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EDITORIAL BOARD

2010

SCREENING OF WHEAT GENOTYPES FOR WATER STRESS TOLERANCE

By Mahboob Ali Sial, M. Umar Dahot1 , S.M. Mangrio2 , M.A. Arain, Khalil A. Laghari and Altaf A. Simair1

VOL-7 NO-(1-2)

Abstract

The effect of water stress tolerance was checked in wheat genotypes, 12 newly evolved genotypes and three drought tolerant check varieties Sarsabz, Khirman and Chakwal-86 were screened under various water stress conditions at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tando Jam. The experiments were conducted in RCBD using three irrigation levels viz. at residual moisture (no irrigation after sowing), single irrigation and three time irrigations. The effects of water stress were studied on grain yield, 1000 grain weight, biological yield and proline content (%). The newly evolved genotypes showed some genetic improvement in various traits as compared to commercial check varieties. At residual moisture, up to 3382 kg/ha was achieved from new genotypes. Genotypes BWM-3, NIA-8/7, NIA-9/5, NIA-25/5, ESW-9525, BWQ-4, Sarsabz and Khirman had comparatively higher mean yield (more than 2500 kg/ha) at residual moisture. This shows that the genotypes might have better tolerance to water stress. The proline level of wheat genotypes increased under severe water stress (residual moisture) as compared to well-irrigated experiments. The lines NIA-28/4, NIA-9/5, BWM-3, NIA-8/7, NIA-10/8, MSH-17, BWQ-4, BWS-78 and Chakwal-86 accumulated high level of proline under water stress which confirmed their tolerance to drought conditions.

THE FOLLOW UP OF MERCURY LEVELS IN SIX FISH SPECIES: A CASE STUDY SHATT AL-ARAB RIVER, IRAQ

By Nadhum A.N.Awad1 , Hassan T. Abdulsahib* 1 , Sarmad G. Mohammed2 and Mushtak T. Jabbar 3

VOL-7 NO-(1-2)

Abstract

The present work is an attempt to study the mercury levels in six fish species from Shatt AlArab River were determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, provide values that are lower than the most literature data. We found significant species differences, with Cyprins Carpio having the highest levels and Barbus sharpeyi the lowest levels. The results showed statistically significant differences of total mercury concentration were also found among the individually tested tissues (muscle, kidney, liver, skin and gills), since the muscle of the tested fish accumulate the highest amount of mercury. The present study pointed out that at the time of analysis Shatt Al-arab River is still a non –polluted area as the data illustrated.

ENHANCING EFFECT OF AMINO ACIDS AND VITAMINS ON XYLANASE PRODUCTION BY PLEUROTUS ERYNGII THROUGH SUBMERGED FERMENTATION

By Altaf A. Simair, M. U. Dahot, G. Sughra Mangrio, S. M. Mangrio*, J. H. Xu** and J. J. Zhong***

VOL-7 NO-(1-2)

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamins and amino acids on the enhancement of xylanase production synthesized by Pleurotus eryngii. Xylanase activity was checked by using oat spelt xylan as a substrate and the reducing group was detected through dinitrosalicylic assay method. The study reveals that vitamins are not good inducers in all cases and reduced the xylanase activity up to 22% when vitamin B6 was supplemented with 0.6% starch and 1.0% corn steep liquor while amino acid valine enhanced 4% xylanase production.

PHOSPHOBACTERIAL INOCULATION AND DIFFERENT DOSES OF P FERTILIZER FOR INCREASING YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF MUNG BEAN (VIGNA RADIATA L.)

By Niaz Ali Sial, M. Y. Memon, M. Afzal Arain and J. A. Shah

VOL-7 NO-(1-2)

Abstract

Niaz Ali Sial, M. Y. Memon, M. Afzal Arain and J. A. Shah

GROWTH AND YIELD RESPONSE OF ZEA MAIZE TO DIFFERENT TREATMENTS OF BIOFERTILIZERS

By Mangrio G. Sughra, Altaf A. Simair* , M. Umar Dahot* and A. Jurio Khaskheli

VOL-7 NO-(1-2)

Abstract

Two biofertilizers like Azotobacter and Azospirillum were used to inoculate maize seeds. Treatments included: T1=Control (Recommended dose NPK only), T2=Azotobacter + 50% NPK, T3=Azotobacter + 100% NPK, T4=Azospirillum + 50% NPK, T5= Azospirillum + 100% NPK and T6=Azotobacter + Azo-spirillum + 50% NPK. The results showed that all the traits relating to growth and yield responded significantly (P

FIELD EVALUATION OF SOME STREPTOMYCES ISOLATES TO SUPPRESS POWDERY MILDEW OF FLAX (SAKHA 1 CULTIVAR)

By Mansour, M.T.M.1 , Sonya H. Mohamed2,3, S.M.E. Zayed1 and A.Z.A. Ashour1

VOL-7 NO-(1-2)

Abstract

Evaluation of 16 isolates of Streptomyces, as biological agents for controlling powdery mildew (PM) of flax was carried out under field conditions in El-Gemmeiza and Sakha Agricultural Research Stations in 2006 growing season. The isolates were used as foliar application. Disease incidence (DI), disease severity (DS), seed yield, and straw yield were used as criteria to evaluate the efficiency of the tested isolates. In El-Gemmeiza, Streptomyces isolates Qa-51, Sc-11, Qa-44, S16, Sc-2, and Si-1 significantly decreased DI compared with the control and the efficiency of the isolates were 31, 25.40, 19.74, 15.45, 14.77, and 12.61%, respectively. Isolates Sc-2, Sc-11, and Qa- 51 reduced DS by 25.54, 23.50, and 19.85% respectively. None of Streptomyces isolates significantly affected both seed yield and straw yield. In Sakha, none of Streptomyces isolates significantly affected DI. Isolates Sc-2, Si-1, Ma-13, and Qa-44 significantly reduced DS by 18.05 to 22.65%, and isolates Qa-51, Qa-53, Qa-84, and Da-3 reduced DS by 23.38 to 28.36%. Streptomyces isolates Is-10, Da-3, and Qa-53 significantly increased seed yield by 2.35 to 3%. All Streptomyces isolates were ineffective in increasing straw yield in Sakha. Correlation between disease intensity variables (DI and DS) and yield (seed yield and straw yield) showed that DI negatively correlated (r = - 0.735, P = 0.001) with seed yield and with straw yield ( r = - 0.630, P = 0.007), disease severity also negatively correlated (r = - 0.469, P = 0.05) with seed yield and straw yield (r = - 0.736, P = 0.001) in El-Gemmeiza.

EARLY DETECTION OF THE 21st CHOMOSOME TRISOMY BY AFP, ?-HCG AND uE3

By Usama F. Shaalan1 , Khalil A. El-Halafawy1 and Ahmed A. Raouf2

VOL-7 NO-(1-2)

Abstract

Trisomy 21 is the most common autosomal chromosome anomaly. Its incidence ranges from 0.3 to 3.4 per 1000 births in different parts of the world. In Egypt, the incidence of Down syndrome has been reported to be one per 1000 births. Screening for Down syndrome through different biochemical markers is still and will be a better basic tool for detection of Down syndrome instead of invasive procedures. The aim of the presented study was to evaluate the triple screening test (using AFP, ?-HCG and uE3) in prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome through comparing the results of the test with the outcome of pregnancy. We compared these results with the results of the double test (using AFP and ?-HCG) and MSAFP test to evaluate the value of combining ?-HCG, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and unconjugated estriol with maternal age in this three-analyte maternal serum screening program for Down syndrome. Triple screening test using AFP, HCG and uE3 proved to have the upper hand over MSAFP and double test in detection of Down syndrome as it has the highest detection rate and lowest false positive rate.

ANTIDIABETIC EFFECT OF CINNAMON (CINNAMONUM ZEYLANICUM) USED TO CONTROL DIABETES MELLITUS IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC MALE RABBITS

By Rind N. A., M. Umar Dahot, S. A. Malik and M. Kumar

VOL-7 NO-(1-2)

Abstract

This study was carried out to check the effect of Cinnamon (Cinnamonum zeylanicum) aqueous extract oral administration on serum glucose, cholesterol, and urea level and body weight in normal and Alloxan-induced diabetes male rabbits. Alloxan monohydrate (120mg/kg) was used to induce diabetes mellitus in twelve hours fasted male rabbits. After seven days of alloxan monohydrate induction diabetes mellitus was confirmed animals with fasting serum glucose level more than 250mg/dl and were considered as diabetes. 50% mortality rate was noted. In 1st step of experimental work, twenty one male rabbits were divided in to seven experimental groups each group contains three male rabbits, 1 st group normal and 2nd group diabetic control and 3 rd to 7th group containing male rabbits were treated with 0.50%, 0.75%, 01%, 1.25%, 1.50% Cinnamon aqueous extract to check the effective dose against diabetes. In 2nd step of experimental work nine male rabbits were selected and each group contains three male rabbits 1st and 2nd group contains normal and diabetic controls and 3rd group is treated with most effective dose of Cinnamon to check its effect against serum glucose level and together with serum cholesterol level, serum urea level and body weight. Whole experiment was designed for the period of two months. Blood serum was used to determine all selected biochemical parameters, on every third day. It was observed that in 1st step 1% Cinnamon treated male rabbits showed significant hypoglycemic effect which decreased 52.38% serum glucose level where as in 2nd step of experimental work 1% Cinnamon controlled 54.11% serum glucose level, 35.25% serum cholesterol level and 34.55% serum urea level and body weight was gradually decreased. It is concluded that oral administration of Cinnamon aqueous extract decreases serum glucose, cholesterol and urea level in diabetes induced male rabbits.

BIOLOGY, CYTOPATHOLOGY AND MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF AN EGYPTIAN ISOLATE OF ZUCCHINI YELLOW MOSAIC POTYVIRUS (ZYMV-EG)

By El-Hoseny M.E.1 , El-Fallal A. Amira1 , A.K.El-Sayed1 ; A.Diab3 and A.S.Sadik3,4,5

VOL-7 NO-(1-2)

Abstract

Squash is considered as one of the most important crops in Egypt and worldwide. Zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus (ZYMV) is considered as one of the most important viruses infects squash. We used the biological, serological and cytopathological studies to identify an Egyptian isolate of ZYMV. Results showed that the Egyptian isolate of ZYMV showed systemic symptoms in the form of severe mosaic and vein banding on Cucurbita pepo cv. Eskandarani under open field conditions. Direct antigen coated (DAC)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using polyclonal antibodies was used as a diagnostic tool for detecting ZYMV in the virus-infected C. pepo samples. It showed positive reactions with ZYMV antiserum. Filamentous virus-like particles measuring 750X13 nm was successfully purified from ZYMV-infected squash plants, based on the use of polyethylene glycol and ultracentrifugation. The electron microscope of ultrathin sections of virusinfected leaf tissues revealed the presence of cylindrical inclusions as pinwheels, laminated aggregates and scrolls in the cytoplasm of cells infected with ZYMV. In addition, disorganization of plastids, nucleus and mitochondria in the virus-cells infected was also observed. In addition, the nucleotide of CI gene of the viral isolate under investigation was determined and its similarities to some overseas isolates were addressed.

MOLECULAR APPROACH FOR EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA IN EGYPTIAN PATIENTS BY ALPHA FETOPROTEIN (AFP) AND VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR (VEGF)

By Usama F. Shaalan1 , Khalil A. El-Halafawy1 and Ahmed A. Raouf2

VOL-7 NO-(1-2)

Abstract

The primary marker for Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is AFP. Generally AFP shows acceptable sensitivity, however AFP is not secreted in all cases of HCC and may be normal as many as 40 % of patients with early HCC .This work aims to study and to evaluate biochemical diagnosis of HCC by comparing liver functions including Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and its rule as a tumor marker or HCC in different groups that studied (Cases of HCC, cases at high risk, chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis against control group) and evaluated the value of measuring serum Alpha fetoprotein(AFP) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) for early diagnosis of HCC in HCC cases and in high risk groups. This study was conducted on three groups, group ? cases of (HCC) (35 patients),group ? cases at high risk to develop HCC (Cirrhosis, HBs Ag positivity and Anti-HCV) (35 patients), selected from the National Liver Institute, Menoufiya University and Group ? 30 healthy control persons.

