About Pak J. Biotech

  1. Home
  2. About
  3. Journal Information

Current Issue 2016

  • Pages: Vol-13 No-4

    MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTIC OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AMONG URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS PATIENTS USING POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR)

    Corresponding Author

  • Abstract

    Authors: Israa Adnan Ibraheam*, Ishraq Abdul Amir Saleh*, Hawraa Jawad Kadhim*, Zainab Khudhur Ahmad Al-Mahdi **

    Infection with E. coli represented the highest causes of Urinary tract infections among community. Molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have become most important technique for more rapid and accurate for detection bacterial causal organisms in species level. E. coli based on detecting gene targets lac Z which encode for the enzyme ?-galactosidase is important target gene, this gene is responsible for energy production through break down of disaccharide lactose to the glucose and galactose. The urine samples were collected from UTIs patients initially diagnosed according to the presence of pyuria, a classical culture methods for detection of E. coli was recorded the presence of E. coli in 20 out of 30 UTIs samples (66%) while in molecular method by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection lac Z gene, E. coli was detect in 18 out of 30 UTIs samples (60%), this difference between classical culture and PCR for identification of E. coli was non-significant (p=0.05), and this may be due to the presence of evolved beta-galactosidase lac Y in some strain of E. coli which have the same galactose permease activity as lac Z galactosidase. So the present work strongly encouraged using PCR technique as a novel, perfect and fast test for E. coli diagnosis on molecular level. Further study for developed multiplex for both lac Z and lac Y galactosidase is highly recommended.

    Keywords:

  • Pages: Vol-13 No-4

    PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL FROM FRESHWATER ALGAE

    Corresponding Author

  • Abstract

    Authors: Syed Adnan Hasan1*, Ambreen Aziz2, Khalid Hassan2, Syed Imran Ali1, Suraiya Jabeen3

    The production of biodiesel from micro algal lipids is studied by using newly isolated fresh water algal strains. Four different strains of Chlorococcum, Deasonia, Chlorella and Botryococcus species were isolated. The selection of the fastest growing specie was made through the results of growth kinetic studies when grown under optimum conditions. Chlorella sp. strain S-3 was grown in a large quantity of synthetic algal growth medium. This strain produced a large amount of oil (up to 22% of biomass), which was efficiently extracted by using (i) solvent extraction method through Soxhelet extractor with a 1:1 mixture of n-hexane and diethyl ether and (ii) by centrifugation of sonicated algal cells in liquid medium. By alkaline transesterification of algal lipids, biodiesel was formed as the main product with glycerol as by-product. The physicochemical quality of algal biodiesel was found comparable to conventional diesel.

    Keywords:

  • Pages: Vol-13 No-4

    EVALUATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL OF AVICENNIA MARINA AND RHIZOPHORA MUCRONATA FROM INDUS DELTA OF PAKISTAN

    Corresponding Author

  • Abstract

    Authors: A.M. Mangrio1, M. Rafiq2*, S.H.A. Naqvi2, S.A. Junejo3, S.M. Mangrio1, N.A. Rind2

    In the present study, phytoconstituents and antibacterial response of mangroves Avicennia marina and Rhizophora mucronata were evaluated. Various parts of both plants were collected from Indus delta, Thatta. Qualitatively test results confirmed that alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, saponins and sterols are present in crude extracts of different parts of both plants. Total phenol contents, flavonoids and antioxidant activity were determined by spectrophotometer. Total phenol contents were varied from 10.7?0.5 to 29.85?1.2 mg/ml; total flavonoids from 2.37?0.42 to 16.53?0.19 mg/ml and antioxidants from 2.4?0.5 to 14.4?0.17 mg/ml in different parts of both plants. Leaf extracts of both mangrove species showed the highest amounts of total phenol, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity as 29.85?1.2 mg/ml, 16.53?0.19 mg/ml and 14.4?0.17 mg/ml respectively, while root extracts of both plants accumulated the lowest amount of total phenol, flavonoids and antioxidant activity. Crude ethanol extracts of A. marina and R. mucronata were also tested against three pathogenic bacterial species. T1 preparations (10% ethanol extracts) of leaves of both species showed a wide range of growth inhibitions 5.5?0.7 13.5?0.4 mm while T2 preparations (5% ethanol extract) showed poor response 3.0?0.65 - 7.6?0.2 mm against E. coli, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus.

