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EDITORIAL BOARD

2015

IDENTIFICATION OF AN ISOLATE OF ZUCCHINI YELLOW MOSAIC POTYVIRUS INFECTING SQUASH IN EGYPT

By Khalifa M.E.1,2, El-Fallal A.A. 1 , A.K.El-Sayed1 ; A.Diab3 and A.S.Sadik4

VOL-12 NO-(2)

Abstract

Squash is considered as one of the important vegetable crops worldwide including Egypt. Zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus (ZYMV) is reported to be the most series viruses infecting cucurbits. In this study, an Egyptian isolate of ZYMV infecting squash plant (Cucurbita pepo cv. Eskandarani) was identified based on its biological, serological, and molecular properties. The isolate appeared severe mosaic, vein banding and deformation the infected squash plant under open field and greenhouse conditions. Positive reactions with polyclonal antibodies specific to ZYMV were obtained when samples were subjected to direct antigen coated (DAC)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The electron microscopy of purified virus prepared from ZYMV-infected squash plants, showed the presence of filamentous virus-like particles measuring 750X13 nm. The viral isolate was confirmed to be belonging to Potyviruses group through producing cylindrical inclusions (pinwheels, scroll, and laminated aggregates) in the cytoplasm of cells infected with ZYMV. At the level of molecular characterization, the cylindrical inclusions (CI) protein and nuclear inclusions (NIb) genes of the ZYMV-EG isolate comprised 1902, and 1551 nucleotides, and encoding 634 and 517 amino acids protein, respectivelyand their similarities to some overseas isolates were addressed. The two genes appeared 100% homology compared to ZYMV TW-TN3 strain (AF127929).

EFFECT OF SUCROSE ON OPTIMAL ROOTING OF MUSA SPP. PLANTLETS IN-VITRO CONDITION

By Mehnaz Qamar1*, Sadaf Tabassum Qureshi1 , Imtiaz Ahmed Khan2 Ghulam Shah Nizamani2 and Abida Buriro1

VOL-12 NO-(2)

Abstract

To evaluate the effect of various concentrations of sucrose on in vitro rooting of regenerated banana micro shoots. Three selected Musa varieties GCTCV-215 (AAA), Yangambi (AAA) and FHIA-23 (AAAA) were cultured in half strength MS media supplemented with root promoting growth regulator 1.0 mg/L-1 indole butyric acid (IBA) and different concentrations of sucrose (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 g/L-1). Significant differences (p? 0.05) were noticed in all Musa clones. Results indicated that as compared to control out of different concentrations of sucrose all varieties, showed the maximum number of roots as well as highest root length in MS medium augmented with 40 % and 20 % g/L sucrose respectively. Appropriate result among the varieties, in terms of showing maximum roots was observed in GCTCV-215, followed by Yangambi. Effectual rooting on in vitro is helpful for the successful establishment of these Musa varieties in field condition.

EXPLORATION OF SOMACLONAL VARIATIONS IN ELITE THREE SUGARCANE GENOTYPES

By Sardar Khatoon Solangi1* , Sadaf Tabbsum Qureshi1 , Ghulam Shah Nizamani2 , Abida burio1 and Afsheen Noman1

VOL-12 NO-(2)

Abstract

Sugarcane is commercially important and major cash crop of Pakistan. According to the increasing demand of sugarcane somaclonal variation play vital role to overcome problems for sugarcane breeding. The aim of this study to evaluate genetic variation developed through soma clones and for this purpose three sugarcane genotypes were optimized under in- vitro conditions. In parents all parameters except treatment X concentration and concentration X variety was non-significant for height of cane, number of tillers and width of internodes. In soma clones treatment X concentration was non-significant for number of tillers, internode and width of internodes. As compare this effect of growth hormones and varieties X concentration at width of internodes was again non-significant at p < (0.05) vice versa. According to mean comparison at p < (0.05) LSD revealed all the auxins used positively stimulated number of tillers, height of cane, number of internodes and width of internodes. Somaclonal variation is good source of creating genetic variability in the genotypes of sugarcane and developing new varieties. Maximum genetic improvement was induced in NIA-2012. Minimum genetic improvement was induced in Gulabi- 95. Application of 2, 4-D and picloram were efficient for achieving higher, phenotypical trait, cytological and economic traits of sugarcane soma clones.