IDENTIFICATION OF SOME LOCAL FRANKIA STRAINS BASED ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR VARIATION

By Selim, Sh.1-3 , Mona M. Orabi1 , A.A.M. Abdel-Hafez1-3 and Sonya H.M. Hussein2

VOL-7 NO-(1-2)

Abstract

In this investigation, set of five Frankia strains were isolated from root nodules of Casuarina trees from five different regions in Egypt and were identified based on their physiological and molecular genetic variations. Results showed that growth parameters of C. glauca inoculated with the five Frankia strains grown in loamy sandy soil were both significantly higher than those of plants grown in clay soil. The effect of the Frankia strains under study on number of nodules, percentages of seedling that formed root nodules (nodulation frequency) and activity of acetylene reduction in clay soil as well as loamy sandy soil was addressed. The numerical analysis of the investigated parameters was found to be a useful tool for differentiation between the Frankia strains. We have analyzed 9 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers against five Frankia strains. Results showed that the number of amplified fragments differed between the strains. Some primers were useful in identifying unique DNA polymorphisms of all strains tested. Some fragments were found to be polymorphic (not common). These unique fragments could be recommended as markers for distinguishing between the applied strains of Frankia. Statistical analysis of RAPD-PCR polymorphisms showed similarities between Frankia strains ranged from 67.3 to 85%. The phylogenetic tree confirmed the genetic diversity between the Frankia strains under investigation. Genomic fingerprinting assay using RAPD-PCR was excellent methodology for differentiating between the Frankia strains. The correlation between the phylogenetic and the phylophenetic trees of the five Frankia strains were also discussed.

RESPONSES OF DIFFERENT COTTON GENOTYPES UNDER SALINE STRESSED CONDITIONS

By Noor-e-Saba, Ikram-ul Haq, M Umar Dahot and Mahtab Hussain

VOL-7 NO-(1-2)

Abstract

Salinity is a major growth limiting abiotic factors. In this aspect an experiment was performed to assess the effect of salinity on growth of different cotton genotypes under natural conditions. NIAB-78, NIAB-HF and Cris-9 were grown under 100 mM NaCl stress with refrence to control (0 mM NaCl). Plant biomass, number of leaves and leaf area were decreased. The concentrations of K+ were also decreased in all genotypes but Na+ and Clincreased. Reducing sugars were highly increased in salt stressed plants while total carbohydrates and protein contents were also increased slightly. With decrease in chlorophyll contents, yield and yield characters were also reduced due to saline stress. The genotype Cris-9 was considered best under control as well as stressed conditions than both NIAB-78 and NIAB-HF genotyoes.

PARTIAL PROPERTIES OF PECTIN METHYLESTERASE EXTRACTED FROM STREPTOMYCETE ISOLATE

By Altalhi A.D.* and Sonya H.M. Hussein

VOL-7 NO-(1-2)

Abstract

t Pectinases are one of the upcoming enzymes of fruit and textile industries. We are here reporting isolation and purification of pectin methyl esterase enzyme (PME) from an actinomycete isolate (StET). This isolate was identified and appeared to be close to S. nigrifaciens. Although there were some differences in the utilization of sucrose as sole carbon source for growth and producing faint yellow pigment. PME was purified via gel permeation chromatography on Sephacryl S200 column equilibrated in 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer at pH 4.2. Purification process of PME produced by Streptomyces sp. resulted in a pure protein preparation with specific activity of 1.70units/mg. A specific band with a molecular weight of about 110 KDa having a high specific activity 1.9 units/mg protein was obtained. PME was successfully purified by ammonium sulphate which increased the specific activity of PME 0.22 to 1.70. Results revealed that the optimum temperature range of the activity of purified PME was from 34 to 40?C and the highest enzyme activity was recorded at pH 4.5. The effect of Zn+2, Fe+2, Mg+2, Co+2, Cu+2, Cd+2 and Mn+2 at 50 µg/ml on PME activity was also determined.

