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EDITORIAL BOARD

2015

CELLULASES PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER GROWN ON MEDIUM CONTAINING ACID PRETREATED AGRO WASTES AS CARBON SOURCE.

By M. Uris Sial# , M. Umar Dahot* and M. Hanif Noomrio

VOL-12 NO-(1)

Abstract

In this study agricultural wastes such as sugarcane peeler bagasse, sugarcane bagasse of industry, banana fruit stalk, sorghum husk and rice husk were hydrolyzed with 0.6N HNO3 and the fermentable sugars were incorporated in mineral medium as a carbon source for the growth of Aspergillus niger and production of cellulases using submerged fermentation method. The maximum production (10.89 units/ml) of CM-cellulase was obtained at 240 hours of incubation when banana fruit stalk hydrolysate was used as a carbon source. The cellobiose and salicinase maximum production 4.855 and 4.198 units/ml were obtained at 24 and 240 hours respectively when sugar cane peeler and rice husk hydrolysate used as a carbon source. Maximum cell growth 0.402g/100ml of Aspergillus niger was observed at pH 7.62 in case of hydrolyzed rice husk used as a carbon source. The total sugar and reducing sugars were decrease with the growth of Aspergillus niger in all carbon sources..

POTENTIAL OF SOME RHIZOSPHERIC BACTERIAL STRAINS TO MANAGE BACTERIAL WILT OF TOMATO

By TehminaAnjum, WaheedAkram* and Sabin Fatima

VOL-12 NO-(1)

Abstract

Bacterial wilt induced by ‘Ralastonia solanacerum’ is a major constraint in vegetable production worldwide. In this study, potential of some rhizospheric bacterial strains to manage bacterial wilt disease under greenhouse was evaluated. The strains were applied by soil drench method. Strains PM12 and PM29 provided maximum controls and reduced disease index up to 70% on tomato plants, compared with the pathogen control. These two strains also induced tomato plants for higher inducible production of defense related biochemicals like total phenolics, peroxidase (PO), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) when were used to inoculate the root. Furthermore these strains significantly promoted growth of tomato under greenhouse conditions. Taken all together, the present study concludes that these two strains have great potential to manage bacterial wilt of tomato and can be successfully used in our conventional agriculture system.

EVALUATION OF SOME LOCAL WHEAT LANDRACES TREATED WITH DIFFERENT DOSES OF GAMMA RAYS IN SAUDI ARABIA

By Majed M.A. Albokari*, Abdulmajeed J. khashoggi, Mohammed A. Almuwalid

VOL-12 NO-(1)

Abstract

Radiation-induced mutagenesis is playing a vital role in the development of improved crop varieties including wheat worldwide. Gamma irradiations (?) in mutation breeding are a quicker method in creation of genetic variability to improve many complex characters in cereals. M3 mutation generation of six wheat landraces Halba Al-qassim, Missani, Samrra Najran, Samma, Nukrat Zahran and Mabyat Alnamas originated from 3 different doses of gamma rays (50?, 100? and 150?Gy) were evaluated along with control under pothouse experiment at Al-Mozahimiyah Research Station, King Abdul Aziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The effects of different doses of gamma rays were studied for various yield associated traits. The results obtained from the present study showed that the varieties significantly and variably differed in their response for various traits at different gamma rays doses. The traits number of seeds per spike, weight of seeds per spike and plant height (with and without awns) showed reduction with higher gamma irradiation (150 Gy) doses as compared to low doses. Some of the traits showed improvement due to the induced mutations could be used in future wheat breeding.

AMPLIFICATION, CLONING AND EXPRESSION OF THE REG3 ? GENE FROM MOUSE PANCREAS

By Tehmina Siddique, Fazli Rabbi Awan*, Syeda Sadia Najam, Abdul Rehman Khan, Javed Anver Qureshi, Mohsin Khurshid, Mehboob Islam, Maryam Zain.

VOL-12 NO-(1)

Abstract

Introduction: Reg proteins are a group of regenerating proteins which are implicated in the pancreas developmental biology. The aim of the study was to explore suitable conditions for cloning and expression of this recombinant protein that can ultimately be explored in further studies for testing its potential as a promising therapeutic for diabetes by inducing regeneration/neogenesis of pancreatic beta cells. Methodology: Total RNA was isolated from BALB/C mouse pancreas, cDNA was synthesized and Reg3 ? gene was amplified with gene specific primers. A recombinant plasmid (pET28a vector) was constructed with Reg3 ? gene. Recombinant protein was expressed in BL21 (DE3) strain in LB media. Expressed protein was isolated and separated on 12% SDS-PAGE. Results: Clones were confirmed with restriction and colony PCR and SDS-PAGE confirmed the 16 kDa band in IPTG induced samples. Further work for the purification of this protein will be pursued in future.