    Keywords:

  • Pages: Vol-13 No-4

    COMPARISON OF EFFECTIVENESS BETWEEN BEES-CARNAUBA MIXED WAX AND CHITOSAN WHEN COMBINATION WITH PHENYLLACTIC ACID ON POSTHARVEST QUALITIES OF ORANGE FRUIT CV. CANH DURING LOW TEMPERATURE STORAGE

    Corresponding Author

  • Abstract

    Authors: Huyen Nguyen Thu1,2, and Tanachai P.1

    Comparison of effectiveness between bees-carnauba mixed wax (MW) and chitosan when combination with phenyl lactic acid (PLA) on postharvest qualities of orange fruit cv. Canh during low temperature storage was studied, by soaking fruit in 2.5% PLA before coating with 8% MW and 2% chitosan solution, and then storing at 5 1C for 60 days. While, untreated fruits were used as control. Percentage of weight loss and fruit decay, total sugar content, titratable acidity content, total soluble solids (TSS) content, ascorbic acid content, and total microorganisms were monitored during the preservative time. The results showed that 2.5% PLA in combination with 8% MW had a higher preservative effectiveness when compared to 2.5% PLA in combination with 2% chitosan and control fruits, which was expressed as lower percentage of weight loss and fruit decay, and lower total microorganisms for 60 days in storage. Moreover, fruits maintained nutrient ingredients expressed as total sugars, titratable acidity, TSS and ascorbic acid content.

    Keywords:

  • Pages: Vol-13 No-4

    ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS AND LIVER DYSFUNCTION IN MALE ADULT MICE

    Corresponding Author

  • Abstract

    Authors: Shaima Obied Abd-Allh and Shyma Ahmed Rahiem

    Liver is one of the most important members of the body that play a fundamental role in the metabolism and secretion xenobiotics which makes it highly influences to their adverse and toxic effects. Liver infection or liver dysfunction caused by different drugs and toxic chemicals or their reactive metabolites (hepatotoxicants) is known as hepatotoxicity. The current study is designed to know the effect anabolic androgenic steroids in liver function, histological structure and liver biomarkers. Experimental animals used in the study (30 Swiss mice) were allocated to three groups as general control group, and test groups (N=10). The test groups received therapeutic dose 5 mg/kg of body weight and high dose 10 mg/kg of nandrolone decanoate (ND) by subcutaneous injection, the dose was given each 48 hours, but control groups received the same volume of normal saline. The duration of the experiment was 4-weeks. The collection of blood samples, two days after the end of the period experimental from the control and treated groups. The serum samples were assayed for liver biomarkers (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total proteins, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin). It has been sacrificed animals in each group after the end of the experiment and the extirpation of liver for histopathological study. Results revealed that all ND-treated animals exhibited a significant increase of ALT, AST, ALP, total protein and total bilirubin. Also, our results of this study indicate that anabolic steroids at supraphysiological and high doses exerts histopathological changes in liver and might lead to toxic liver of males. The abuse of such drug by youth and adolescents requires taking steps represented by programs of awareness and guidance known health risk of these materials to public health to curb or at least minimize the spread of communities.

