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EDITORIAL BOARD

2016

SOLID STATE CULTIVATION AND APPLICATION OF XYLANASE

By Kianoush Khosarvi-Darani1 and Dina Karamad2

VOL-13 NO-2

Abstract

Research for xylanase biosynthesis is an interesting area due to its important industrial application. This review paper serves as an overview of xylanase bioproduction and application as well as its producing microorganisms, substrates and process variables, to consider the future prospects of xylanases in biotechnological applications. Several approaches should be applied to overcome main limitations which inhibit widespread commercial and industrial application of this enzyme; low production yield and the high total cost.

STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS IN HILLAH CITY, IRAQ

By Tsahel Hamid Kadhim Al-Dulaimi

VOL-13 NO-2

Abstract

Escherichia coli is a Gram-negative , rod-shaped organism it present as commensal in the gut of humanís alsoits isolates from many different types of animals as well as this kind of bacteria presence in water provides, so itís considered as an index of stool contamination .in addition this organism can causes diseases in the alimentary tract ,urinary tract includes urethra, bladder, otitis media and respiratory system. The current study aims to identify of antimicrobial agents use in the treatment E. coli that itís acquired by nosocomial infections. The E. coli has been isolated and then exposure to different classes of antibiotics by using Vitek2 technique method. The total number of E. coli was isolated is 45. the findings have appeared so resistance to Ticarcillin with in 45 (100%), Piperacillin 45 (100%), Ceftazidime 42 (93.4%), Cefepime and Aztreonam 43 (95.6%). On the other hand the samples was showed high sensitivity with Amikacin 44 (97.8%), Imipenem 43 (95.6%), Meropenem 43 (95.6% ) and Gentamicin 37 (82.2%) , while of Piperacillin\Tazobactam 12 (26.7 %) and Tobramycin 7 (15.5%) has intermediate susceptibility to antibiotics study .finally found the high frequency of resistance to Ticarcillin, Piperacillin,Ceftazidime,Cefeoime and Aztreonam was seen among E. coli isolates. As a result they were not recommended the last drugs used for treatment of E. coli infections as optimal therapy. Keywords : E. coli, Antimicrobial susceptibility, Nosocomial infections, Vitek2 technique.

A SENSITIVE ELECTROCHEMICAL SENSOR BASED ON GOLD NANOPARTICLES DROPLET DEPOSITION ON GLASSY CARBON ELECTRODE FOR BISPHENOL A DETECTION

By Hoda Ezoji1 , Mostafa Rahimnejad1 *, Maryam Asghary2

VOL-13 NO-2

Abstract

A convenient, rapid and extremely sensitive electrochemically detection of bisphenol A (BPA) was proposed in phosphate buffer (pH =7) on a gold nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode (GNs/GCE). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were applied for characterization of GNs/GCE. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was employed for measuring BPA. The studies exhibited lower over potentials, improved current response, high reproducibility and lower detection limit at the GNs/GCE versus the bare electrode. Therefore, GNs displays excellent electroactivity toward BPA. Within the concentration range of 1◊10-8 to 6◊10-6M. The fabricated electrochemical sensor demonstrated linear response to BPA with the detection limit of (1.5◊10-9M).

GENETIC TRANSFORMATION OF TOBACCO PLANT USING INHIBITOR OF MERISTEM ACTIVITY (IMA) GENES

By Asri Pirade Paserang 1,2,3*, Aris Tjahjoleksono 3,4, Utut Widyastuti 3,4 , Suharsono 3,4

VOL-13 NO-2

Abstract

Inhibitor of Meristem activity (IMA) gene encoded a Mini Zinc Finger protein (MIF). IMA gene regulates flowering and ovule development. It controls WUSCHEL gene in meristem center and determined nucellus during the development of ovule. IMA gene is activated by the gene expression of type-D inhibited the proliferation of cell during floral termination, controlled the amount of carpels during flower development, and has a role in the primordial ovule initiation. IMA gene plays crucial roles during shoot apical meristem organization which associated with cell division, differentiation, and growth hormone. IMA gene has been successfully constructed into vector pGWB402 and introduced into Agrobacterium tumefaciens LB4404 through electroporation means. IMA gene is transferred to Nicotiana tabacum by using cotyledons in vitro culture. The transformed plant tissue is selected by addition of kanamycin in culture medium. The validation of transgene is detected by PCR using CaMV 35 S forward primer and IMA gene reverse specific primer. Transgenic plants show band size 500 bp indicating IMA gene has been integrated into the plant genome of N. tabacum.

