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EDITORIAL BOARD

2016

VIDEO CONTENT RETRIEVAL USING IMAGE FEATURE SELECTION

By D. Saravanan

Vol-13 No-3

Abstract

ABSTRACT Multimedia is any combination of content written in text, drawing, and sound, moving picture, delivered to you by computer or other electronic or digitally manipulated means. Through the rapid growth of multimedia technology, multimedia content can be created, shared and distributed easily. The amount of available digital resources is continuously increasing, promoted by a growing interest of users and by the development of new technology for the ubiquitous enjoyment of digital resources. The acquisition and storage of video data is an easy task but retrieval of information from video data is challenging .The general method of representing each video segment is shot that is a sequence of key frame(s) where those frames contained the ‘meaningful’ frames also the frame contained the important contents of the shot. The key frame(s) based shot method is specifically assisted for searching the video content as clients provided image query/search where an image will be matched with the indexed key frames with assist of resemblance distance. As a result, the key frames selection is most significant and several methods are used to automate the process. This paper proposes a new technique for key frame selection. The proposed method show significant ally good and the experiments prove the above statement.

PROTOCOL OPTIMIZATION FOR EFFECTIVE IN VITRO ROOT FORMATION OF SUGAR CANE SOMA CLONES IN NIA-2012, NIA-105 AND GULABI-95 VARIETIES

By Sardar Khatoon Solangi1*, Sadaf Tabasum Qureshi1, Mukhtiar khatoon Solangi2, Altaf Hussain Solangi2

Vol-13 No-3

Abstract

ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to develop an efficient In vitro regeneration and root formation procedure from callus. Present work was conducted in 2015 at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tando jam. Study relevant with three sugarcane varieties of NIA like NIA-2012, NIA-105 and GULABI-95. Root formation of plantlets was compared under different concentration of auxins IBA (1.0, 2.0, 2.5 mg1-1 and sucrose 2, 3 and 4 % respectively. Highly significant (p<0.05) variations were observed for all parameters of root formation. Interactive effect of variety treatment and concentration was non-significant for the number of root and length of root formation. Auxins 3% and sucrose 4% mgl-1 were highly effective for rooting. In vitro root formation for all genotypes of sugarcane showed the maximum root and highest length in ½ MS media supplemented with 2.5 mg1-1 IBA and 4% sucrose, therefore this concentration of growth regulators was used for future in vitro culture of sugarcane.

GRAIN YIELD, PHOSPHORUS CONTENT AND UPTAKE OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) AS AFFECTED BY PHOSPHORUS FERTIGATION

By Mukhtiar Khatoon Solangi*1, SardarKhtoon Solangi2, Nusrat Khatoon Solangi1

Vol-13 No-3

Abstract

ABSTRACT Most of the Pakistani soils are alkaline and calcareous in nature; therefore the efficiency of P-uptake by wheat is low. Among the agronomic practices that influence the efficiency of applied fertilizer, time and method of application are critically important. Fertigation is one of the techniques which enable the application of water soluble fertilizers and other chemicals along with irrigation water to the plant, uniformly and more efficiently. Two years field studies on wheat was undertaken to compare the response of P applied in the irrigation water with broadcast method. The treatments include: control (no P applied), P applied through broadcast method (farmers practice) and P applied with irrigation water (Fertigate P). The experiment was conducted in four replications using randomized complete block design. Generally, fertigated applied P increase grain yield, P content and P-uptake in wheat as compared to broadcast method. In wheat, fertigated P increased grain yield by 7-8%, P content by 8-16% and P uptake by 15 to 23% during two cropping years as compared to broadcast method. In conclusion, the use of P fertilizer through fertigation could be useful technique to increase grain yield and P uptake in cereals.