OPTIMIZATION OF ENCAPSULATED CLOVE OIL PARTICLE SIZE WITH BIODEGRADABLE SHELL USING DESIGN EXPERT METHODOLOGY

By Mohammad Hassan Shahavi1,2 , Morteza Hosseini1,* , Mohsen Jahanshahi1 , Ghasem Najafpour Darzi1,*

VOL-12 NO-(2)

Abstract

To protect clove oil from volatilization and oxidation, encapsulation in nano scale by biocompatible polymers via ultrasonication emulsification was performed. In order to define an optimal particles size of encapsulated clove oil, a novel crossed experimental design, including mixture design along with the clove oil concentration as process parameter was employed. For this purpose, 28 different formulas by combination of both mixture and process factors were prepared. The encapsulated shell having fixed composition of mixture (20 %): Arabic gum (0-20 %, w/w), whey protein concentrate (0-20 %, w/w) and Tween 80 (0-4 %, w/w) was used. Moreover, the effect of variable content of clove oil (2 to 10 %, w/w) as a core of particles and the remaining of blending is Milli-Q water was investigated. Particles size of all samples, were characterized by dynamic light scattering. Analysis of variance was preformed to analyze experimental data while using stepwise regression analysis. The developed models from the Based on experimental design necessary models were developed; the model having high coefficient of determination (R2=0.995) value; also predicted and fitted well with the experimental data. Finally, from the optimal encapsulating condition obtained particles size of encapsulated of clove oil (128.2 ± 4.3 nm) that was close to predicted value (135.7 nm).

GROWTH PERFORMANCE, NON-SPECIFIC IMMUN AND ANTIOXIDANT RESPONSE OF JUVENILE TILAPIA OREOCROMIS SP. FEEDING ON BREWER’S YEAST SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE SUPPLEMENTED DIET

By Mohamad Amin1,2, Dedi Jusadi*1 , Sukenda1 , Enang Harris1

VOL-12 NO-(2)

Abstract

A triplicate experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of the diet suplemented with brewer's yeast on the growth performance and imune response of nila tilapia Oreocromis sp. Five isonitrogenous (30% crude protein) and isocaloric diets were used in this experiments. As a control, the diet 1 were formulated without any suplementation of glucan and brewer’s yeast; while those diets 2-5 were suplemented with either 0.3% glucan, 3.5% brewer’s yeast, 17.5% brewer’s yeast, and 35% brewer’s yeast respectively. One hundred fish with an initial body weight of 2.4±0.10g were cultured in 2x1x1x1m3 of floating net cages. The fish were fed on the diets at satiation for 6 weeks. At the end of feeding experiment, 20 fish from each net cage were trasferred in to 35x35x40 cm3 of aquarium to perform a challenge test with patogen bacteria Streptococcus agalctiae. Results showed that fish fed on control, 0.3% glucan and 3.5% brewer’s yeast supplemented diets significanly had higer growth rate, feed conversion ratio, and protein retention than others. It was also found that superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of fish was increased when feeding on the diets suplemented with glucan and brewer’s yeast. On the other hand, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity decresed and lipid peroxidation increased in the group of fish on the diets suplemented with 17.5% and 35% of brewer’s yeast. While, the group of fish in 0.3% glucan and 3.5% brewer’s yeast treatment had higer number of total erythrocytes hemoglobin, hematocrite, leukocyte, monocyte as well as phagocytic and lysozyme activities. The fish survival after 12 days challenge test was significantly higer in 0.3% glucan and 3.5% brewer’s yeast teratment. Thus feeding on the diets suplemented with glucan and 3.5% berewer’s yeast could increase the immune response of tilapia by increasing non-specific response of fish phathogen.

MHC I MOLECULAR MARKER INHERITANCE AND FIRST GENERATION CATFISH (CLARIAS SP.) RESISTANCE AGAINST AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA INFECTION

By Azis1,2, Alimuddin3 , Sukenda3 and Muhammad Zairin Jr3

VOL-12 NO-(2)

Abstract

Three groups of A. hydrophila-challenged sangkuriang catfish strain were obtained, namely: resistant (R: no injuries and survive), recover from injuries and survive (L), and dead fish. In the present study, the inheritance of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) 1 marker in the first generation (F1) of catfish and their resistance to A. hydrophila infection were evaluated. The F1 offsprings were produced by crossing female R and male R (abbreviated:RxR), LxL, RxL, LxR, and control fish (C) each was replicated twice (two brood pairs per crossing). Results of the PCR analysis using ClMHAh-01 primer showed that the percentage of F1 progenies from R and L broods carrying MHC I marker ranged between 62.5 and 83.4%. The challenge test with A. hydrophila 106 cfu/mL showed that the survival of F1 fish (76.8-87.0%) was more two times higher than that of C fish. Blood profiles and antibody titer were in line with high resistance of F1 offsprings from R and L broods against A. hydrophila infection. All the results indicated that A. hydrophila resistant catfish can be produced by MHC I marker based selection.

