• +92 (345) 3557795
  • pakjournalbiotech@gmail.com

EDITORIAL BOARD

2016

RESPONSE OF DIFFERENT DOSES OF PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER AND PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING_BACTERIA AND MYCORRHIZA IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA L.)

By Niaz Ali Sial, S.A Abro, Javed Ahmed Shah and M.Y. Memon,

VOL-13 NO-(1)

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with seven treatments in four replications at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA), Tando Jam. Five plants were selected from middle rows of the plot for yield parameters. Yield and yield components were recorded such as plant height (cm) number of pods/plant, single plant biomass weight (g), number of branches/plant, number of panicles/plant, single plant grain yield (g) biological yield kg/ha, grain yield (kg/ha), days to flowering, days to maturity of the crop, and 100- grain weight (g). Bacterial enumeration after sowing of one week and after harvesting of the crop were recorded. The results revealed that the all yield and yield components were highest in T2 (80 kg P/ha), whereas, the control was the lowest. In treatment Bacillus megatherium and 40 kg P/ha were identical with each other. T5 (Bacillus megatherium+40 kg P/ha), T6 (Mycorrhiza) and T7 (Mycorrhiza + 40 kg P/ha) were similar with each other but lower than T2, T3, T4 and higher than control. Biological yield and grain yield were highest in T2 (2541 kg/ha and 883 kg/ha). Same trend was found for bacterial enumeration after sowing of one week the crop and after harvesting of the crop at the depth of 0-15 and 15-30 cm in one gram of soil. It was observed that the addition of Bacillus megatherium increased the yield and other yield associated traits of mungbean. The results showed that the P solubilizing bacterial inocula alone may be used for obtaining reasonable yield in mungbean.

ASSESSMENT OF INTERNAL QUALITY OF JAPANESE PUMPKIN (CUCURBITA MAXIMA) USING NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

By Muenmanee, N.1,2* , A. Joomwong4 , J. Natwichai5 and D. Boonyakiat1,2,3

VOL-13 NO-(1)

Abstract

Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-destructive technique for fruit quality assessment. This study applied NIRS to assess internal quality of Japanese pumpkin fruit during maturation. Japanese pumpkin fruit (Cucurbita maxima) were harvested at three stages of fruit maturation, namely, immature, mature and overmature, i.e., 40, 50 and 60 days after fruit set (DAFS). It was found that there was a possibility to use short wavelength region of near infrared radiation (700-1100 nm) to determine quality of Japanese pumpkin in terms of total soluble solids (TSS). The spectra were measured by NIRSystem 6500. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was introduced to develop prediction models for the aforementioned parameters. The best PLS model for quality assessment of Japanese pumpkin fruit was found in TSS, resulting the coefficient of determination (R2 ) of 0.77. The prediction model also provided low values of SEC, SEP and bias which were 0.62%, 0.96% and 0.13%, respectively.

EFFECT OF INOCULATION DENSITY ON POTATO MICROPROPAGATION

By Tufail Shakeel+, Zafar Jamal* and Ihsan Ullah**

VOL-13 NO-(1)

Abstract

The present study was conducted to examine the effect of inoculation density on potato micropropagation var. Desiree and investigate the nutrients competition among potato micro plants. The different growth factors were examined, i.e., shoot length, numbers of roots and numbers of nodes of each microplant. A number of 1-5 treatments of micro plants was examined with 10 repetitions of each treatment. In this experiment 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 nodal cuttings were transferred in each test tube. The morphology of the plantlets during this experiment was observed, and remained same whether single inoculated plantlets or five nodal cuttings were inserted in a test tube. Post two weeks of culture certain numbers of nodes/microplant, roots/micro plant and shoot length were obtained from each culture tube. The numbers of nodes and roots were more in T5 as compared to other treatments. During this experiment it had been observed that the inoculation density did not affect the normal growth of the plantlets. So the inoculation density effect did not affect (i.e., p=0.05) the plantlets. Four week post explant culture the plantlets showed maximum growth under artificial condition of growth chamber. So, this experiment showed that the inoculation density has no significant effect (i.e., p=0.05) on potato microplants.