EFFECT OF PHYTOHORMONES ON SHOOT AND ROOT REGENERATION IN ROSE UNDER IN VITRO CONDITIONS

By Nighat Seema Soomro1, Imtiaz Ahmed Khan1, Shahla Baloch2, Ghulam Shah Nizamani1 Shafquat Yasmeen1 and Muhammad Tahir Khan1

Vol-13 No-3

Abstract

Abstract In vitro propagation of rose has played a very important role in rapid multiplication of cultivars with desirable traits and production of healthy and disease free plants. Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with various concentrations and combinations of Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), Naphthylacetic acid (NAA), Benzylaminopurine (BAP), and Indole-3- acetic acid (IAA) were employed for shoot regeneration in this study, whereas MS½ and full strength medium containing different amounts of IBA (0.5 and 1mg/l) were used for root induction. The highest multiple shoot formation was recorded in MS medium containing IAA (1 mg/l) and BAP (4 mg/l) with 30 g/l sugar. Cytokinin (BAP) in addition to auxin (IBA) caused the maximum bulbus formation which turned into elongated shoots, while the NAA was observed to have antagonistic effect on shoot formation. Highest numbers of roots were produced on MS½ strength + IBA 0.5 mg/l. The aim of this study was to determine growth and development of rose on different growth media, to shorten the multiplication time of virus-free plant material.

OPTIMIZATION OF CULTURE CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF PROTEASE BY Pleurotus eryngii

By Safia Bano, M. Umar Dahot and S.H.A. Naqvi

Vol-13 No-3

Abstract

ABSTRACT Present study focuses to optimize the protease enzyme production by edible mushrooms. For the specified goal to achieve the growth of Pleurotus eryngii cultured on potato dextrose agar medium incubating at temperature 24ºC, pH 5.6 for 7 days. The maintained culture was processed for the production on fermentation media, i.e., glucose 20 g/L, peptone 10 g/L, corn steep 3.0 g/L and ammonium nitrate 1.0 g/L on pH 6.5. The best time for maximum production was observed to be four days from incubation. After selecting the optimum time for the enzyme production, the optimum nutrient contents were checked. Sucrose (0.5%) and casein (1%) were found to be the best carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. The maximum protease production was achieved at pH 6.5 and the maximum enzyme yield was found at 22ºC,

GENETIC TRANSFORMATION OF POTATO (Solanum tuberosum L. ) Cv. NOOKSACK WITH FBPase/ClRan1 GENES MEDIATED BY Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

By Fatahillah1, Suharsono2, UtutWidyastuti2

Vol-13 No-3

Abstract

ABSTRACT Nooksack is one of potential cultivar to be used as french fries material. Fructosa 1.6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and Citrullus lanatus Ran1(ClRan1)genes play a very important role by increasing potato productivity. Overexpression of FBPase gene is able to accelerate photosynthesis whereas overexpression of ClRan1 genesis to develop the stolon. This study aimed to introduce FBPase/ClRan1 genes into the genome of potato cv. Nooksack used Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Leaf disc and internode of potato was inoculated with A. tumefaciens EHA105 bringing FBPase/ClRan1 genes under control of rbsS3C promoter for FBPase gene and 35SCaMV promoter for ClRan1 gene. Leaf discs have a transformation efficiency (83.33%) and regeneration efficiency (16%) better than internode with transformation efficiency (50%) and regeneration efficiency (6.66%). PCR analysis indicated that FBPase/ClRan1 genes has been integrated into potato with size of the FBPase/CLRan1 genes was 1047 bp. Data analysis used SPSS 16 with one way ANOVA method on the level of 95%. FBPase/ClRan1 gene was significantly different from the photosynthesis rate, leaf number, plant height, stem diameter, the number of bulbs and tuber weight. Whereas, the wet weight and dry weight of shoots were not significantly different.

THE EFFECT OF CITRIC ACID AND SODIUM CHLORIDE (NACL) TO QUALITY OF SARDINE OIL (Sardinella Sp.)

By Sugeng Heri Suseno*, Agoes M. Jacoeb, Stephanie Bija, Nadia Fitriana, Nilam Puspa Ruspatti

Vol-13 No-3

Abstract

ABSTRACT The amount of sardine oil as by-product from a fish-meal processing industry is large and still contains high amount of omega-3 , but its quality is still for feed. Purification of fish oil is very important to improve the quality of fish oils for human consumption. This study aimed to determine citric acid and Sodium chloride (NaCl) treatment in the degumming process to improve the quality of fish oil. The Citric acid and NaCl used were 0.2% and 40%, respectively. The results showed that reduction of peroxide value, free fatty acid, p-ansidine, and TOTOX were 72.42-92.37%, 77.95-85.83%, 5.43-51.90%, and 49.59-76.99% respectively while transmission percentage range was 48.61-63.63%.