INDUCTION OF SYSTEMIC RESISTANCE IN TOMATO BY PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA PM12 AGAINST FUSARIUM WILT

By Sabin Fatima* and Tehmina Anjum

VOL-13 NO-2

Abstract

This study was carried out to check the potential of a bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PM12 for inducing systemic resistance in tomato against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Significant reduction in disease index of 14.91% was observed under the influence of this bacterial strain. P. aeruginosa was found to be involved in induction of systemic resistance through upregulation of defense related compounds like phenolics, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (PO), and phenyl ammonia lyase (PAL). Greenhouse study revealed that P. aeruginosa significantly increased growth parameters like biomass, root and shoot length in tomato plants whereas calorimetric assays showed the ability of this strain to produce growth related biochemicals (total soluble sugars, cholorophyll and carotenoid content) efficiently. Therefore it can be concluded from this study that P. aeruginosa can be used for the management of fusarium wilt of tomato and to promote sustainable agriculture in Pakistan. This study will open new ways for the use of indigenous biocontrol agents against the pathogens to obtain higher yields.

CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIAL SOFT ROT STRAINS AND THEIR SPECIFIC PHAGES ISOLATED FROM SOIL AT TAIF

By Sonya H. Mohameda,b , Gado E.A.a , Gomaa H.a and Sadik A.S.a,c*

VOL-13 NO-2

Abstract

In this study some bacteriophage(s) specific to some plant pathogenic bacteria (the causal agent of soft rot diseases), were isolated and characterized from soil of Taif, KSA. Soil samples were randomly collected from some rhizosphere soils cultivated with various plant species including potato. Ten bacterial isolates were obtained from soil and used as hosts for enrichment and isolation of the virulent bacteriophages. The spot test and turbidity tests were used to detect the presence of the phage of interest in the suspension. The area of clear zones were represented by threes levels, i.e., weak lysis (+) (three isolates), moderate lysis (++) (one isolate) and high lysis (+++) (two isolates). The phage(s) was propagated and partially purified for determining the morphology of viral particles via electron microscopy. Sperm shape virus-like particles with long tail and icosahedral head were shown in the electron micrographs of partially purified phages specific to the two selected bacterial isolates (# 08 and # 10). These two bacterial isolates were then biologically and molecularly identified. The nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene of the two bacterial isolates was determined and final sequences of 942 and 940 nts for the 16S rRNA gene of two soft rot bacteria (# 08 and # 10), respectively were recorded. Data of the phylogentic trees show that the two bacterial isolates (# 08 and # 10) could be strains of Pseudomonas stutzeri (LC053456.1) and Bacillus pumilus (LC053854.1).

PRODUCTION AND OPTIMIZATION OF ?-AMYLASE FROM ASPERGILLUS NIGER USING POTATO PEEL AS SUBSTRATE

By 1Shahzad Mahmood, 1Memuna Ghafoor Shahid, 2Muhammad Nadeem, 2,3Muhammad Irfan*, 2Quratulain Syed

VOL-13 NO-2

Abstract

The present study is concerned with the production and characterization of ?-amylase by Aspergillus niger in solid-state fermentation using food waste as substrate. Various cultural conditions such as incubation period, incubation temperature, pH of the medium, moisture level and inoculum size were optimized for maximum ?- amylase yield. The maximum activity of enzyme (1262.27 Ī 2.11 U/g) was recorded after 72 h of incubation at 30įC temperature, pH 5 with 5% moisture level and inoculum size. Among different nitrogen and carbon sources evaluated, peptone (1.5%), NH4NO3 (0.75%) and soluble starch (1.25%) gave maximum ?-amylase production under optimized conditions. Under all the optimized culture conditions, the maximum enzyme production was 1298.12 Ī 2.14 U/g.