ISOLATION OF FUNGI FROM VARIOUS AGRICULATURAL FIELDS AS A FUNCTION OF SOIL DEPTH AND SEASONAL VARIABILITY

By Abdul Hameed1* , Muddasir Asrar1 , Abdul Aziz2 and Hidayatullah3

VOL-13 NO-(1)

Abstract

Study of population and species occurrence of fungi as a function of soil depth and seasons was conducted during 2009 and 10. The samples were collected from ten agricultural fields at Quetta district. Soil sampling was conducted during four seasons such as February, 2009 and 10 (S1 and S3) and August, 2009 and 10 (S2 and S4) across soil depth of 0-06 and 06-12 inches. The serial dilution plate technique was used for isolation of fungi which were significantly affected by seasonal variability and soil depth. The results exhibited higher fungal (18.30 cfu g -1soil) population in location 9 at upper depth in S1 and lower (6.50 cfu g -1soil) in location 8 at lower depth. From each location 18 fungal species were isolated and Aspergillus niger was found dominant fungal species in all locations. From this study it was suggested that less perturbed soil like orchards showed more O.M. contents indicating higher available nutrients and high fungal population than field crops which were subjected to more perturbation.

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FREE-NITROGEN FIXER BACTERIAL STRAINS (Azotobacter sp.) AND THEIR PHAGES FROM MAIZE RHIZOSPHERE-SOIL AT TAIF

By Sadik A.S.a,b* , Noof A. El-Khamasha and Sonya H. Mohameda,c .

VOL-13 NO-(1)

Abstract

We are focusing on isolation of bacteriophage(s) specific to some free N2-fixer bacteria from rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of Taif region of KSA as a first record for such study in Taif area (Makkah, Jeddah and Taif). A number of 10 bacterial isolates grown on the nitrogen-free specific medium (Waksman base No.77 Medium) were purified and separately used as hosts for bacteriophage(s) isolation. The spot test and turbidity tests were used to detect the presence of the phage of interest in the prepared phage suspensions. The level of lysis revealed the presence of turbid zones (plaques), as weak (+) lysis (for isolates # 07) and (# 09); moderate lysis (++) (for isolate # 05), and high lysis (+++) (for isolates # 01 and # 03). The phage(s) was propagated and partially purified for determining the morphology of viral particles via electron microscopy. Sperm shape virus-like particles with long tail and icosahedral head were shown in the electron micrographs of partially purified phages specific to the two selected bacterial isolates ((# 01 and # 03). These two bacterial isolates were then morphologically and molecularly identified. The nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene of the two bacterial isolates was determined and final sequences of 927 and 873 nts for the 16S rRNA gene of two isolates of this study ((# 01 and # 03), respectively, were recorded. Data of the phylogentic trees show that the two bacterial isolates (# 01 and # 03) could be strains of Azotobacter sp. (LC053456.1 and LC053854).

EXPRESSION OF RUBBER ELONGATION FACTOR (REF) AND SMALL RUBBER PARTICLE PROTEIN (SRPP) RELATES TO DRY RUBBER YIELD OF CLONAL VARIETIES

By Auksorn Klaewklad1,3 , Korakot Nakkanong1 , Chatchamon Daengkanit Nathaworn2 and Charassri Nualsri1*

VOL-13 NO-(1)