EXTRACTION OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUND CURCUMIN FROM TURMERIC (CURCUMA LONGA L.) VIA DIFFERENT ROUTES: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

By Foozie Sahne1, Maedeh Mohammadi1, Ghasem D. Najafpour1*and Ali Akbar Moghadamnia2

Vol-13 No-3

Abstract

ABSTRACT In this study, extraction of curcumin, the bioactive compound of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), through different extraction methods was investigated. For this purpose, microwave-assisted, ultrasound-assisted and enzyme-assisted extractions were used as modern extraction routes to extract curcumin from turmeric powder and some of their essential extraction parameters were optimized; the results were compared to those obtained from Soxhlet extraction as the traditional and reference method. The presence of curcumin in the extracted samples was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy and quantification of curcumin was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Result showed that the curcumin extraction yield using Soxhlet method (6.9%) was considerably higher than those obtained from microwave-assisted (3.72%), ultrasound-assisted (3.92%) and enzyme-assisted (4.1%) extractions; however, the highlighted features of advance extraction methods including cost-effectiveness (due to much saving in time and energy consumption) and environmentally benign nature make them more favorable extraction methods.

EFFECT OF BRASSIN-LIKE SUBSTANCE ON THE QUALITY OF EARLY GERMINATED ARABICA COFFEE BEAN (Coffea arabica L.)

By Primluck Praphutphitthaya1*, Chantalak Tiyayon1, Thaneeya Chetiyanukornkul2, Tanachai Pankasemsuk1

Vol-13 No-3

Abstract

ABSTRACT Arabica coffee beans were monitored to evaluate the changes of chemical compositions during early germination period after soaking with brassin-like substance (BS). The experiment was designed as 4×5 factorial in completely randomized design (CRD) by soaking coffee seeds into BS at 4 different concentrations (0 (control), 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/L), which considered as factor 1. Chemical compositions were determined at 5 germination times (before soaking, day 2, 4, 6 and 8 after soaking), which considered as factor 2. Three replications were made on each combination and each replication consisted of 100 coffee seeds. The results showed that chemical compositions and antioxidant activity were clearly effected by BS and germination time. Caffeine content significantly declined upon BS concentrations. Furthermore, the content also gradually decreased during early germination. Interestingly, soaking coffee seeds in 2.0 mg/L BS could enhanced the greatest amount of chlorogenic acid content within 4 days after soaking. The compound, however, sharply declined afterward. BS could decrease total phenolic compounds in germinated coffee seeds. BS applications at concentrations of 1.0 and 2.0 mg/L also showed greater antioxidant activity than those seeds applied by BS 0.5 mg/L and the control. Moreover, radical scavenging activity of coffee seed crude extracts also indicated that the activity tended to increase during early germination.

TRANSFORMATION OF KAPPA (?)-CARRAGEENASE GENE FROM Pseudoalteromonas IN SEAWEED Kappaphycus alvarezii [DOTY]

By Muh. Alias L. Rajamuddin1, Alimuddin2, Utut Widyastuti3 and Enang Harris2

Vol-13 No-3

Abstract

ABSTRACT Foreign gene transformation techniques have been applied to improve the valuable traits of farmed organism. As the first step towards increasing of kappa (?)-carrageenan content, in this study ?-carrageenase gene (?car) from Pseudoalteromonas was transformed into K. alvarezii mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens method. The pMSH-?car binary plasmid construct was controlled by 35S CaMV promoter and Nos terminator. DNA analysis of transformants was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method using two sets of primer. The result showed that 36% transformed explants were sprouted and 100% of them were having the ?car gene. The size of amplified DNA fragment from K. alvarezii transformants using 35S-F and tNos-R set primers was 2,000 bp, the same size as PCR product of the positive control of pMSH-?car plasmid, while no amplification product in non-transformated (negative control) was found. Furthermore, PCR analysis using 35S-F and 35S-R set primers showed amplification product of 300 bp, the same size as 35S CaMV promoter sequence. Thus, K. alvarezii transformants carrying pMSH-?car had been generated.