    Keywords:

  • Pages: Vol-13 No-4

    INFLUENCE OF GAMMA RADIATION ON THE PHYSIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF IN VITRO TRIPLOID AND TETRAPLOID BANANA SPECIES

    Corresponding Author

  • Abstract

    Authors: Mehnaz Qamar1*, Sadaf Tabassum Qureshi1, Imtiaz Ahmed Khan2, Sajjad Ahmed Memon3, Zeenat Bano1 and Sardar Khatoon Solangi1

    Resistance to different stresses of banana are much needed, therefore, introductions of new and healthy clones are required. Applications of in vitro mutagenesis are considered as the reliable tool to create variations. For that purpose, in vitro cultured multiple shoots of three Musa clones: Giant Cavendish Tissue Culture variant (GCTCV215), Yangambi KM-5 and FHIA-23 were exposed to different gamma doses (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy). Radiosensitivity of in vitro shoots was assessed by counting data on survival % after 40 days of culture, a rate of shoot multiplication, average shoot, fresh weight (g), root number and root length (cm). Different level of radiation sensitivity was viewed in all Musa varieties. Lower dosage 10 Gy produced raising effect compared to control. The present study may be helpful to introduce new Musa germplasm in our region.

    Keywords:

  • Pages: Vol-13 No-4

    BREAST CANCER DIAGONOSIS THROUGH ANALYSIS OF BRCA GENE USING MACHINE LEARNING ALGORITHMS

    Corresponding Author

  • Abstract

    Authors: J. Sumitha* and T. Devi

    Worldwide, the breast cancer is the second leading cancer type which leads to death among women. Breast cancer exists due to the mutation in the normal growth of Breast Cancer Gene (BRCA) under certain circumstances. In this paper, we proposed the existing machine learning algorithms for finding the disease causing BRCA gene. These existing machine learning algorithms are compared with each other to determine the efficiency in detecting the diseases from gene expression value. The results proved that the Hybrid Radial Bias Neural Network (HRBFNN) performs better than Divide and Conquer Kernel Solving Support Vector Machines (DCKSVM) and other classification algorithms than ever before.

    Keywords:

  • Pages: Vol-13 No-4

    THE METHOD OF Agrobacterium Tumefaciens-MEDIATED MmCu/Zn-SOD GENE TRANSFORMATION IN THE RED SEAWEED Kappaphycus alvarezii

    Corresponding Author

  • Abstract

    Authors: St. Hidayah Triana*1,2,3, Alimuddin*1, Utut Widyastuti3,4 , Suharsono3,4, Emma Suryati5 and Andi Parenrengi5

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) has an important role in the defense system of the body, especially the activity of reactive oxygen compounds that can cause stress. MmCu/Zn-SOD gene successfully regenerated in N. benthamiana and N. tabacum, rice, and Jatropha transgenic plants. The assembling of transgenic K. alvarezii has been previously performed with other genes, however, the successful introduction of genes was still low. The objective of this study was to optimize a method for the Agrobacterium mediated MmCu/Zn-SOD gene transformation based on the optical density (OD), the duration of inoculation and co-cultivation period factors to increase the effectiveness of transgenesis in K. alvarezii. The experimental method was divided into the three stages: 1) the optimization of MmCu/Zn-SOD gene transformation in Kappaphycus alvarezii based on optical density (OD), inoculation duration and co-cultivation period; 2) the analysis of the existence of MmCu/Zn-SOD genes in Kappaphycus alvarezii using PCR and 3) the challenge test with salinity treatments (15, 30 and 45g/L). Six levels of A. tumefaciens OD600 (0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7 and 0.8), four duration of inoculation (10, 20, 30 and 60minutes) and two periods of cocultivation (3 and 4days) were tested. The results demonstrated that the highest putative bud (100%) and transformation (100%) efficiencies were obtained by using inoculation duration of 60minutes and 3days of co-cultivation with OD600 of 0.5. However, regeneration efficiency of explants (6.67%) was lower than the non-transgenic control (33.33%). The results of PCR analyses demonstrated the presence of MmCu/Zn-SOD gene in the transgenic explants, whereas the nontransgenic explants seaweed showed no amplification product. In conclusion, transgenic K. alvarezii could be produced and optimized by the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated method based on optical density (OD), duration of inoculation and co-cultivation period factors. Transgenic explants that carry encoding genes of MmCu/ Zn-SOD tolerant to salinity of 15g /L and 45g/L so all were survive, while all the non-transgenic were died.

    Keywords: