STUDY ON THE MUTAGENECITY OF INDUSTRIAL AND TRADITIONAL BREADS PRODUCED IN IRAN BY AMES ASSAY
By 1Haddad, Khodaparast,M. H. and *Moazzami, Ataollah,
In this study the Dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of three samples comprising traditional and industrial breads (Sangak, Taftoon and Lebanese) produced by direct flame in Mashhad-Iran were studied by Salmonella-microsomal assay (Ames test) to determine the mutagenic effect of compounds generated during baking process. The study indicated that the compounds extracted from breads had mutagenic effect on TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimorium. The mutagenecity onTA98 was more than TA100 and the mutagenic effect of Lebanese extract was more conspicuous than Sangak and Taftoon.
CHARACTERIZATION OF VIRULENT BACTERIOPHAGES FOR STREPTOMYCES GRISEOFLAVUS ISOLATED FROM SOI
By Othman, B.A.* ; Askora, A.A.**; Awny, Nadia M.**and Abo-Senna Amel, S.M.***
Streptomyces griseoflavus and two of its specific phages were isolated from free clay soil samples obtained from Al-Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. Streptomyces phages were detected after their enrichment by the spot test. The specific phages were isolated by the single plaque isolation technique; propagated by the liquid enrichment method and purified by the polyethylene glycol, dextran sulfate two phases system. The phages were signed as S1 and S2, referring to the genus Streptomyces. S1 phage appeared with head (91 x 66 nm) and long contractile tail (158 x 66 nm) and S2 phage had isometric head (112 nm) and a long non-contractile tail with length of about 200 nm. The phages formed plaques differing in their sizes 3.0 and 7.0 mm for S1 and S2 phages, respectively. UV-absorption properties of the phages were determined. Maximum absorption (Amax) of S1 and S2 phages was at 275 nm while their minimum absorption (Amin) was at 245 nm for S1 phage and 250 nm for S2 phage. The ratio between Amax/min was 1.407 for S1 phage and 1.553 for S2 phage and the ratio between A280/260 was 1.186 and 1.371 for S1 and S2 phages, respectively. The host ranges were investigated with 5 species of Streptomyces. Results showed that S1 phage, differ from S2 phage as it did not infect S. noboritonesis and S. lincolnesis in contrast with S1 phage, which infect all the tested Streptomyces species. The antisera specific for S1 and S2 phages were prepared and serological relations were studied. Serological data revealed that, the two phages were serologically related to each other
CHEMILUMINSCENT AND COLORIMETRIC TECHNIQUES FOR THE DETECTION OF BANANA BUNCHY TOP VIRUS
By Allam, E.K.1 , J.L. Dale2 , Sohair I. El-Afifi1 , R.M. Harding2 and A.S. Sadik1,2,3
The most important virus disease of banana is bunchy top disease (BBTD) caused by banana bunchy top virus (BBTV). Some non-radioactive techniques were developed such as chemiluminscent and colorimetric assays in routine detection of BBTV in the field. Comparison of radioactive and non-radioactive detection techniques of BBTV was also studied. Results showed that BBTV was completely detected in Southern blot and dot blot hybridizations after 20 min -6 hours and 3-24 hours from hybridization with pBT338 insert labelled with digoxigenin (11-dUTP) using AMPDD and NBT X-phosphatase, respectively. This result strongly recommends the use of non-radioactive techniques, i.e., chemiluminscent and colorimetric techniques for the detection of BBTV and other plant viruses.
SELECTION OF SALINITY TOLERANCT CITRUS ROOTSTOCK SPECIES
By Amal, A. Abd El-Aziz1 ; N. S. Mustafa2 and S. A. El Shazly3
The present investigation was carried out to study the effects of two mutagenic agents (Sodium azid and gamma radiation) on salt tolerance of Cleopatra Mandarin (Citrus reticulate L.) (CM), Troyer Citrange (C. sinensis (L.), C. Osbeck X C. trifiolata (L.) (TC), Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana) (VL) and Sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) (SO) grown at the Agricultural Experimental Station, Faculty of Agriculture (El-Shatby), Alexandria University. Seedlings were treated with saline water 6000 ppm for Sour orange, Volkamer lemon and Cleopatra mandarin and 4000 ppm for Troyer Citrange, in addition to and normal controls Alterations were recorded for morphological characters (salt tolerance %, stem height, leaf number, leaf area and leaf burning %), leaf chemical constituents (proline content) and leaf element content (N, Mg, Ca, Na and Cl), the differences between each citrus rootstock and molecular analysis RAPD were also examined to detect polymorphic variants associated with responses under saline treatments. According to these results, it was observed that gamma rays surpassed sodium azid in increasing leaf number, leaf area, leaf praline content and leaf contents of Ca and Na. Meanwhile, sodium azid caused a pronounced effect in Cl content. Moreover, no significant differences were found in respect to tolerance to salt percentage, stem height, burning percentage and leaf N, Mg and Cl contents due to the mutagenic materials. Salinity had negative effects on, leaf defoliation, leaf injury, vegetative growth and leaf and root mineral contents. Cleopatra mandarin can be considered as a salt tolerant rootstock, meanwhile sour orange and Volkamer lemon can be considered as moderate tolerant rootstock and Troyer Citrange was a salt sensitive rootstock. RAPD markers can cover a high proportion of the genome because of the high number of bands scored in each analysis, due its neutral origin, there is no guarantee that such bands fall in coding regions of the genome involved in morphological and agronomic traits. Morphological and RAPD analysis turned to be good tools to identify desired plants.