Abstract

REF and SRPP are necessary for a functional role in rubber polymerization. It involved in the final polymerization step of natural rubber biosynthesis in Hevea. The aims of this research were to relate the REF and SRPP gene expressions and latex yield, in order to use these genes as markers in selection criteria of rubber tree breeding programs. Dry rubber yield and expressions of the two genes were determined for four selected clones (SK1, SK3, NK1 and T2) and the by location paired controls (RRIM 600 clone). Results from cDNA sequencing indicated the REF amino acid sequence of lower yield clone present one amino acid, which is different from Proline (CCC) as Serine at site 113 (CCT). The SRPP amino acid sequences, Glutamic acid are absence at site 6 of RRIM 600. One amino acid at site 67 of RRIM 600 clone was different from other clone resulting in Threonine (ACT) instead of Alanine (GCT). In NK1 clone, at site 178, different in one protein was recorded different code protein from Threonine (ACT) to Valine (GTT). The annual dry rubber yields of the four clones exceeded that of RRIM 600. Quantitative RT-PCR showed a positive relationship between latex yield and expression levels of REF and SRPP genes. In seedling leaves, REF and SRPP genes were expressed at low level, but both genes were abundantly expressed in bark. These results suggest good potential in the early selection of rubber trees, in breeding programs for yield improvement.

EFFICACY OF SELECTED FUNGICIDES ON THE LINEAR COLONY GROWTH OF THE HELMINTHOSPORIUM ORYZAE CAUSED BY BROWN SPOT DISEASE OF RICE .

By Ghulam Hussain Jatoi1*, Manzoor Ali Abro1**, Javad Asghar Tariq4**, Shabana Memon2**, Naimatullah Mangi2 , sultan Ahmed Maitlo1 , Azhar-ul-Din Kerio3 , Shahid Hussain1 and Abdul Salam Mengal1 ,

VOL-13 NO-(1)

Abstract

Brown spot of rice caused by Helminthosporium oryzae, attacks the plant at any growth stage and it appears on the foliage as scattered brown spot that coalesces and result in withering and yellowing of the leaves. This fungal disease lowers the seed germination, causing rotting of seeds and roots that ultimately reduce yield by 16% to 43%. The method followed was based on survey and sampling of diseased seed samples from Larkana. Isolation and purification of fungi from these samples were conducted and performed pathogenicity test of the most predominant isolated fungus (H. Oryzae). So, this study was aimed to evaluate different fungicides. In vitro study of four fungicides efficacy revealed that Mencozeb and Thiomal completely inhibited growth of the test fungus. H. oryzae failed to grow at 150 and 200 ppm, (00. mm) as compared to control (36.62 mm) respectively. Whereas, Bavistin was moderately effective (10.50 mm) and Melody duo was less effective (12.87 mm) as compared to control (36.62 mm). So, one can conclude that Mencozeb and Thiomal was the most effective fungicides. These studies could be helpful for researchers and farming community in future for better management of this disease.

BIODEGRADATION OF PETROLEUM INDUSTRY OILY SLUDGE BY BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM AND ITS APPLICATION IN LAND FARMING

By Anwaar Arafa1 , Soha Farag2* , Manal A. Mahdaly1 , Mai M. Badr1

VOL-13 NO-(1)

Abstract

Oily sludge is considered the most important solid waste resulted from crude oil storage tanks. Conventional oily sludge treatment methods (landfill and incineration) are high in cost and need specialized equipment and skilled personnel. Therefore, bioremediation provides a technique for cleaning up oily sludge, totally or mostly, by enhancing the natural biodegradation processes. The three bacterial isolate Bacillus cereus sp. M1, Bacillus cereus sp. M7 and Pseudomonas mendocina sp. M10, which were isolated from a soil sample from SidiKerir branch, have a high capability to degrade oil sludge. A consortium of isolates (M1, M7 and M10) and sp48 (Pseudomonas sp.) was applied for bioremediation of 1% of oily sludge with different inoculum amounts and at different time periods, where it resulted in higher biodegradation rate of total petroleum hydrocarbons, reaching 89% after 12 days. This consortium was used in bioaugmentation as land farming for oily sludge degradation which achieved 99.2% removal (biodegradation rate) of total petroleum hydrocarbons and 93.7% of oil and grease. Results obtained suggest that the bacterial consortium for oil sludge degradation may be better than each bacterium unaccompanied.