PROXIMATE, FATTY ACID AND HEAVY METAL COMPOSITION OF SWAMP WATER FISH IN TANAH LAUT, SOUTH KALIMANTAN

By Suseno S.H., Singgih Bayu Utomo, Roni Nugraha, Neng Tanty Sofyana, Sri Hayati and Saraswati

VOL-12 NO-(1)

Abstract

In present study, chemical, fatty acid, and heavy metal compositions were determined for five species of swamp water fish from Tanah Laut, South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Chemical composition was found to be 15.85-21.74% protein, 0.45-3.24% fat, 0.99- 4.13% ash, and 74.23-78.84% water, whereas the fatty acid compositions consisted of 0.04-19.99% saturated fatty acids (SFA), 0.79-19.66% monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and 0.05-4.7% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Among them, those occurring in the highest proportions were lauric acid (C12:0, 0.04-0.1%), myristic acid (C14:0, 0.51-1.03%), palmitoleic acid (C16:1, 0.79-2.67%), linolenic acid (C18:3, 0.18-3.09%), arachidonic acid (C20:4, 1.18-3.19%), linoleic acid (C18:2, 1.31-4.7%), stearic acid (C18:0, 5.86-10.62%), oleic acid (C18:1, 5.19-19.66%), palmitic acid (C16:0, 8.86- 19.99 %), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5,n-3 0.05-1.53%), docosahexaenoic (DHA, C22:6,n-3 0.41- 1.97%). The rest of heavy metals contents including lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were not detected.

ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND DEHAIRING ACTIVITY OF INDONESIAN NATIVE KERATINOLYTIC BACTERIA EXIGUOBACTERIUM SP. DG1

By Jajang Gumilar1 , Suharjono Triatmojo2 , Lies Mira Yusiati2 , Ambar Pertiwiningrum2 , and Eddy Supriyono2

VOL-12 NO-(1)

Abstract

The objective of this work was to isolate and identify keratinolytic bacteria from soil containing sheep hair and sheep tannery waste, which has the potential of removing hair in the tanning process. The bacterial identifications were conducted using 16S rRNA gene sequencing method. Also the bacteria were examined using morphological and biochemical studies. To determine the ability of the enzymes, the study used casein hydrolysis, keratinase, collagenase, and dehairing activity test. The experimental research was conducted in the laboratory applying a completely randomized design and was analyzed using Duncan's New Multiple Range Test. The results showed that the isolate number one has the highest casein hydrolysis (2.88) and keratinolityc activity (2.87 U/ml) but performed the lowest collagenase activity (0.59 U/ml). This isolate was identified as Exiguobacterium sp. DG1 (LC008359), which has potential use for biotechnological process to remove hair in the leather tanning process.

EFFECT OF PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA (BACILLOUS MEGA THERIUM) AND PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF WHTEAT

By Niaz Ali Sial, M.Y. Memon, S.A. Abro, J.A.Shah, N.D. Depar and M. Abbas

VOL-12 NO-(1)

Abstract

A field study was conducted to investigate the effects and significance of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (Bacillus megatherium) and different levels of phosphate fertilizer on yield and yield components of wheat. Different microbial inoculums levels were used alone and combined with P fertilizer. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) in three replications using seven different treatments (bacteria alone and with various P combinations). Data was recorded on plant height (cm), number of spikelets/spike, number of grains/spike, plant yield (g), 1000-grain weight (g), biological yield (kg/ha) and grain yield (kg/ha). The bacteria were counted in one gram of soil at the depth of 0-15 and 15-30 (cm) after two week sowing and after harvesting of the crop. The results showed that the grain yield was significantly increased (3450 kg/ha) at T4 (90 kg p/ha, whereas, non-significant difference for grain yield (2385 and 2390 kg/ha respectively) was observed among T2 (40 kg/ha) and T5 (phosphobacteria 25 ml/kg of seed). The lowest grain yield (1180 kg/ha) was recorded in control. The results suggested that at T5 (phosphobacteria 25 ml/kg of seed) could produce reasonable and economic yield.

