THE DISTRIBUTION OF FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA IN UMM QASR AND KHOR AL- ZUBAIR – BASRAH/ IRAQ
By Asaad M. R. Al-Taee1 Wesal F. Hassan2
Maintenance of the microbiological quality of water has been used as an important means for preventing waterborne disease throughout the twentieth century. The commonest microbiological tests done on water are for coliforms and Escherichia coli (or faecal coliform). In this study 432 samples were taken for total and fecal coliforms and biological demand oxygen. The samples were collected at 12 stations from Khor Al-Zubair and Um Qasr port / Basrah- Iraq. From each site three samples were taken from different depths (surface, middle and bottom). The samples were collected in four periods at 6 hours during April- May 2009. Results indicated that the logarethmic no. of total coliforms ranged from (2.18- 2.84) CFU/100ml, while the logarethmic no. of fecal coliforms ranged from (0.86- 1.94) CFU/100ml. The biological oxygen demand (BOD5) values ranged from (16.47- 20.07) mg/L. These reults indicated that the recipient environment was polluted and poses a great concern.
BIOCHEMICAL, HAEMATOLOGICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES ON BROILER CHICKS FED SINGLE CELL PROTEIN BIOMASS BY PENICILLIUM EXPANSUM
By M. Yakoub Khan, S.H. Ahmed Naqvi* and M. Umar Dahot*
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding diet containing single cell protein of Penicillium expansum on broiler chicks. Single cell protein was used at a level of 10 % dry mass mixed with basal diet, showed that weight gain improved for chicks. After four weeks feeding trial, the chickens were slaughtered to study the carcass characteristics. The serum samples, cellular portion of blood and the tissues of major organs were used for the biochemical, hematological and histological analysis respectively. The hematological parameters particularly Hb and RBC no longer influenced significantly (p>0.05) by diet effect except for WBC (p0.05) and LDH (p0.05) values did not significantly differ between these groups. The waste metabolites (Urea, creatinine, Uric acid p>0.05), electrolytes (sodium, potassium, bicarbonates calcium p>0.05 and chloride p0.05) were not significantly affected by supplemented diet. The A/G ratio (p0.05) in both the groups having no major change during growth. No pathological changes were observed in the organs (Liver, heart, kidney and pancreas) of broiler chickens fed on single cell protein biomass. The chicks on single cell protein based diet had blood profile; hematology and histology were comparable with the chicks fed basal diet except the few parameters like enzymes (amylase, ALP, CPK, and LDH) and the globulin. Consequently, we can suggest that the SCP of Penicillium expansum has a promoting effect on the growth, weight gained and the death ratio of the chicks was rare.
FACTORS AFFECTING THE RHAMNOLIPID BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION
By M. Irfan Maqsood* and Asif Jamal**
Rhamnolipids are the best studied glycolipids having excellent surface activity. Their utilization in various application areas of environment, health, food, cosmetic, oil industry etc., have made it the potential candidates that could replace the chemically synthesized surfactants because these are derived from the natural source, in a pure form and they have low toxicity levels. The production of rhamnolipids dependent on several environmental and nutritional factors and the highest yield of rhamnolipids are estimated at 6 g/L with specific parameters. Effects of multivalent ions, nutritional factors and environmental conditions are described by many researchers to find out its enhanced production (Desai and Banat, 1997). In this mini review, some nutritional, environmental and compositional factors are studied and estimated that how the production of rhamnolipids enhanced and which kind of effects these factors have on its production.