EFFECT OF NATURAL EXTRACTS OF SOME PLANTS ON THE ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF TOMATO MOSAIC TOBAMOVIRUS
By Sadik M.S.1 ; Abdel-Wahab B.M.1 ; Kamel R.1 ; Ibrahim M.1 and Salama M.I.2
The antagonistic activities of the extracts of black seed (N. sativa) and Neem leaves were determined against TMV using N. glutinosa and D. metel as local lesion hosts. The isolate of is study was first confirmed as it reacted with Ch. quinoa by appearing necrotic local lesion (NLL), forming amorphous inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm of TMV-infected tissue stained with 0.5% methyl green pyronin-Y and electron microscopy of partial purified particles. The molecular confirmation by RTPCR confirmed the presence of coat protein gene of TMV. Data showed that the applied extracts were varied in their antiviral activities via the dilutions used. As interestingly, their crude extracts completely inhibited the inducing of NLL on the tested plants. By dilution of the extracts up to 1/2, 1/4, 1/8 and 1/16, and 1/32, the NLL appeared on the inoculated leaves. This could be due to the decreasing of the antiviral substance(s), which excreted out from the plant cells and released into the supernatants. The results paid an attention to the possibilities of extraction, purification and identification of such substances. Furthermore, this work also encourages the idea for the use of such active extracts as a bio-control agent for controlling plant pathogens, i.e, viruses. As a conclusion, the viral replication could be inhibited due to the inhibition of protein synthesis, inhibition of ribosomal frame shift, induction of viral nucleic acid hydrolysis and induction of apoptosis in the infected cells. These criteria are involved in the inhibition of the viral infection and decrease the viral propagation in plant.
SEX MATURATION PROTEIN MARKER IN DATE PALM TISSUE CULTURE DERIVED PLANTS (VAR. KARAMA)
By Abd-Alla M. M.
The objective of this study is was determine the beginning of sex maturation of date palm tissue culture derived plants and the related marker using SDS-PAGE. The relative growth rate of these plants was 4.55 fold/plant. The offshoot production was 4-offshoots/ plants. After 5years of culture in field at Sewa research station of DRC the first fluorescence bud was observed in some plants. At the retrospective and prospective levels, plants showed biochemical marker using SDS –PAGE.
IN VITRO CLONAL PROPAGATION OF THYMUS CAPITATUS L. THROUGH DIRECT REGENERATION
By M. El-MAKAWY, M.YASSER, M.ABD ALLAH and S. NISHAWY
An efficient method for dirat plant regeneration of Thymus capitatus L. was developed by using shoot tips and stem node sections. Explants were cultured on MS basal medium fortified with various concentrations of cytokinins in single or combination forms. The best response for multiple shoot regeneration (6.28) was achieved on MS supplemented with 1.0 mgl-1 BA and 0.01 mgl-1 Zeatin after six weeks of shoot tips culture. While the best response for multiple shoots differentiated (12.4) within 8 weeks when stem node sections were cultured on MS medium containing 0.5 mgl-1 BA. High rate of root percentage (100%) was obtained in shoot regeneration cultures on ½ MS basal medium containing 3 mgl-1 IBA. Micropropagated plantlets were transplanted into soil for acclimation under greenhouse conditions.
EVALUATION OF WHEAT MUTANT LINES FOR YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS UNDER DIFFERENT SOWING DATES
By M. A. Sial, M.U.Dahot*, M.A. Arain, Khalil Ahmed Laghari, S.M. Mangrio** and B. Nisa Mangan***
The affects of sowing time and heat stresses on yield and yield components were evaluated in 21 mutant wheat lines under normal and late sowings. Terminal heat stresses (>30oC) during reproductive phase of the crop from last week of February to end of March, severely affected the physiological maturity of the crop. Reductions in various traits were observed, in general, in most of genotypes at late sowing. Plant height, 1000-grain weight, grain filling period, maturing time and main spike yield were highly affected under late sowings as compared to other traits. At normal sowing, 12 mutant lines showed early maturity than local check, T.J-83, three matured earlier than Kiran-95 and Sarsabz. Seventeen lines took more time to grain filling period than T.J-83, and 12 mutant lines more time than Sarsabz and Kiran-95. Fourteen mutant lines had significantly higher 1000-grain weight (>33g) than T.J-83 and eight had higher weight (>42g) than Sarsabz at normal sowing, whereas sixteen had more 1000-grain weight (>32.4 g) than T.J-83 and four than Sarsabz (>38.4g) at late sowing, indicated more tolerance to high temperature than other genotypes. Mutant lines MASAR99-22, MASAR99-31, MASAR99-37, MASAR99-03 and MASAR99-14 showed less reduction (2.8 to 8.0%) in 1000- grain weight under late sowings, and thus showed tolerance to high temperatures than the other genotypes.
ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC EFFECTS OF STEVIOSIDE ON DIABETIC RATS
By Jehan, A. El-Shourbagy1 and I. S. Ashoush2
Stevioside as a natural sweetener was extracted from leaves of plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, and evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. Results showed that oral administration of 500 mg kg−1 body weight of the stevioside for successive three weeks produced, significant reduction in blood glucose in diabetic rats. These results were compared with glibenclamide (600 µg/kg, orally) as a standard antihyperglycaemic agent. Also, a deformation of pancreatic b-cells was observed in the diabetic rats treated with stevioside. This indicates that stevioside may be a promising antidiabetic agent in treatment of type 2 diabetes. Stevioside was proved to be a potential drug or food additive for improving diabetes regulation.
USE OF CHEAP MEDIA TO ENHANCE GLUCOSE OXIDASE PRODUCTION DURING BATCH CULTIVATION OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER
By M.H. Sarrafzadeh1 and A.R. Jafari2
The study was carried out to check the parameters affecting glucose oxidase production, optimizing the growth culture conditions and to establish a cost effective medium for industrial production of this enzyme. In this study, Aspergillus niger PTTC 5012 strain was grown on different simple and complex sources of carbon and nitrogen in shaking flasks. Different culture conditions were also applied to find optimal values of pH, temperature, CaCO3 concentration and culture time for growth and enzyme production. Beet molasses and corn steep liquor showed to be very high promising carbon and nitrogen sources for glucose oxidase production. Using 50 g l-1 molasses and 10 g l-1 corn steep liquor and at optimal conditions of pH 5.5, temperature 30 oC, CaCO3 concentration of 50 g l-1 , culture time of 72 h and with previously optimized conditions of oxygenation, the activity of glucose oxidase reached to around 550 U ml-1 . The results of the present study could be scaled-up for a commercial production of glucose oxidase at a satisfactory productivity level using molasses and corn steep liquor as the basal medium.
MOLECULAR AND PHYSIOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF FIFTEEN ORANGE (CITRUS SINENSIS L.) CULTIVARS
By Hussein, T.S., A.A. El-Halwagi, A.A. Tawfik and M. A. Khalifa
Molecular fingerprints, phylogenetic relationships and physicochemical characteristics of 15 orange (Citrus sinensis L.) cultivars were studied. The inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) technique with seven primers was used. The dendrogram constructed based on 66 amplification products generated by the ISSR classified the cultivars into two major clusters. The first cluster included the Blood orange cultivar only, whereas the second comprised the rest of the cultivars with different degrees of genetic similarities. The highest phylogenetic relationship was noted between the two citrus accessions, Mouzambique and Roja, with 96% similarity. On the other hand, a genetic similarity of 53% was noted between the Balady orange and the Blood orange. Based on these findings, it could be concluded that the seven ISSR primers were effective to differentiate the orange cultivars under investigation. The physicochemical parameters of fruit juice included vitamin C concentration, pH, percentages of total soluble solids, and titratable acidity. The Hamlin, Centrial and Roja orange cultivars had the highest concentration of vitamin C (60.67, 58.33 and 57.14 mg/100 ml-1 , respectively). On the contrary, Tanneriffe cultivar showed the lowest vitamin C concentration (26.55 mg/100 ml-1 ). The Tunisi cultivar had the highest pH of 6.443 in contrast to Mafred, Roja and Valencia accessions with pH vales of 3.317, 3.32 and 3.29. Tunisi and Balady orange cultivars exhibited the highest percentage of total soluble solids (T.S.S) of 12.3 and 12.07%, respectively. Whereas Valencia and Mafred showed the least T.S.S expressed by 8.83 and 8.27%, respectively. Roja cultivar recorded the highest (1.397%) titratable acidity. In contrast, the Succari, Tunisi and Khalili red accessions demonstrated the least titratable acidity of 0.05, 0.09 and 0.093 %, respectively.
Acknowledgment of Reviewers
|Prof. Dr. Alexandre Semenov||Moscow, Russia|
|Prof. Dr. Atef S. Sadik||Taif, Saudi Arabia|
|Prof. Dr. M.R. Zamani||Tehran, I.R. Iran|
|Prof. Dr. Sher Muhammed Mangrio||Uni. Of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan|
|Prof. Dr. Jian He Xu||Shanghai, China|
|Prof. Dr. Muhammed Umar Dahot||Uni. Of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan|
|Dr. S. A. Anitha Christy||Houston, USA|
|Dr. Muhammed Rafiq||Uni. Of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan|
|Dr. Muhammed Yakoub Khan||Uni. Of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan|
|Dr. S. Habib Ahmed Naqvi||Uni. Of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan|
|Dr. Mehboob Ali siali||NIA Tando Jam, Pakistan|
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