USE OF MOLASSES AS A CARBON SOURCE FOR THE GROWTH OF FUNGI AND PRODUCTION OF PECTINASE
By Mangrio G.Sughra, Dahot, M. Umar and Simair, A. Ahmed
Present study was carried out to utilize sugar industry byproduct (molasses) as a carbon source for the growth of different fungi and production of pectinase enzyme. Four types of fungi (P. lilacinum, M. geophillus, A. niger and A. fumigatus) were used in this study. The maximum production rate of pectinase was observed by A. niger when grown in 2.5% and 5% molasses in comparison to other fungi used. Highest rate of pectinase 10.13units/ml was produced after 72 hours when A. niger was grown on 5% molasses.
COMPARATIVE ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) AND GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE) IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED MALE RABBITS
By Nadir Ali Rind., M. Umar Dahot, S.A Malik, M. Kumar M.A Bhutto and M. Rafiq
This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Garlic (Allium sativum) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) aqueous extracts on serum glucose, cholesterol, urea levels and body weight in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic male rabbits. Before alloxan monohydrate (120mg/kg) introduction rabbits were left in fasting condition till twelve hours. After seven days of alloxan monohydrate induction diabetes mellitus was confirmed animals with fasting serum glucose level ? 250mg/dl and were considered as diabetes. In whole experimental work twelve male rabbits were selected divided in to four groups and each group contains three male rabbits 1st and 2nd group normal and diabetic control 3rd to 4th group containing male rabbits were treated with 1% garlic and ginger aqueous extract to check the comparison between them against serum glucose and their variable effects on serum cholesterol, serum urea and body weight. Blood serum was used to determine all selected biochemical parameters, on every third day. It was observed that 1% Garlic and ginger aqueous extract controlled 51% and 45.26% glucose, 35.29% and 21.95% cholesterol, 46.22% and 21.69% urea level and body weight gradually increased in alloxan induced diabetic male rabbits. It is observed in the present investigation that oral administration of garlic and ginger aqueous extracts are hypoglycemic agents but according to the results garlic is the best hypoglycemic agent, which also controlled cholesterol and urea level more than ginger in alloxaninduced diabetic male rabbits
INVESTIGATION OF DIFFERENT MEDIATORS IN MICROBIAL FUEL CELL WITH CYCLIC VOLTAMMETER
By Mostafa Rahimnejad* 1 , Ghasem. D. Najafpour1 , A.A Ghoreyshi1 , Gholamreza Bakeri1 , Farid Talebnia1 , Sang-Eun Oh3
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are new bioprocess method for conversion of chemical energy in organic matters to bioelectricity. In some MFCs produced electrons can travels to anode surface directly and need some artificial component to transfer the produced electron to anode surface. This paper tries to highlight different mediators that have been used as electron mediators in the MFCs in recent years. In this research study, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 was used for power production in an anaerobic condition. Methylene blue, thionine, humic acid, potassium fericyanide and neutral red at different concentrations (50 to 500µmoll-1 ) are selected and analyzed with several concentrations as mediators. Cyclic voltammetry use to study of anodic electrochemistry analysis. All experiment carry out in aerobic an anaerobic condition but at aerobic condition did not obtain significance peak. The obtained results demonstrate that NR has better ability for transfer of electron in this study.
MOLECULAR EVALUATION OF D GENOME BASED DOUBLE HAPLOID MAPPING POPULATION OF WHEAT USING SSR PRIMERS
By Misbah Safdar1 , Hadi Bux2*, Alvina Gul Kazi3 , Abdul Wajid Channa2 , Ahmad Ali4 , Zahid Akram1 and A.Mujeeb-Kazi5
A molecular diversity analysis of 20 double haploid (DH) plants from a double haploid Mapping Population (MP, its parents, i.e., Opata M-85 (drought susceptible, 2n=6x=42) and a Synthetic Hexaploid (SH-257, 2n=6x=42, drought tolerant) and local drought tolerant cultivars Nesser, Zarghoon and Margalla was carried out using simple sequence repeats (SSR) primers designed for D genome of Wheat. A total of 59 SSR primers yielded a total of 177 polymorphic bands in the size ranged from 50 to 900 bp. Cluster analyses demonstrated that the genotypes from MP were genetically distinct from local drought tolerant cultivars and its parents Opata M-85 and SH-257. The 7 best DHs of the mapping population with ample genetic distance were 2 (85.80%), 9 and 15 (74.19%), 18 and 20 (66.67%), 1 (63.00%) and 14 (62.31%) and the genetic distance of these DHs was almost similar or better than the genetic distance of SH-257 (65.20%). Genetic distance of local drought tolerant cultivars; Nesser (42.17%), Margalla-99 (42.17%) and Zarghoon (58.49%) was less than SH-257(65.20%). Opata M-85 with genetic distance of 83.49% was found to be distinct from SH-256 and its population. Ample diversity in double haploid mapping populations of wheat can be of tremendous use for wheat improvement.
COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT DOSES OF PLANT GROWTH HORMONES ON CALLUS INDUCTION AND REGENERATION IN SUGARCANE
By Simair A. Altaf**+, Mangrio G. Sughra*, Wain M. Shahbaz*, Thebo K. Nasreen***, Mangrio Sher M.*** and Dahot M. Umar**
Sheath rolls of three sugarcane cultivars (BL-4, Gulabi-95 and NIA-2004) were grown for callus induction and subsequent in vitro plant regeneration on basic medium containing Murashige and Skoog (MS) supplementd with different concentrations of 2, 4- D for callus induction. Media comprised of MS+BAP and MS+NAA+Kin with various concentrations for shoot induction and root induction respectively. Maximum callus was obtained with MS+5.0 mg/L 2,4-D. Shoot induction was best at MS+2.0 mg/L BAP and best root induction was observed at MS+NAA at 2.0 mg/l + 1.25 mg/L Kinetin.
INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF AZADIRACHTIN RELATED LIMONOIDS FROM CALLUS AND CELLS SUSPENSION BIOMASS EXTRACTS OF NEEM AGAINST JASSIDS, WHITEFLY AND THRIPS
By Muhammad Rafiq*, Muhammad Umar Dahot, Syed Habib Ahmed Naqvi, and Nadir Ali
The efficacy of callus extracts (CE) and cells suspensions biomass extracts (SBE) of Neem was tested against three sucking insects of cotton including jassids (Amrasca biguttula Ishida), thrips (Thrips tabaci) and whitflies (Bemisia tabaci Genn). The callus and cells suspension cultures were raised on previously optimized MS medium supplemented with 1.0mg/L of BAP and 2,4-D and NAA. In different treatments, cotton leaves were sprayed with different dilutions (T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and C) of callus extracts (CE) and cells suspensions biomass extracts (SBE) and test insects were infested in Petri dishes. The dilutions T1 (1:10 v/v extract: dist H2O) and T2 (1:100 v/v extract: dist H2O) of both CE and SBE showed highly significant results with 100% mortality rate after two days of infestation. The dilution T3 (1:1000 v/v extract: dist H2O) also showed significant results with 64-94% mortality followed by T4 (1:10000 v/v extract: dist H2O) with 28-80% mortality after five days of infestation. The dilution T5 (1:100000 v/v extract: dist H2O) initially showed small mortality response and growth inhibition during first three days and then increase in insects population was noted on fourth and fifth days. Similarly 10–20% insects population was increased in negative control (C) treated with dist H2O.
NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATIONS AS A RADIOACTIVE TOOL FOR RAPID DETECTION OF BANANA BUNCHY TOP VIRUS
By Allam, E.K.1 ; J.L. Dale2 ; Sohair I. El-Afifi1 ; R.M. Harding2 and A.S. Sadik1,2,3
Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD) caused by banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) was radioactively detected by nucleic acid hybridization techniques. Results showed that, 32P-labelled insert of pBT338 was hybridized with nucleic acid extracts from BBTV-infected plants from Egypt and Australia but not with those from CMV-infected plants from Egypt. Results revealed that BBTV was greatly detected in midrib, roots, meristem, corm, leaves and pseudostem respectively. BBTV was also detected in symptomless young plants prepared from diseased plant materials grown under tissue culture conditions but was not present in those performed from healthy plant materials. The sensitivity of dot blot and Southern blot hybridizations for the detection of BBTV was also performed for the detection of BBTV.
Acknowledgment of Reviewers
|Prof. Dr. Alexandre Semenov||Moscow, Russia|
|Prof. Dr. Atef S. Sadik||Taif, Saudi Arabia|
|Prof. Dr. Sher Muhammed Mangrio||Uni. Of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan|
|Prof. Dr. Jian He Xu||Shanghai, China|
|Dr. Sedky Hassan Aly Hassan||Kangwon-do, South Korea|
|Dr. S. A. Anitha Christy||Houston, USA|
|Dr. Muhammed Rafiq||Uni. Of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan|
|Dr. S. Habib Ahmed Naqvi||Uni. Of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan|
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