NESTED-PCR ISOLATION OF BAR GENE FROM A RESISTANT-BASTA HERBICIDE STREPTOMYCES COELICOLOR EGY

By Altalhi A.D.1* , Hussein Sonya, M.1,3 and A.S. Sadik1,2

VOL-7 NO-(1-2)

Abstract

Resistance of Streptomyces isolate against Basta (Bialophos) herbicide was tested on three doses of Basta (2, 4 and 6g/L) in starch nitrate agar medium (SNAM). The stressed cultures were studied to find gene confers resistance for herbicide. The bar gene was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the culture. This local isolate was identified as Streptomyces coelicolor Egy. Almost 450pb amplified DNA fragment was cloned at ELORI and Hind III sites in plasmid pAHC25 with gus genes. The construct was transformed into coli strain DH5?.

THE IMPORTANCE OF FOAMS AND ANTIFOAMING IN BIOPROCESSES

By M. Rafati Atri and S.N. Ashrafizadeh?

VOL-7 NO-(1-2)

Abstract

Foams are comprised of thousands of tiny bubbles of mechanical or chemical origin and are generated within a liquid. If these bubbles rise and accumulate at the liquid surface faster than they decay, foaming occurs. Foams are defined as a dispersion of gas in liquid (>95% gas) when the distance between individual bubbles is extremely small and the volume fraction of gas is quite large. The presence of foams in products or processes may or may not be desirable. Foaming occurs during fermentations, which is considered undesirable and is a problem common to many of microbial fermentations, especially where surface active microbial products (bio-surfactants) are involved. Foaming reduces the productive volume, i.e. increasing process costs, and can lead to blockage of the outlets and threat the sterility of a fermenter. Antifoam action may take the form of addition of antifoam agent, mechanical agitation or ultrasound. The most commonly used method is the addition of chemical antifoams although it can add significantly to process costs and reduce the oxygen transfer rate. That may also exert adverse effects on the cell’s physiology. Conversely, foam separation techniques can be used for the recovery of proteins. In addition, foam fractionation has been successfully applied for the effective separation of surfactants and biological materials such as proteins, microorganisms, suspended solids, aromatic substances and pigments. It is, therefore, important to be able to effectively monitor and control the dynamic formation and collapse of such foam phases. At last, in spite of the important role of foaming in bioprocesses, successful prediction of foaming and defoaming phenomena is not entirely possible at present and further attention and research continues to be needed.

REGULATORY NETWORK IN STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES

By Zaid Ahmed Pirzada and Sheikh Ajaz Rasool

VOL-7 NO-(1-2)

Abstract

S. pyogenes or group A beta-haemolytic streptococcus (GAS) is an important human pathogen that causes a wide variety of diseases, ranging from throat and skin infections, such as pharyngitis and erysipelas, to severe invasive diseases, such as necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. S pyogenes produces a large number of secreted proteins and an array of matrixbinding proteins, that all contribute to virulence by mediating adhesion to host tissues, evasion of host defense mechanisms, invasion, survival and tissue destruction. To establish a successful infection, bacterial pathogens must precisely control expression of their virulence genes in response to host signals. Virulence factor expression in GAS, like in other bacteria, is coordinately regulated via “stand-alone” response regulators (RRs) and two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs). In addition to these, three putative regulatory RNAs; fasXRNA, pelRNA and rivXRNA have also been discovered. An increased understanding of the complex regulatory network involved in the S pyogenes pathogenesis would help us in combating severe and invasive GAS diseases.

Acknowledgment of Reviewers

The Editor, Pak. J. Biotechnol. is very grateful to the following scientists who dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal by serving as reviewers from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010 for Vol. 7 No. 1 and 2, 2010.
Prof. Dr. Alexandre SemenovMoscow, Russia
Prof. Dr. Atef S. SadikTaif, Saudi Arabia
Prof. Dr. Sher Muhammed MangrioUni. Of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Jian He XuShanghai, China
Prof. Dr. Ma WeiShanghai, China
Prof. Dr. Muhammed Umar Dahot Uni. Of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan
Dr. S. A. Anitha ChristyHouston, USA
Dr. Mostafa RahimnejadUniv. Babool, Iran
Dr. Muhammed RafiqUni. Of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan
Dr. Muhammed Yakoub KhanUni. Of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan
Dr. S. Habib Ahmed NaqviUni. Of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan
Dr. Imtiaz Ahmed KhanNIA Tando Jam, Pakistan
Dr. Mehboob Ali sialiNIA Tando Jam, Pakistan