IMPROVEMENT OF FIELD CROPS THROUGH BIOTECHNOLOGY METHODS
By Karim Dino Jamali* and Saima Arain
The degree of diversity present in a sample of germplasm can be measured in terms of morphology, pedigree, allelic diversity at marker loci, and allelic at genes determining target phenotypes. The environment often influences morphological characters and there may be limited polymorphism in cultivated germplasm. Pedigree information is not available for wild or crop progenitor germplasm, and even within cultivated germplasm, it can be difficult to differentiate between closely related accessions because complete pedigree records are not always available. Allelic diversity based on genes determining key phenotypes currently is not feasible in most crop plants, although the rapidly expanding EST and SNP databases will eventually make this feasible in some germplasm, diversity at marker loci is currently the most feasible strategy for characterizing diversity in wild and cultivated germplasm. Many types of molecular markers have been used to characterize germplasm, with each method differing in principle, application, type and amount of polymorphism detected, and cost and time requirement. These include random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPDs), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLPs), amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and simple sequence repeats (SSRs).
INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT CARBON SOURCES ON THE PRODUCTION OF ALPHA AMYLASE BY ASPERGILLUS ORYZAE ON KINETIC BASIS
By Roheena Abdullah, Sikander Ali, Aafia Aslam and Ikram-ul-Haq
The present study is concerned with the selection of carbon source for the production of alpha amylase by Aspergillus oryzae. Different carbon sources such as the lactose, glucose, maltose, xylose and sucrose were tested for the production of enzyme. Of all the carbohydrates tested lactose at the level of 1.0 % gave the maximum production of alpha amylase (130 U/ml) after 72 h of inoculation. The kinetic analysis indicated that the volumetric production of biomass and alpha amylase was significantly higher in the presence of lactose added to the fermentation medium.
APPLICATION OF SOME BIOAGENTS AND OXAMYL IN CONTROLLING MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA, HELICOTYLENCHUS EXALLUS AND CRICONEMOIDES SPP. INFESTING BANANA CV. WILLIAMS
By M.F.M.Eissa,M.M.Abd-Elgawad,A.E.Ismail,A.Y.El-Gindi* and W.A.El-Nagdi
Under field conditions, the tested bioagents viz. Nemaless, B.t. NRC 60, Promot and Abamectin as well Oxamyl as a nematicide, had a negative correlation with the development and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita, Helicotylenchus exallus and Creconemoides spp. in both two seasons. The influence of the previous four bio-agents and Oxamyl on the fruit production measurements of banana cv. Williams infested with three plant parasitic nematode was studied. All treatments signmificantly (P≤0.05) affected the bunch weight, numbers of hands and fingers per hand. Significant (P≤0.05) increase over control in bunch weight, number of hands and fingers per hand were obtained by B.t. NRC 60 followed by Abamectin, Oxamyl, Promot and Nemaless in the first season, but Abamectin, B.t. NRC 60, Promot , Oxamyl and Nemaless in the second season.
NEUTRAL PROTEASE ACTIVITY IN THE CRUDE EXTRACT OF COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM) SEEDS
By M. Umar Dahot* and A. A. Sheikh
Ten plant seeds were analyzed for protease activity. During the course of screening, cotton seeds (Gossypium hirsutum) was found more potent for protease activity. The enzyme was most active at pH 7.0 and the optimum temperature for the enzyme activity was found to be 30oC. Cotton seeds protease was found heat stable and retains more than 15% activity at 80oC within 10 minutes. Protease activity was increased in the presence of cysteine and mercaptoethanol but activity decreased by the addition of CaCl2, MnCl2, ZnCl2 and CoCl2 in the reaction mixture. Protease isolated from Cotton seeds strongly hydrolyzes peptones than other substrates.
EFFECT OF RIBOSOME-INACTIVATING PROTEIN FROM CASTOR BEAN ON TOBACCO MOSAIC TOBAMOVIRUS
By Ibrahim, N.E.1 ; Elneairy, M.2 ; Salama, M.1 ; Abo El-Saad, M.3 ; Abdou, S.2 and Sadik, A.S.4
Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are homogenous family of plant proteins. It is of special interest due to its unique activity. All RIPs possess a highly specific rRNA Nglycosidase activity and capable of catalytically inactivating ribosome and so inhibit the protein biosynthesis. The ricin, a RIP, was extracted and purified from castor bean (Ricinus communis) seeds and its effect on tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infectivity was studied. The tobacco plant cells inoculated with ricin-TMV, under light microscope, a reduced number of both of crystalline and amorphous inclusions induced by TMV was observed in the cytoplasm of inoculated cells. Electron micrographs of inoculated leaves showed the induction of apoptotic body formation in the ricin treated cells, which is the indication of apoptosis.