OPTIMIZATION OF PRODUCTION OF PROTEASE BY LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM SK (5) FROM BEKASAM WITH RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

By Nurtika Kurniati1 , Nisa Rachmania Mubarik,2 and Desniar3

VOL-12 NO-(2)

Abstract

Lactobacillus plantarum SK (5) is one of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Indonesia fermented fish know as bekasam. The isolate was chosen to optimize its protease production by using response surface methodology. The aim of this study was to select the composition of medium having the highest specific protease activity produced from L. plantarum SK (5). The variables involved in this study were glucose, peptone, yeast extract, volume of inoculant, and pH. These variables would be optimized by central composite design (CCD) matrix of response surface methodology. The optimal cultural condition for protease production obtained with response surface methodology were glucose 6%, peptone 6%, yeast extract 7.5%, volume of inoculant 3 mL and pH 6.0. The specific protease activity under unoptimized conditions was 3.615 U/mg protein. Under the final optimized conditions, the predicted response from protease production was 6.393 U/mg protein and the observed validated experiment value was 6.503U/mg protein. The optimization of the production of protease with response surface methodology resulted in about two folds increase in the production of protease by L. plantarum SK (5).

EFFECTS OF PHENYLLACTIC ACID COMBINATION WITH WAX COATING ON POSTHARVEST QUALITY AND STORAGE LIFE OF VIETNAMESE SWEET ORANGE CV. CANH

By Huyen Nguyen Thu1,3 , Thuy Bui Kim3 and Sarunya Nalumpang2

VOL-12 NO-(2)

Abstract

Effects of phenyllactic acid (PLA) in combination with mixed bees wax and carnauba wax (MW) on postharvest quality and storage life of Vietnamese sweet orange cv. Canh were studied by soaking fruit in 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0% PLA, and then coating with 8% MW fruit. Non-treated fruit were used as the control. Percentage of fruit decay and weight loss; total microorganisms; total soluble solids content (TSS) and titrable acidity were monitored during the storage period. The results showed that PLA at a concentration of 2.5% in association with 8% MW coating had strong antifungal activity against Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. and were able to completely inhibit the growth of green mold Penicillium sp. infection in sweet orange cv. Canh. Moreover, the percentage of fruit decay, weight loss, TSS content were reduced; and total microorganisms, titrable acidity increased by PLA during the storage period. The shelf-life of the control fruit was only 10 d compared with 25 d for the PLA-treated fruit when fruit were stored at ambient temperature.

OPTIMIZATION OF PROTOCORM-LIKE BODIES TISSUE CULTURE AND CLONAL PROPAGATION CONDITIONS FOR ENDANGERED LADY’S SLIPPER ORCHID (Paphiopedilum niveum (Rchb.f.) Stein)

By Supornchai Chaireok1* , Kanchit Thammasiri2 and Upatham Meesawat1

VOL-12 NO-(2)

Abstract

Paphiopedilum niveum (Rchb. f.) Stein is an endangered orchid species and has been listed in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) Appendix I. Its propagation has been limited due to the fact that the explants are difficult to maintain in culture. The present study was to evaluate clonal propagation of P. niveum from two explant types; protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) and callus. For PLB proliferation, PLB clumps were cultured on modified Vacin and Went (VW) medium supplemented with coconut water (CW) (0, 10%) and Phytagel (0%, 0.1% and 0.2%). The highest increase in fresh weight (159.40±5.40 mg) was obtained on VW medium containing 10% CW and 0.2% Phytagel. For induction of PLBs-derived callus, the PLBs clumps were cultured on modified VW solid medium supplemented with 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) (0, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L) in combination with thidiazuron (TDZ) (0, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/L) for 2 months. The highest increase in fresh weigh of callus (312.70±59.61 mg) was obtained on medium containing 0.5 mg/L 2, 4-D and 0.1 mg/L TDZ. Then, PLBs-derived callus were proliferated on VW solid medium supplemented with coconut water (CW) (0, 10 and 15%) and sucrose (0, 10 and 15 g/L). The highest callus growth index (0.56±0.06) was achieved from the medium containing 10% CW and 15 g/L sucrose. These proliferated PLBs-derived callus could be reinduced to form PLBs and eventually healthy plantlets.

GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF PACIFIC WHITE SHRIMP Litopenaeus vannamei LARVAE FED PREBIOTIC AND PROBIOTIC THROUGH ARTEMIA

By Widanarni* , Yanti Inneke Nababan and Munti Yuhana

VOL-12 NO-(2)

Abstract

This study aimed at determining the effect of prebiotic, probiotic and synbiotic enrichment through artemia on survival, growth and stress tolerance of Pacific white shrimp larvae. The life stage of Pacific white shrimp larvae used in this study was the nauplius 6 with an average weight of 0.6±0.08 mg/larvae and the treatment was started at mysis 1. The shrimp larvae were reared in a jar with a total water volume of two liters and at a density of 100 larvae/l. The study consisted of four treatments and three replicates: control, prebiotic, probiotic and synbiotic. The stress test with 200 ppm of formalin solution was performed after the larvae reached the post-larvae 10 stage. The results showed that synbiotic enrichment through artemia had the highest survival rate (41.50±3.61%), daily growth rate (17.55 ± 0.65%) and the lowest mortality rate when tested with 200 ppm formalin solution (33.33 ± 10.41%).

BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM ANAEROBIC CO-DIGESTION OF CASSAVA EFFLUENT AND HUMAN URINE

By Edith Nazo Kpata-Konan 1,2 , Théophile Gnagne 3,4 , Félix Koffi Konan 5,6,* , Martin Kouamé Kouamé 4,5 , Francis Yao Kouamé 1,2 and Kablan Tano 7

VOL-12 NO-(2)

Abstract

This study investigated anaerobic co-digestion of cassava liquid waste (Highly acidic with low nitrogen) and human urine (basic and rich in nitrogen). This method greatly contributes to the production of biogas. The digester operating in batch and continuous mode using cassava effluent + human urine + cow dung. The operation of the batch digester showed good purification with removal of the COD, nitrogen retention and fuel gas production of 192 m3 with average of 80.75% methane. The operation of the digester Continuous revealed a biogas production of 166.45 m3 with 61.23% methane. Biogas production remains remarkable whatever the mode of operation and the biogas used to cook attiéké, will reduce the use of firewood for cooking attiéké.

BIOSYNTHESIS OF ALPHA AMYLASE FROM ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS (FRESENIUS 1863) IN SUBMERGED FERMENTATION

By Kashif Ahmed1*, Ehsan Elahi Valeem2 , Muhammad Ansar Khan3 and Qamar-ul-Haq4

VOL-12 NO-(2)

Abstract

In the present work optimization of some parameters for alpha amylase production by Aspergillus fumigatus (Fresenius 1863) in submerged fermentation were studied. Various agricultural based by-products (sunflower waste, cotton stalk, rice husk, date syrup and molasses) were used as sources of carbon. Optimal conditions for the production of ?-amylase (7.01 U/mL) by A. Fumigates were observed when the strainwas grownonculture medium (M1) containing casein as a source of nitrogen, molasses as a source of carbon after 72 h of incubation at initial pH 5.5, temperature 35° C, inoculum size of 6x106 conidia in 50 mL of culture medium and agitation rate of 150 rev/min.The strain was proved thermo (up to 60° C) and pH (up to 9.0) stable so it might be a potential strain for industrial utilization.

Acknowledgment of Reviewers

The Chief Editor, Pak. J. Biotechnol. is very grateful to the following scientists who dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal by serving as reviewers from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015 for Vol. 12 No. 1 and 2, 2015.
Prof. Dr. Alexandre Semenov Moscow, Russia
Prof. Dr. Atef S. SadikTaif, Saudi Arabia
Prof. Dr. Sher Muhammed MangrioUni. Of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Jian He XuShanghai, China
Dr. Mostaf RahimnejadBabool Univ., I. R. Iran
Dr. Muhammed RafiqUni. Of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan
Dr. Muhammed Yakoub KhanUni. Of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan
Dr. S. Habib Ahmed NaqviUni. Of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan
Dr. Mehboob Ali SialNIA Tando Jam, Pakistan
Dr. Altaf Ahmed SimairShanghai, China
Dr. Nisa Rachmania MubarikBogor Agri. Univ. Indonesia
Dr. Wei MaShaghai, China
Dr. Virginia SerenelliArgentina
Dr. Hamid MukhtiarGC University, Lahore, Pakistan
Dr. Muhammed Umar DahotUniv. of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan