PHYSICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SODIUM AZIDE TREATED SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.) MONECH
By Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan
The present work was carried out to check the effect of different concentrations of Sodium azide (0.5% and 1%) on the seeds of Sorghum. Germination rate, shoot length, root length, fresh weight, dry weight, plant height at maturity, total and reducing sugar, total protein and chlorophyll contents were checked from control as well as 0.5% and 1% sodium azide treated M1 plants. The higher germination rate, root length, fresh weight, dry weight were observed in control plants. It was also observed that in control plants total sugar and chlorophyll contents were high. The higher shoot length, plant height at maturity, reducing sugar contents, total proteins contents were observed in 1% sodium azide treated plants. It is concluded from these results that 0.5% sodium azide treatment for sorghum is not suitable for plant growth but 1% sodium azide treatment showed some effects on morphological and physiological characters of sorghum plant.
DETERMINATION OF DNA FINGERPRINTING OF NINE ARGEMONE PLANT SAMPLES USING RAPD-PCR TOOL
By Bazaid, S.A.1 ; Mohamed Muneera, A.S.1 ; Hussein Sonya, H.M. 1,2 and Sadik, A.S.1,3
We are herein focusing on molecular analysis of Argemone plants collected from open area (Al-Shafa, Jabajeb and Al-Arafah), dams (Gadeer Albanat and Ekrima) and valleys (Thumalah, Wadi-Sa'b, Saysid and Wadi-Jaleel) at Taif Governorate in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. At the level of molecular analyses, DNA fingerprinting of nine Argemone plant samples (1-9) via RAPD-PCR using 10 random primers was determined. Data showed that total fragments of 108 (28 polymorphic fragments+80 monomorphic fragments) were amplified. Out of the 108 fragments, PS21 samples showed 84, 82, 84, 84, 83, 87, 85, 85 and 83, respectively. A number of 14 unique fragments out of the 108 were obtained using the ten RAPD-PCR primers, and could be used as DNA markers. The dendrogram based on RAPD-PCR analysis of the nine PS21 samples showed the presence of four clusters (A, B, C and D) with highest and lowest similarities of 98 and 89 %, respectively. Results of SDS-PAGE analysis of the applied PS21 samples was in harmony with that of RAPD-PCR analysis. Results paid an attention to the availability of RAPD-PCR technique as one of the molecular tool for determining the DNA fingerprinting of such important plants.
MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF HEPATITIS A VIRUS FROM SPORADIC AND EPIDEMIC CASES OF JAUNDICE IN TAMIL NADU, INDIA
By S. Raju1 , P. Rajendran2,*, P. Gunasekaran3 , A.K. Skeriff3 , D.J. Mukesh Kumar4 and G. Ashok
Hepatitis A is an enterically transmitted viral disease, highly prevalent in India and mainly occurs as a sporadic childhood disease. Focal outbreaks have also been reported among children and adults in India. This study was initiated to find out the occurrence of sporadic and epidemic cases of jaundice caused by HAV in Tamil Nadu. Both sporadic and epidemic cases of HAV were subjected to molecular characterization to document the prevalent HAV genotype in Tamil Nadu. A total of 584 sporadic cases and 23 cases from a jaundice outbreak in Perambalur District, Tamil Nadu during Jan 2009 were included in the present study. Sera were tested for anti-HAV IgM by ELISA. Twenty-two sporadic and 23 epidemic samples positive for HAV were subjected to RTPCR and RNA positive samples were further processed for sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Three hundred and seven (52.6%) sporadic cases and all the 23(100%) epidemic jaundice cases were positive for HAV. Among the sporadic cases, 239(77.8%) were children less than 10 years of age. However, RT-PCR was positive only in four sporadic and two epidemic cases. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed that both sporadic and epidemic form of HAV infection was caused by HAV genotype IIIA. HAV was found to be the leading cause of jaundice especially among children in Tamil Nadu. Genotype IIIA was the prevalent HAV genotype both in the epidemic and sporadic cases of jaundice in the southern state in India, which has the potential to cause large scale epidemics in the community. Environmental hygiene, sanitation and provision of safe and protected drinking water have to be improved to avoid jaundice epidemics in Tamil Nadu. An effective control strategy including new vaccination policies for the children need to be emphasized to reduce the HAV related disease burden in the community.
OPTIMIZATION OF MICROTUBERIZATION IN INDIGENOUS POTATO CV. DESIREE
By Aneela Yasmin+*, Akhtar Ali Jalbani**, Ghulam Sughra Mangrio* and Aqeela Nasreen***
In vitro generated microtubers of potato are an ideal source for germplasm conservation and its exchange as a disease free material. The investigation reported here was conducted to evaluate different factors affecting microtuberization in potato variety Desiree. Initially the in vitro plantlets of potato were established from meristems. These in vitro generated plantlets were transferred to MS media containing different levels of sucrose (0, 4, 8, 10 and 12 %), kinetin (0, 1 and 2 mgl-1 ) and photoperiod (8 and 16 hours) for the induction of microtuberization. During this study the data was collected for parameters as days required for tuber induction, number of tubers per plant, frequency of tuber induction and their mean weight. Statistical analysis was carried out and among the evaluated factors high sucrose concentration (8%), together with short photoperiod (8 hour) without hormones was found the most effective regime for the low cost mass production of high quality microtubers in potato variety Desiree.
OPTIMIZATION OF CULTURE CONDITION FOR PROTEASE PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER
By Safia Lashari, M. Umar Dahot, S. Habib Ahmed Naqvi and *M. Yakoub Khan
Proteases are used in various biotechnological industries such as detergent, food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics. Due to high demand, the production of protease by Aspergillus niger was studied on the basis of various fermentation parameters such as incubation time, carbon sources, nitrogen sources, pH and temperature. On the basis of present study, it was noted that Aspergillus niger secreted higher yield of protease (0.131mg/ml) when grown on mineral medium containing 0.3% glucose and 0.02% yeast extract as a carbon and nitrogen sources in comparison to other carbon and nitrogen sources at 30±2°C for 96 hour. Whereas pH 7.0 and 35°C was found favorable and the yield of protease increased up to 0.199 mg/ml by Aspergillus niger.
THE DISTRIBUTION OF FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA IN UMM QASR AND KHOR AL- ZUBAIR – BASRAH/ IRAQ
By Asaad M. R. Al-Taee1 Wesal F. Hassan2
Maintenance of the microbiological quality of water has been used as an important means for preventing waterborne disease throughout the twentieth century. The commonest microbiological tests done on water are for coliforms and Escherichia coli (or faecal coliform). In this study 432 samples were taken for total and fecal coliforms and biological demand oxygen. The samples were collected at 12 stations from Khor Al-Zubair and Um Qasr port / Basrah- Iraq. From each site three samples were taken from different depths (surface, middle and bottom). The samples were collected in four periods at 6 hours during April- May 2009. Results indicated that the logarethmic no. of total coliforms ranged from (2.18- 2.84) CFU/100ml, while the logarethmic no. of fecal coliforms ranged from (0.86- 1.94) CFU/100ml. The biological oxygen demand (BOD5) values ranged from (16.47- 20.07) mg/L. These reults indicated that the recipient environment was polluted and poses a great concern.
BIOCHEMICAL, HAEMATOLOGICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES ON BROILER CHICKS FED SINGLE CELL PROTEIN BIOMASS BY PENICILLIUM EXPANSUM
By M. Yakoub Khan, S.H. Ahmed Naqvi* and M. Umar Dahot*
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding diet containing single cell protein of Penicillium expansum on broiler chicks. Single cell protein was used at a level of 10 % dry mass mixed with basal diet, showed that weight gain improved for chicks. After four weeks feeding trial, the chickens were slaughtered to study the carcass characteristics. The serum samples, cellular portion of blood and the tissues of major organs were used for the biochemical, hematological and histological analysis respectively. The hematological parameters particularly Hb and RBC no longer influenced significantly (p>0.05) by diet effect except for WBC (p0.05) and LDH (p0.05) values did not significantly differ between these groups. The waste metabolites (Urea, creatinine, Uric acid p>0.05), electrolytes (sodium, potassium, bicarbonates calcium p>0.05 and chloride p0.05) were not significantly affected by supplemented diet. The A/G ratio (p0.05) in both the groups having no major change during growth. No pathological changes were observed in the organs (Liver, heart, kidney and pancreas) of broiler chickens fed on single cell protein biomass. The chicks on single cell protein based diet had blood profile; hematology and histology were comparable with the chicks fed basal diet except the few parameters like enzymes (amylase, ALP, CPK, and LDH) and the globulin. Consequently, we can suggest that the SCP of Penicillium expansum has a promoting effect on the growth, weight gained and the death ratio of the chicks was rare.
FACTORS AFFECTING THE RHAMNOLIPID BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION
By M. Irfan Maqsood* and Asif Jamal**
Rhamnolipids are the best studied glycolipids having excellent surface activity. Their utilization in various application areas of environment, health, food, cosmetic, oil industry etc., have made it the potential candidates that could replace the chemically synthesized surfactants because these are derived from the natural source, in a pure form and they have low toxicity levels. The production of rhamnolipids dependent on several environmental and nutritional factors and the highest yield of rhamnolipids are estimated at 6 g/L with specific parameters. Effects of multivalent ions, nutritional factors and environmental conditions are described by many researchers to find out its enhanced production (Desai and Banat, 1997). In this mini review, some nutritional, environmental and compositional factors are studied and estimated that how the production of rhamnolipids enhanced and which kind of effects these factors have on its production.
Acknowledgment of Reviewers
|Prof. Dr. Alexandre Semenov||Moscow, Russia|
|Prof. Dr. Atef S. Sadik||Taif, Saudi Arabia|
|Prof. Dr. Sher Muhammed Mangrio||Uni. Of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan|
|Prof. Dr. Jian He Xu||Shanghai, China|
|Prof. Dr. Tao Hung||Xiamhina, China|
|Prof. Dr. We Wang||Shanghai, China|
|Prof. Dr. Karen Vikery||Australia|
|Prof. Dr. Muhammed Umar Dahot||Uni. Of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan|
|Prof. Dr. M. R. Zamani||Tehran, I.R. Iran|
|Prof. Dr. Nisa Rachmania||Bogor, Indonesia|
|Dr. Mostafa Rahimnejad||Univ. Babool, Iran|
|Prof. Dr. M. Aslam Memon||Uni. Of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan|
|Dr. Muhammed Rafiq||Uni. Of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan|
|Dr. Muhammed Yakoub Khan||Uni. Of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan|
|Dr. S. Habib Ahmed Naqvi||Uni. Of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan|
|Dr. Saifullah Khan||Karachi, Pakistan|
|Dr. Imtiaz Ahmed Khan||NIA Tando Jam, Pakistan|
|Dr. Mehboob Ali siali||NIA Tando Jam, Pakistan|
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