 2S. Vijaya lakshmi

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

As the of population increases the country faces different form of pollution which creates challenging environmental issues and cause climate changes in India. Pollution includes air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, light pollution, garbage pollution, industrial pollution etc. Due to these factors, the environment gets polluted and, it spoils the natural environment. Air and noise pollution in India is creating serious issues with, most Indian cities violating the central government norms. This paper is a comparative study of the various pollution causes and effects.

EFFECT OF INDUCED MUTATION BY UV RADIATION ON COTTON GROWTH, SEEDS AND PROTEASE ACTIVITY

By Kaleemullah Kalwar1,2 and M. Umar Dahot2

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

The cotton has great economical value. The aim of this study to determine the variation in cotton by induced mutation. As cotton seed treated with ultraviolet rays and sodium azide, it has affected on germination of whole plant. The weight as control 1.34 g/boll, UV 1 hour 1.68 g/boll and UV 2 hours 1.82 g/boll measured from cotton plant. The protease activity also determined from aqueous extract of cotton seed as control 43.7 mg/ml, UV 1 hour 24.36 mg/ml and UV 2 hours 26.7 mg/ml respectively.

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND ANALYSIS OF FUME EXTRACTION AND FILTRATION EQUIPMENT

By 1Ramakrishnan, H. and P. Vinoth2

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

Often, Human kind is permitted to inhale the emission of fumes is in the range of 2 to 3 mg/m3. However, it is the most challenging task for the human safety and environmental pollution. It induced to do the work for reducing the toxic content in the fumes released from chemical manufacturing, metal production process and metal joining process. Thus, the investigation carried out in this work to safeguard the human kind by introducing the new design of filter setup as layers. The filtration is done by using different filters, each having the tendency to absorb the toxic particles that are present in the fumes. The filters used are Silicone crystal, Alum filter and layer of cotton. This work helps the industry to reduce the particulate matter and heavy smoke produced by the fumes of metal joining process.

ETIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF PANCYTOPENIA IN CHILDREN AND ADULT PATIENTS BASED ON BONE MARROW BIOPSY

By 1Shahzad Ali Jiskani, 2Shah Muhammad Mahesar and 3Ammara Mahesar

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

To assess the etiological background of pancytopenia based on bone marrow biopsies in children and adult patients was conducted at tertiary care hospitals of Hyderabad Pakistan. It is a retrospective study in which 134 pancytopenic patients from both pediatric and adult groups were included. Clinical background and microscopic findings of bone marrow biopsies were examined. In children age group, it was assessed that acute lymphoid leukemia was most striking cause (25%), followed by infection related changes (21.66%), reactive bone marrow (11.66%), and megaloblastic anemia (10%).While in adult age group the most widespread cause of pancytopenia was megaloblastic anemia (24.32%), followed by infection related changes (17.56%), hypocellular bone marrow (8.1%) and others. Urgent evaluation of pancytopenic patients is very necessary at earlier stage before it turns in to diverse and dangerous etiological changes.

PREVALENCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AMONG GINGIVITIS IN PATIENT WITH ORTHODONTIC WIRES IN KUFA CITY /IRAQ.

By Manar Hussain Abbas*, Ahlam Kadhum Al-Yasseen*, Wisam Wahab Alhamadi**

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the role of orthodontic wire on bacterial community in oral cavity as well as its effectiveness on Staphylococcus aureus. A total of 78 gingival swab samples have been collected from patient with orthodontic wires suffering from gingivitis and 71 samples were collected from healthy without orthodontic wire during four months from private dental clinics. The results of conventional isolation and identification of bacterial isolates as well as biochemical test showed that S. aureus was the commonest causative pathogens among acute gingivitis (46%) followed by Granulicatella adiacens (29.6%) where 36 isolates were isolated from acute and chronic gingivitis in comparison with 27 isolates from healthy. A mutation experiment was carried out to explain the role of orthodontic wires on S. aureus. The results revealed the same change has been obtained when using both of Nikletitanium (NiTi) and stainless steel wire on S. aureus after 24-96 hr from incubation. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of both original and treated isolates with NiTi and stainless steel wires explained increased in antibiotic resistance of S. aureus to bacitracin, ceftazidim, ogmentin, and erythromycin while other antibiotic remain sensitive such as cefotaxim and amikacin.

DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF DUAL BAND RFID ANTENNA USING HYBRID COUPLER WITH CSRR

By Gayathri, R. and M. Maheswari

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

Nowadays wireless communication devices are flourishing. The performance of the wireless devices must be improved and should have small size and less weight. There are many miniaturization techniques to enhance the characteristics and it gathered a widespread concentration. Microstrip patch antenna is widely used as it has better performance such as higher bandwidth, virtuous efficiency. This paper proposes design of dual band circularly polarized (CP) patch antenna with incorporation of branch line coupler with complementary split ring resonator (CSRR). The design has aperture coupled feeding technique designed for UHF and ISM band. FR-4 substrate is used for the proposed antenna. The relative permittivity of the FR-4 substrate is 4.6 and thickness of 1.6 mm which has greater design flexibility, reduced weight, low cost. The branch line coupler is evaluated in terms of Sparameters. Moreover, the antenna with the dual band coupler with separate transmit and receive ports is evaluated in terms of its impedance bandwidth, isolation, antenna gains, and axial ratios. The results showed that the coupler has good return loss and isolation loss characteristics. The proposed structure covered the band of 900 MHz and 2.4 GHz which can be used for UHF and RFID applications.

PHYCOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON MICROSPORA FLOCCOSA (VAUCHER), THURET ALGA COLLECTED FROM THE PONDS OF HYDERABAD, SINDH

By Jamaluddin Mangi1*, Noor-ul-Ain Soomro1, Sarfraz A. Tunio2, A. Hayee Memon1, M. A. Kazi3 and A. Rauf Jamali1

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

Microspora floccosa (vaucher) Thuret is a rich source of fibers, vitamins and proteins. Present study was conducted to analyze the fatty acids and sterol composition of the fresh water green alga Microspora floccosa present in semipermanent ponds near Hyderabad Sindh. The acids were isolated and then converted into methyl esters. Subsequently they were identified by GC-MS, which revealed the presence of methyl undecylate, myristate, tridecylate, pentadecylate, palmitate, margarate stearate and nonadecylate among saturated and methyl pentadecatrienoate, hexadecatrienoate and heptadecylenate among un-saturated fatty acids. Besides above two sterols such as 24-methylcholesterol and cholesterol were also identified through EI-mass spectrometry and 1HNMR spectroscopy.

A HIGH-PERFORMANCE HTK BASED LANGUAGE IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM FOR VARIOUS INDIAN CLASSICAL LANGUAGES

By aKarthick, M., T. Muruganandamb, C.Jeyalakshmic and A.Revathid

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

Language identification is one of the major research areas in the field of speech processing and tremendous works has been done on that. One of the great bottleneck of language identification system is, for languages which are having closely related pronunciation, it is very difficult to classify them. In our experiments, we have considered seven Indian classical languages and Mel frequency cepstrum with their delta cepstral feature are utilized as features and HMM is used as a classifier. Performance of the system is analysed using HTK based continuous density HMM with MFCC features. The state of the art HTK with MFCC features produced 98.1% with 3 Gaussian mixtures and 100% accuracy with 10 Gaussian mixtures even with small amount of training samples. The same method can be utilized for other languages also.

EARLY ISOLATION OF CELL CYCLE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN KINASE (OSWEE) GENE IN RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.)

By Netty Ermawati1and Yossi Wibisono2

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

The developments of grain are regulated by specific genes that control the size and filling of nutrients during the period of post-fertilization, those specific genes are often known as the cell cycle genes. This study aimed to isolate and characterize genes that are involved in regulation of cell cycle. Using yeast two-hybrid screening, we isolated a gene and identified as a OsWee which belongs to a member of cell cycle genes. This gene has an importance role in regulation of cell division during mitosis, based on the expression level analysis using RT-PCR, and highly expressed in kernels 5 days after pollination (5DAP). The sequence analysis showed, a full-length OsWee gene 1239 bp in size encodes for 413 amino acids. Database searches revealed that OsWee contains protein kinase C-like superfamily (PKc-domain), which is known to play a role in phosphorylation of the hydroxyl groups of serine and threonine amino acid to control the function of proteins. Detailed functional analyses of the OsWee may provide more information concerning the complex regulation of protein kinase in rice and for the molecular breeding leading to improve productivity of various agricultural crops.

RECOGNITION OF EMOTIONS IN BERLIN SPEECH: A HTK BASED APPROACH FOR SPEAKER AND TEXT INDEPENDENT EMOTION RECOGNITION

By C. Jeyalakshmi, B. Murugeswari and M. Karthickc

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

Emotion recognition is one of the recent research area in speech processing to recognize the emotions from the human’s speech. It finds various applications in different fields such as, education, gaming and in call centers to improve Human machine interaction. Researchers utilized different data bases and achieved different recognition accuracies. In this paper, we have proposed HTK based emotion recognition using EMO_DB Berlin database. This contains only ten speakers, uttered each emotion 10 times and the emotions considered are Anger, Boredom, Disgust, Fear, Happy, Neutral and Sad. Speaker and text independent emotion recognition is done by using the HMM models with MFCC features, implemented by HTK. The no. of states and mixtures are varied to validate the performance of the system. This system provides recognition accuracy of 68% for HMM models with 3mimtures and 3states. The system performance is also evaluated for speaker dependent and text independent emotions which produces a recognition accuracy of 81.7%. Even with very small amount of database the system produces better accuracy which can be improved by large amount of database.

DEVELOPMENT OF SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS (SNPS) MARKER FOR OLEIC ACID CONTENT IN OIL PALM (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

By Allen Johnny Borlay1*, Suharsono2, 3, Roberdi4, Tony Liwang4

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is an important economic crop species due to the versatile applications of its crude and kernel oils. The necessity to improve oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), which is the world’s most productive oil producing plant under cultivation currently for high yield and oil quality to meet the growing global demand especially in term of its healthy component, oleochemical industrial needs and biodiesel utilization has become a major area of focus for oil palm breeders. Marker assisted selection have played a crucial role in oil palm breeding programs and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) maker is one of those technologies that has recently attracted breeders. High content of oleic acid (18:1) has proven to be that needed component of oil palm and other vegetable oils that can greatly contribute to oil quality improvement. Stearoyl Acyl-carrier-protein Desaturase (SAD) is a key enzyme for oleic acid biosynthesis which plays an important role in determining the composition of unsaturated fatty acids in oil palm. In this study, we identified 9 SNP loci (4 in the exon and 5 in the intron) in SAD gene fragment and developed an allele-specific single nucleotide amplified polymorphism (SNAP) marker for oleic acid content prediction. . Four out of the nine SNAP marker developed and tested on 25 oil palm accessions were polymorphic and reasonably informative. The average expected and observed heterozygosities were 0.391 and 0.404, respectively. The mean polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.312. Our results showed that these SNAP markers will be useful if validated in larger oil palm population in predicting oleic acid composition and genetic variation in oil palm breeding programs based on SAD gene fragment.

DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF LOW NOISE AMPLIFIER WITH FILTERS FOR WBAN BASED HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM

By M. Maheswari*, R. Gayathri and S. Vimal

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

In this paper, the design of LNA with filters structure is proposed for wireless health monitoring system. The receiver in wireless health monitoring system should have efficient LNA as received bio-medical signal should be analyzed very accurately for continuous monitoring of the patient’s health. Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) plays an important role in communication system to suppress the noise in the received signal. This paper proposes a novel design of LNA with band pass filter, butter worth filter and chebychev filter. The proposed LNA has been designed using Advanced Design System tool. The performance of the LNA is analyzed for Gain, Input return loss, Output return loss Noise Figure. The performance of the LNA for different filters has been analyzed and it is found out that LNA with band pass filter provides good performance compared to LNA with butter worth filter and chebychev filters. The proposed LNA with band pass filter can be used for health monitoring system for providing accurate received signal.

APPLICATION OF MICROENCAPSULATED SYNBIOTIC TO IMPROVE THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND HEALTH STATUS OF COMMON CARP (Cyprinus carpio) CULTURED IN THE PONDS

By Ricky Djauhari1, Widanarni*2, Sukenda2, Muhammad Agus Suprayudi2, Muhammad Zairin Jr.2

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

This study aimed to determine the best dose of microencapsulated synbiotic to improve the growth performance and the health status of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) cultured in the ponds. Synbiotic microencapsulation was performed using the spray drying technique. The microencapsulated synbiotic was then administered through feed to common carp (4.81±0.25 g) reared in ponds using hapa net cages sizing 1x1x1 (m3) (30 fish/hapa net cage) for 30 days. This study used the Completely Randomized Design, consisting of four treatments with three replications, a control and microencapsulated synbiotic supplementation at doses of 5, 10 and 20 g/kg feed. Supplementation of the microencapsulated synbiotic could improve the growth performance and the health status of common carp with the best results obtained at a dose of 10 g/kg feed.