STUDY OF CALLUS INDUCTION IN BANANA (Musa sp)
By Abdullah Khatri, Imtiaz Ahmed Khan, Muhammad Umar Dahot*,Ghulam Shah Nizamani, Muhammad Aquil Siddiqui, Saboohi Raza, and Mazhar H.Naqvi
Proembryo calli were produced from basal sheath and rhizome tissue excised from multiplying shoot clusters in cvs. SH 3362 and GN 60A (AAA). SH medium with 30 M/l 3,6 dichloro-2 methoxybenzoic acid and 5M/l thidiazurone showed best results. Browning of explant was reduced by addition of cystein and methioninne. Light and dark treatments were given to reduce the browning in the explant
ESTABLISHMENT OF REGENERATION AND TRANSFORMATION SYSTEMS OF F144 SUGARCANE CULTIVAR
By Attia O. Attia1 , Abdoh M. Mohamed2 , Mohamed E. Hafez2 , Atef S. Sadik3 and Naglaa A. Abdelallah
Sugarcane is one of the most important (two sugar) crops for sugar production in Egypt. In this study, an experiment was conducted to establishment the regeneration system for sugarcane., F144 using leaf bases as a explants through somatic embryogenesis. The effect of 2,4-D, NAA, IAA and kinetin hormones on the sugarcane regeneration was studied. The microprojectile-mediated method was used to transform plasmid pAB6 carrying the gus and bar genes as reporter and selectable markers respectively. The presence of the transgenes was confirmed by PCR analysis through which amplified fragments with sizes of about 1800(gus) and 540 bp (bar) were detected in transgenics. GUS assay and leaf painting detect the expression of both gus and bar genes.
EFFECT OF TIME OF PLANTING AND HEAT STRESSES ON WHEAT ADVANCED GENOTYPES
By M. A. Sial, M. Umar. Dahot*, M. A. Arain, S.M. Mangrio**, Mazhar H. Naqvi, and N. A. Nizamani
The studies were conducted to determine the effects of time of sowing and heat stresses on yield and yield associated traits of wheat genotypes. Twenty advanced wheat genotypes including a local check variety Sarsabz were screened at two sowing dates viz., normal sowing (9th November) and late sowing (12th December) at Experimental Farm, NIA, Tando Jam. Data on different yield and yield contributing traits were recorded and statistically analyzed. The highly significant effects of heat stresses (between 330C to 430C) were observed during grain filling periods, which affected the plant height, 1000-grain weight and grain yield, except days to heading. Delayed planting adversely affected the yield and yield components of wheat genotypes. All the genotypes produced significantly higher grain yield at normal sowing time than late sown as compared using t-statistic. Twelve genotypes produced higher grain yield (more than 4000 kg/ha) than check variety Sarsabz at normal sowing, while four genotypes viz., V-7005, SI-91195, PR-70 and 97B2210 produced higher grain yield than Sarsabz under late planting, others were either inferior or at par with Sarsabz
OCCURRENCE OF TWO SUGARCANE MOSAIC POTYVIRUS STRAINS IN SUGARCANE
By A.I. Abd El Fattah1 , Hanan A. Nour El-Din2 , A.M. Abodoah1 , and A.S. Sadik2,3
The SCMV, the causal agent of SCMD and definite member of family Potyviridae are known to infect sugarcane, maize, sorghum and other poaceous plant species. In this study, antisera specific to SCMV-MDMV-A and SCMV-MDMV-B strains were used for ELISA detection of such strains in samples from different locations exhibited virus-like symptoms. Positive ELISA values belonging to SCMV-MDMV-A and SCMV-MDMV-B were found in samples collected from Sabahia (33.3 & 88.8%), Hawamdeih (3.4 & 13.8%), Nag-Hammadi (38.5 & 26.9%) Kom-Ombo (100 & 50%). SCMV-MDMV-A and SCMVMDMV-B were found in samples collected from Abo-Korkas and SCRI with percentages of 11.4 and 32.3%, respectively. The results showed that Zea mays L. and Danthonia pilosa were successfully differentiated the two MDMV strains, in particularly, strain B. On the other hand, the later six grasses and grains were reacted with the MDMV-A strain. The infection of Z. mays L. and S. bicolor cv. Rio by the two strains initially resulted in a mosaic leaf symptoms, but later on in case of MDMV-A strain, a redding leaf followed by death of point was distinguished. Results showed the presence of cylindrical inclusions operated as pinwheels, scrolls and bundles in the cytoplasm of MDMV-A-infected S. biocolor cv. Rio cells. In transmission of SCMV-MDHV strains studies of aphids, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) transmitted the SCMV-MDMV-A only and was not able to transmit the second strain (SCMV-MDMV-B). Rigid particles in the purified virus preparation were found when stained with uranyl acetate and examined under the electron microscope. At the molecular levels, the purified viral RNA was used as a template for RT-PCR to amplify a part of the SCMV-MDMV-A-cp gene using specific primers. Results showed amplification of a DNA fragment with a size of about 400 bp. This fragment was A-tailed, cloned into pGEM® –T Easy vector, transformed in Escherichia coli (strain DHα) strain, miniprepared and purified DNA plasmid was confirmed by restriction endonuclease analysis.
Acknowledgment of Reviewers
|Prof. Dr. Alexandre Semenov||Moscow, Russia|
|Prof. Dr. S. Medors-Molina||Canary Island, Spaina|
|Prof. Dr. M.R. Zamani||Tehran, I.R. Iran|
|Prof. Dr. Jian He Xu||Shanghai, China|
|Prof. Dr. Muhammed Umar Dahot||Uni. Of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan|
|Prof. Dr. Aijaz Rasool Sheikh||Karachi, Pakistan|
|Dr. M. Motallebi||Tehran, Iran|
|Prof. Dr. Rafi Arain||Uni. Of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan|
|Prof. Dr. Atta-u-Rehman||Uni. Of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan|
|Prof. Dr. Asif Ali||Faisalabad, Pakistan|
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