SCREENING OF POTENTIAL BACTERIAL BIO-CONTROL AGENTS AGAINST THE HELMINTHOSPORIUM ORYZAE IN-VITRO CONDITIONS. CAUSED BY BROWN SPOT OF RICE

By Ghulam Hussain Jatoi1,5* , Manzoor Ali Abro1**, Javed Asghar Tariq3**, Shabana Memon2** , Naimtullah Mangi**2, Azhar-ul-Din Keerio4 , Muswar Ali Gadhi1 , Shahid Hussain1 and Dewen Qiu5

VOL-13 NO-2

Abstract

Brown spot of rice caused by Helminthosporium oryzae is one of the most destructive diseases of rice worldwide. This disease causing rotting of seeds that ultimately reduce yield by 16-43%. This study was aimed to evaluate bio-control agents under in vitro conditions against H. oryzae. The method followed was based on survey and sampling of rizhospheric soils samples from Larkana district and surrounding areas. Rhizobacteria were isolated from soil-rice plants and 25 isolates were studied for their antagonistic effect on the linear colony growth of H. oryzae by using PDA medium as for growth. Results of the present study showed that the use of bio-control agent (Rhizobacteria) against the tested fungus showed that, four isolates out of 24 bacterial isolates has inhibited the linear colony growth of H. oryzae up to 1-2 mm with different levels (-, +, ++, +++).. The use of bio-control agent Rhizobacteria like (Agrobacterium and Pseudomonas) isolates also showed antagonistic activity against the tested fungus (H. oryzae). This study could be helpful for researchers and farming community in future for better management of this disease.

GENETIC VARIABILITY AND RELATIONSHIP AMONG DURIAN CULTIVARS (Durio zibethinus Murr) IN THEKAMPAR, INDONESIA ASSESSED BY RAPD MARKERS

By Rosmaina1 , Joko Warino2 , Suhaida3 , Zulfahmi1*

VOL-13 NO-2

Abstract

Durian (Durio zibethinus Murr) is an important tropical fruit tree economically and ecologically. This research aims to observe the genetic variability and relationship among durian cultivars based on RAPD(Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) markers. The results of this study obtained a total of 49DNA fragments of which 34 fragments (69.39%) were polymorphic. Overall size of the PCR amplified product bands ranged from 200 bp (OPO-11) to 1800 bp (OPO-05). Six primers (OPT-09, OPO-05 OPY-16, OPY-15, OPD-08, and OPY-14) can distinguish among five durian cultivars e.g. Bakul, Ome Kampar, Tembaga, Sijantung and Keong Mas. The genetic distance among durian cultivars ranged from 0.276-0.477. Based on UPGMA dendrogram, seven durian cultivars were divided into four groups. The first cluster consisted of Sijantung cultivar, second cluster consisted of Bakul cultivar, third cluster consisted of Keong Mas and Tembaga cultivars, and fourth cluster consisted of Empu Kunyit, Ome Kampar, and Montong cultivars. The results of this study will helpthe breeders toformulate the breeding strategy for the durian improvementin future.

COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION FROM CHEESE WHY BY SUBMERGED AND IMMOBILIZED ASPERGILLUS NIGER

By Sepideh A. Ghanbartabar, Ghasem D. Najafpour*, Maedeh Mohammadi

VOL-13 NO-2

Abstract

Citric acid production from cheese whey using submerged culture and immobilized cell of Aspergillus niger was investigated. In this work, effect of substrate (lactose) and product (citric acid) concentrations, medium pH, sesame oil on production of citric acid was evaluated. In addition, the cell dry weight was measured during the fermentation process. For submerged culture of A. niger, maximum citric acid concentration of 4.45 g/l was obtained at pH value of 4, lactose concentration of 50 g/l, and 0.1% (v/v) sesame oil for incubation of 6 days. For incubation of 5 days, in immobilized cell operation at optimal pH value of 3 and lactose concentration of 70 g/l, maximum citric acid concentration of 8.4 g/l was achieved. Immobilized cells of A. niger had a significant impact on improvement of citric acid production and increased the yield up to 62.6%. The immobilized cells had about 3 folds increase in citric acid productivities in comparison with free cells of A. niger. The productivity of citric acid in immobilized cell system was 4 times greater than the free cells.