GENETIC ENGINEERING OF POTATO PLANT (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. JALA IPAM WITH MmPMA GENE ENCODING PLASMA MEMBRANE H+-ATPASE

By A Farhanah1,2, Suharsono2,3, G A Wattimena2, Utut Widyastuti2,3

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

Plasma Membrane (PM) H+-ATPase has important function as primary transporter driving secondary active transport systems in plant. Some plants overexpressing PM H+-ATPase showed increased light-induced open stomata number and plant growth. This study has an objective to overexpress PM H+-ATPase expected can increase productivity of potato. Genetic transformation was done by cocultivation method using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 carrying pGWB502-MmPMA. Efficiency of transformation in this study is 3.46%. Molecular analysis with PCR was carried out by using primer 35S-F and PMA-R1 to ensure integration of MmPMA into Jala Ipam potato. PCR analysis showed that all of six putative transgenic Jala Ipam potato lines are containing MmPMA gene under the control of 35S CaMV. This study showed that genetic transformation process in Jala Ipam potato with MmPMA gene was successful with enhancing light-induced open stomata percentage, open stomata pore width, and root elongation-under low pH condition.

GENETIC DISTANCE, HERITABILITY AND CORRELATION ANALYSIS FOR YIELD AND FIBRE QUALITY TRAITS IN UPLAND COTTON GENOTYPES

By 1FaizaNizamani, 1Muhammad Jurial Baloch, 1Abdul Wahid Baloch, 2Mehmoda Buriro, 3Ghulam Shah Nizamani, 4Muhammmad Rashid Nizamani and 1Irfan Ahmed Baloch

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

The present research was carried out to determine the genetic distance, heritability and correlation coefficients for yield and fibre quality traits in fifteen upland cotton genotypes. The traits studied were; plant height, sympodial branches plant-1, number of bolls plant-1, boll weight, ginning outturn (%), seed index, seed cotton yield plant-1 and staple length. The genetic distance was further supported by statistical procedures like cluster analysis, coefficient of parentage and principal component analysis. The mean squares from analysis of variance revealed that genotypes differed significantly at 5 % probability level for all the traits except that seed index and staple length were nonsignificant. The mean performance of genotypes suggested that IR-524 produced the tallest plants; Sadori produced the maximum number of sympodial branches plant-1, Sohni formed highest number of bolls plant-1; Tarzan-1 yielded heaviest bolls and gave highest seed cotton yield plant-1; NIA-Ufaq ginned maximum lint % and Chandi-95 recorded highest seed index and measured longest staple length. The correlation coefficient indicated that all the morpho-yield traits were significantly associated with seed cotton yield and with each other suggesting that one or more yield traits can be used as selection criteria to improve the seed cotton yield. The higher heritability estimates (h2b.s) were recorded for almost all the studied traits except seed index. Such results revealed that improvement in those traits can be made through direct phenotypic selection. Cluster analysis arranged all the 15 genotypes into four different groups. Cluster third characterized the genotypes as having more number of plants and with higher seed cotton yield plant-1, hence genotypes of this group may prove promising in producing higher seed cotton yield plant-1. While concerning genetic distance, out of 105 pair wise comparisons, some pairs manifested greater genetic distance; consequently, those genotypes can be utilized in heterosis and backcross breeding programmes for the introgression of novel genes. From principal component analysis (PCA), eight components were extracted for studied characters. The first two components accounted for about 99 % variation from total variation, thus the cumulative percent of variance was 99.0 % in first two components. The first two PCAs demonstrated significantly higher variability that can be exploited for further breeding programmes in cotton.

USE KILLER TOXIN EXTRACTED FROM BAKERY YEAST FOR EXTENDING SHELF LIFE OF FRUITS

By *Mohammed A. Alsoufi and **Raghad A. Aziz

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

Dry Bakery yeast was used to production of killer toxin. Purification steps included use of (NH4)2SO4 30-70% saturated solution and Sephacryl S-200, giving two peaks that collected to give inhibition zones of 28 and 22mm diameter for Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium respectively, with 10.6% yield from the total protein 13.7mg\ml of yeast crude extract. The effect of killer toxin and pullulan coating on growth of some selected microorganism's strains showed inhibition of growth of E. coli, S. typhimurium, Aspergillus ssp., Penicillium ssp., Candida albicans and Pichia jadinii a was 71, 62, 52, 59, 68 and 76% respectively, at a rate of 64.6% for killer toxin (K), and was 68, 70, 42, 48, 61 and 63% respectively, at a rate of 58.6% for pullulan (P), and 74, 68, 65, 68, 71 and 73% respectively, at a rate of 69.83% for 25% P+75% K, and was 83, 76, 72, 81, 76 and 87% respectively, at a rate of 79.16% for 50% P+50% K, and was 67, 72, 54, 56, 64 and 69% respectively, at a rate of 63.66% for 75% P+25% K. The percentage values of weight loss for uncoated and coated apples with 100% (K), 100% (P), 50% K+50% P, 25% K+75% P and 75% K+25% P solutions were 3.2, 4.8, 6.1, 7, 7.2, 8.3 and 9.1%; 3.3, 4.2, 5.1, 5.6, 6.1, 7.2 and 8.3%; 2.9, 3.8, 4.1, 4.6, 5.8, 6.4 and 7.6%; 2.6, 2.8, 3.2, 3.3, 4, 4.7 and 5.1%; 2.9, 3.3, 3.5, 4.1, 5.3, 5.7 and 6%; 3, 3.5, 3.7, 4.4, 5.6, 5.9 and 6.5% respectively, when storage at 25°C for 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 day respectively, while observe spoilage time (days) during apples storage at 25°C showed that the spoilage began to appear at 4, 14, 7, 19, 9 and 12 day for uncoated and coated apples with 100% (K), 100% (P), 50% P+50% K, 25% K+75% P and 75% K+25% P respectively.

PGPR MEDIATED BIO-FORTIFICATION OF TOMATO FRUIT METABOLITES WITH NUTRITIONAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE

By Sabin Fatima1*, Tehmina Anjum1, Riaz Hussain2and Basharat Ali3

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

There is a growing interest in producing food plants with increased nutritional and medicinal values. The purpose of this study was biofortification of nutritionally and pharmacologically important metabolites of tomato fruits by using a PGPR strain “Pseudomonas aeruginosa PM12”. Tomato plants were co-cultivated in the presence of this bacterial strain and changes in fruit metabolites were discovered. Metabolites were quantified and identified by performing GC/MS analysis. The fruit extracts from the tomato plants receiving bacterial strains showed significant up-regulations in quantities of sugars, flavonoids, terpenoids, carotenoids, and total phenolic contents. Principal component analysis well separated both treatment groups to show their significant effects. In support of these findings, metabolomic changes were incorporated in primary metabolic pathways to show that upon exposure to this beneficial bacterial strain, extensive re-modulations were induced in the bio-synthesis pathways of sugars, phenolics, carbohydrates and amino acids. These results suggest that application of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PM12 can induce plants for increased production of various bioactive compounds.

FRY TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus) ANTIBODY IMPROVEMENT AGAINST Streptococcus agalactiae THROUGH BROODSTOCK VACCINATION

By Khairun Nisaa1, Sukenda2*, Muhammad Zairin Junior2, Angela Mariana Lusiastuti3, Sri Nuryati2

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

Maternal immunity through brood stock vaccination could improve antibody of seed to pathogenic infections. This study was aimed to determine the appropriate time to vaccinate tilapia brood stock using a combination of extracellular product and formaline-killed whole cells S. agalactiae. Therefore, experiments were divided into brood stock injected on day seven after spawning (Group 1), brood stock injected on day 14 after spawning (Group 2) and non-vaccinated brood stock as a control group. Vaccination was performed according to gonadal development stages. Macroscopic observation of gonadal development was conducted on the field using fresh specimen, and then analyzed using histological method. The second stage of gonadal development was observed on day seven, and the third stage (peak of vitellogenesis) on day fourteen post-spawning. The results indicated that vaccination time directly affects the antibody accumulation in fish eggs and seeds and the appropriate time to vaccinate broodstock was on the second stage of their gonadal development.

EFFECT OF INJECTION OF HUMAN MENOPAUSAL GONADOTROPHIN AND HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN HORMONE ON SPERMATOGENESIS OF ADULT MALE MICE

By Shaima Ahmed Rahim

Vol-14 No-1

Abstract

This study was designed to investigate the effect of the widely-used gonadotrophin hormones (Human Menopausal Gonadotrophin and Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin) on spermatogenesis of adult male albino mice. Thirteen mature swiss mice of Balb/C strain were used in this study. They were divided randomly into control and treated groups. Male mice in the first and second treated groups had been injected intramuscularly with (75 IU of hMG) and (500 IU of hCG) Every 48 hr, for 35 days of this dose. While the mice of the control groups had been injected with (0.9%) normal saline in the same way. The results revealed the following significant differences , when compared with control groups : There were no significant differences in weights of the reproductive organs and there were no significant differences in average of the percentage of spermatogonia and spermatocytes, While the study reports a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the percentage of spermatids of animals treated with hMG hormone and a significant increase (P<0.01) in the percentage of spermatozoa of animals treated with hMG hormone and also A significant decrease (P<0.01) in the average numbers of Leydig cells for the animals treated with hMG and hCG hormones and A significant decrease (P<0.01) in the average diameters of epididymal tubules and the height of epithelial cells of caput epididymis tubules for two animals with hMG and hCG .