EFFECT OF FRUIT DIPPING IN SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE AND OXALIC ACID THEN COATING IN BEES-CARNAUBA MIXED WAX ON PEEL BROWNING AND DECAY OF VIETNAMESE LONGAN FRUIT

By Le Ha Hai1,2 and Jamnong Uthaibutra3

VOL-12 NO-(1)

Abstract

The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of sodium hypochlorite (SH) and oxalic acid (OA) dipping in combination with bees-carnauba mixed wax (MW) coating on decay and peel browning of Vietnamese longan fruit cv. Long. The experiments were firstly carried out by dipping fruits in 200 ppm SH solution for 2 min, and then dipping in 7.5% OA solution for 5 min. After drying in the shade, dipped fruits were coated in 4 and 6% MW for 30 seconds, and stored at 5±1ºC for 30 days. Untreated fruits were used as control. Peel browning, peel color, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, total microorganisms, percentage of fruit decay, fruit weight loss, and total soluble solids (TSS) content were monitored during the storage period. It was found that dipped fruits coated in 6% MW had delayed peel browning and fruit decay for 25 days in storage, and the TSS content remained unchanged. Moreover, the fruits maintained low PPO activity, low total microorganism levels and low weight loss. This result suggests that application of 200 ppm SH, 7.5% OA and 6% MW could be feasible for longan fruits storage on a commercial scale.

MAKING CHITOSAN EDIBLE COATING FROM MARINE INVERTEBRATES WASTE AND ITS APPLICATION AS NATURAL PRESERVATIVE IN SALTED FISH PROCESSING

By Suseno S.H* ., Suptijah P, Esminingtyas R, Sofyana N.T., Hayati S. and Saraswati

VOL-12 NO-(1)

Abstract

Chitosan is a cationic polysaccharide which can be used as food preservative and applied as edible coating. This research aimed to determine chitosan level for salted fish preservation, to determine change of dried fish included microbiological analysis (TPC), chemicals (Aw), TBA, proximate and organoleptic test. for several weeks. The results of this study are 1.5% chitosan treatment appearance better than the usual treatment of formalin and salting, salted fish products with 1.5% chitosan treatment did not different with salinity and formalin treatment, fungi was not seen after 6 weeks of storage of 1.5% chitosan treatment, whereas in normal salting the 4th week already visible, durable power of salted fish in the treatment of chitosan may be preserved up to 3 months whereas durable power of normal salted fish was 2 months and formalin treatment 3 months 2 weeks.

COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF ALKALINE PROTEASE PRODUCTION IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION: TRAY BIOREACTOR AND FLASK

By Fatemeh Pouryafar, Ghasem D. Najafpour*, Mohsen Jahanshahi

VOL-12 NO-(1)

Abstract

In this study, production of protease in solid state fermentation using Bacillus licheniformis was investigated. Fermentation was carried out in batch and semi-bath systems including flask and tray bioreactor. Wheat bran, rice bran and mixtures of both agro-wastes were used as substrate. Maximum enzyme production was obtained using wheat bran as sole substrate with high activity of 798.83, 776.91 and 562.11U/gds for top, middle trays and flask, respectively. Results showed that optimum incubation time of 48h was defined. Enzyme production was evaluated with different incubating temperatures and initial moisture content of solid substrates. Maximum protease activity was observed at 35 and 40?C for the tray bioreactor and flask, respectively. The obtained results showed that maximum protease production was achieved with substrate initial moisture of 150, 200 and 150% for the flask, top and middle trays, respectively. In addition, the enzyme activity was improved by supplementary substrate such as corn meal as an inducer, which gave protease activities of 678, 830 and 940U/gds, for flask, middle and top trays, respectively.

THE QUALITY ENHANCEMENT OF AGAR EXTRACTED FROM GRACILARIA VERRUCOSA CULTURED IN VARIOUS CONDITIONS OF POSTHARVEST PERIODS

By Eka Rosyida1,2 , Enang H. Surawidjaja2*, Sugeng H. Suseno2 , and Eddy Supriyono2

VOL-12 NO-(1)

Abstract

This study was aimed to evaluate the quality of agar extracted from the red seaweed, Gracilaria verrucosa upon postharvest culture treatments. After harvesting from the culture medium (0d), the seaweed were subjected to postharvest culture in the dark in salinity of 20 % (ambient) and 30% (salinity increased) for 3, 8 and 12 days respectively. Each treatment was in triplicate. Results indicated that 8d (20 %) and 3d (30 %) treatments had improved the agar content and reached approximately 40% more than harvested algae before postharvest treatments (0d). The gel strength had a significant increase in 3d and 8d of both 20% and 30%. The sulphate and ash content of the agar was lower in 3d (20%) and 8d (30 %) than others in each group and all treatments carried out in dark with salinity of 30% produced agar with lower water content when compare to dark with salinity of 20%. It indicates that postharvest treatments in general may perform good agar properties. Hence, the application of postharvest culture in the dark, either in ambient or increased salinity may reasonable to enhance the quality of G. verrucosa.