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EDITORIAL BOARD

2014

OPTIMIZATION OF SARDINE (SARDINELLASP.) OIL REFINING USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHOD (RSM)

By Sugeng Heri Suseno1 , Jeny Tambunan, Bustami Ibrahim, Saraswati, Sri Hayati and Ayu Fitri Izaki

VOL-11 NO-(1)

Abstract

RSM (Response Surface Method) is a set of mathematical techniques and statistics that are useful to analyze the problems so that the level of response was influenced by several variables. This research aimed to determine the optimal treatment of sardine (Sardinella sp.) oil refining through centrifugation and adsorption. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the optimum treatment was centrifugation at 9494.89 rpm for 31.48 minutes with addition of combined adsorbents attapulgite and bentonite (1:1) 3%. The optimum point resulted a peroxide value at 2.97 meq/Kg, p-anisidine value at 0.81 meq/Kg, totox value at 6.32 meq/kg, and free fatty acid at 4.07%

DETERMINATION OF FATTY ACIDS AND ELEMENTS FROM COCONUT (COCOS NUCIFERA) SHELL

By Nasreen K. Thebo1 , Altaf A. Simair2 *, Wazir A. Sheikh1 , Sher M. Mangrio1 , Pirkash L. Nagni3 , Sughra G. Mangrio2 and Hassan M. Nizamani4

VOL-11 NO-(1)

Abstract

GCMS analysis showed twenty eight fatty acids, 12 n-octanoate, dodecanotic acid, n-hexadecanoic acid, n-heptaecenoate, tridecatrienoate acid methyl-2-tridecynote and essential elements were isolated from the shell of Cocos nucifera viz., along with calcium, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, potassium, magnesium, manganese, nickel and zinc. Present study revealeds that accumulation of tetradeconic acid was higher among saturated fatty acids among metals magnesium and iron (593.06 42.17, 997.9 52.25) respectively were highest following by low accumulation of lead (1.46 0.21) was recorded in coconut shell.

THE OIL EXTRACTION FROM EEL (ANGUILLA BICOLOR BICOLOR) BONE AS BY-PRODUCT FROM KABAYAKI PROCESSING INDUSTRY

By Irfan Syahbana and Sugeng Heri Suseno*

VOL-11 NO-(1)

Abstract

Fish oils have been recognized as good sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which are widely used for pharmaceutical purposes and as food supplements. In this study, fish oil from eels (Angguilla bicolor bicolor) bone were extracted using a Bligh and Dyer methods. The fatty acid composition of the oil was analyzed and quantified using gas chromatography. Results showed that the total yield of by-product of Eel (Anguilla bicolor bicolor) reached 26,38 %, the lipid content of eels bone was 17.33 0.58 g/100 g. Yield of eel bone oil extracted by Bligh and Dyer method was 17.12%. In the fatty acid analysis of eel bone oil, it was discovered that SFA was 19.87%, MUFA was 25.84%, and PUFA was 13.84%. The major fatty acids in the oil from the bone were palmitic acid (13.58%), oleic acid (20.94%), linoleic acid (4.01%), EPA (1.57%), and DHA (4.84%).

IN VITRO REGENERABILITY OF DIFFERENT SUGARCANE (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM L.) VARIETIES THROUGH SHOOT TIP CULTURE

By Mangrio G. Sughra, Simair A. Altaf1*, Rind M. Rafique , Mangrio S. Muhammad2 , Shereen N. Rind Balouch3 and Dahot M. Umar

VOL-11 NO-(1)

Abstract

An experiment was conducted to develop an efficient protocol for micropropagation of sugarcane using the method of growing shoot tips of three varieties of sugarcane viz. BL-4, Thatta-10, and Larkana-2001. A protocol for the regeneration of direct shoot without the intervention of the callus phase was developed using shoot tip culture in a basic medium of Murashige and Skoog (MS) supplemented with different concentrations of auxin (NAA) and cytokinin (BAP). The analysis of variance due to varieties, concentration and variety x concentration interaction was significant for all characters. In general, the best results were seen from the BL-4 and Thatta-10 varieties with 1.0 mg/L BAP and 3.0 mg/L NAA for various parameters. Different concentrations of BAP for shoot initiation and multiplication were used and 1.0 mg/L BAP showed the most effective concentration for induction and shoot multiplication, while MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of NAA for in vitro formation of roots from proliferated shoots, the maximum root formation on MS medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/L NAA was recorded. However, BL-4 had high power (85.3 %) of regenerating from explants took minimum (11.00) days for shoot induction and gave highest number of shootlets (6.50) with maximum length of shootlets (5.50 cm) by 1.0 mg/L BAP. For root induction BL-4 variety produced higher number of roots per shootlet (6.80) after minimum 9 days with maximum length of the roots (2.50 cm) at 3.0 mg/L NAA.

BATCH AND CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF LACTIC ACID USING LACTOBACILLUS BULGARICUS (ATCC 8001)

By Hamidreza Ghafouri Taleghania , Ghasem D. Najafpoura* , Ali Asghar Ghoreyshib

VOL-11 NO-(1)

Abstract

In this work lactic acid was produced in batch and continuous fermentation processes. The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of initial substrate concentration (30-120 g/l) and hydraulic retention time (HRT: 10-40 h) on cell growth, lactose utilization and lactic acid production. Whey lactose was used in batch and continuous systems; obtained results were compared. Substrate and product inhibitions were investigated at high initial substrate concentration. The results of continuous system indicate that production of lactic acid has increased with an increase in HRT along with increasing substrate concentration. The optimum initial lactose concentration for maximal lactic acid production in batch and continuous fermentation were found to be 90 and 120 g/l, respectively. The maximum concentrations of lactic acid in batch and continuous cultures were 32.1 and 42.9 g/l, respectively. The results showed that optimal lactic acid production was obtained at HRT of 30 hours. Mathematical projection model and kinetic studies for lactic acid production in batch cultures were performed. It was found that initial lactose concentration of 60g/l resulted in maximum specific growth rate of 0.215h-1 .