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EDITORIAL BOARD

2004

In-Silico ANALYSIS OF THE GENE AND PROTEIN SEQUENCES OF THE ENZYME MUSHROOM TYROSINASE (POLYPHENOL OXIDASE, PPO)

By Mahmud Tareq Hassan Khan*, Atta-ur Rahman and M. Iqbal Choudhary

Vol-1 No-1

Abstract

Tyrosinase (E.C. 1.14.18.1) is a multifunctional copper-containing enzyme which catalyses the biosynthesis of melanin (a huge polyphenolic biomacromolecule) in human, plants and animals. The irregularity in the expressions of this enzyme causes severe clinical problems in humann beings like hyperpigmentation and depigmentation, as well as vitiligo and albinism-type severe dermatological problems. In addition, tyrosinase is known to be involved in the molting process of insect and adhesion of marine organisms. This enzyme and its receptors (TRP1 and TRP2) are involved in the skin melanoma. The gene and protein sequences of this enzyme and their primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures have been analyzed through several bioinformatic approaches.

MOLECULAR MARKERS IN WHEAT

By Karim Dino Jamali, A.M. Soomro and Syed Ashraf Ali

Vol-1 No-1

Abstract

The progress made in DNA markers technology has been tremendous and exciting. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analysis ranging from polygenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. The development of high density molecular maps which has been facilitated by the PCR-based markers have made the mapping of almost any trait possible. The size and structure of the wheat genome makes it one of the most complex crop species for genetic analysis. The development of molecular technique for genetic analysis, in particular the use of molecular markers to monitor DNA sequence variation between varieties, and races, and wild relatives of wheat and related grass species, has led to a dramatic expansion in our understanding the structure and behavior of wheat genome.

UP TAKE OF GLYCOLIPIDS BY MYCOPLASMA CAPRICOLUM MEBRANES

By A. Sattar Khan

Vol-1 No-1

Abstract

Mycoplasma capricolum was grown with and without DGDG containing cholesterol on Edwards modified media. Total lipids were extracted with chloroform: methanol (2:1). Membrane protein and phospholipids were determined by Lowery and Chen methods respectively. Total lipids were separated on TLC and glycolipids were located with iodine while diphenylamine and orcinol test was performed for lipid sugar. Three positive sugar spots for microorganisms grown on DGDG and cholesterol were found. Either DGDG is being metabolized to new components or new glycolipids are being synthesized from DGDG.

PRODUCTION OF AMYLASE BY FUNGI THROUGH SUBMERGED FERMENTATION

By A. Sattar Qureshi, M. Umar Dahot and A.U.Rehman*

Vol-1 No-1

Abstract

Amylase has versatile application in food and industries, which inspired to produce this enzyme by less expensive culture medium using agricultural or forest waste. In the initial stage, amylase production was carried out by different fungal species such as Mucor geophillus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium lilacinum and mixed culture (A. niger + A. fumigatus) using mineral medium with and without glucose. Highest amount of amylase (34.4 & 1.36 units/ml both) was produced by A. fumigatus when grown at 31 + 2 °C with in 48 hours when mineral medium was supplemented with and without glucose respectively in comparison to other fungal species.

BIOSYNTHESIS OF -GLOCOSIDASE PENICILLIUM EXPANSUM

By Khalid Bhatti, M. Hanif Noomrio, *M. Umar Dahot, K.D. Ujjan and M. Uris Siyal

Vol-1 No-1

Abstract

Sugarcane bagasse and leaves were utilized after treatment with 0.6N NaOH and KOH as a substrate for the growth of Penicillium expansum and the production of -glucosidase. It was observed from the results that maximum yield (4750 units/ml) of -glucosidase was achieved at 240 hrs when 0.6N NaOH treated sugarcane bagasse was used as carbon source.

KINETRIC ANALYSIS F NUTRITIONAL STRATEGIES FOR NVERTASE PRODUCTION BY SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE KR18

By Kiran Shafiq, Sikander Ali and Ikram-ul-Haq

Vol-1 No-1

Abstract

Fermentation conditions for invertase secretion by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain were optimized. Submerged fermentation technique was employed for present investigation. 6.76±0.5 U of invertase ml -1 of fermented broth were obtained by Saccharomyces cerevisiae KR18 when fermentation medium was supplemented by 15.0 mg sucrose ml-1 and incubated at 25oC at initial pH 6.0. Sugar consumption and cell mass production (mg ml-1 ) at this pH level were 11.21±0.5 and 4.67±0.5, respectively. One ml of vegetative inoculum (1.2 × 103 cells) developed for 12 h was used. Kinetic analysis of fermentation results was made to check out the feasibility of fermentation process. All the kinetic parameters i.e. product (Yp/x, Yp/s) and growth rate (Yx/s) coefficients as well as specific rates (µ h-1 ) were favorable for optimized conditions.

SELECTION OF ACID AND BASE TREATMENT OF SUGARCANE WASTE AS CARBOON SOURCE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF AMYLASE BY PENICILLIUM EXPANSUM

By K.D.Ujjan, M. Hanif Noomrio, *M. Umar Dahot and M. Uris Siyal

Vol-1 No-1

Abstract

Sugarcane wastes were (bagasse and Leaves) pretreated with 0.6N acid and base and the hydrolysates were utilized as carbon source for the growth of Penicillium expansum and the production of amylase. It was found that maximum yield of amylase was achieved (2.6208 units/ml) at 168 hours when Penicillium expansum was grown on pretreated KOH sugarcane leaves mineral medium.

MASS PRODUCTION OF BANANA (MUSA SP.) THROUGH BIOTECHNOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES

By A. Khatri, I.A. Khan, G.S. Nizamani, M.A. Siddiqui, M.H. Khanzada, N.A.Dahar, N. Seema and M.H. Naqvi

Vol-1 No-1

Abstract

Meristematic tip with leaf primordial from 13 clones of desert banana (Musa spp.) were evaluated for in-vitro propagation techniques accelerates the production of disease-free banana (Musa spp.) clones through shoot tips. It was observed that apices cultured on solid MS media supplemented with 20μM BAP/1produced 3-8 shoots. Longitudinal splitting of shoots induced shoot clusters. Shoot elongation and rooting were obtained on media containing 1μM IBA/1 and 40gm/1 sugar (commercial). The regenerated plants were transferred to jiffy pots and kept in growth chamber for two weeks for acclimatization. Plants were then transplanted in field.

EFFECT OF GAMMA RAYS ON THE ROOTING OF GUAVA SHOOT TIPS

By R. Zamir, G. S. S. Khattak, T. Mohammad, S. A. Shah, I.Ali and N. Ali.

Vol-1 No-1

Abstract

In-vitro mutagenesis followed by micro propagation via axillary bud proliferation in shoot tips of guava (Psidium guajava L.) cultivar Safeda was carried out. Shoot tips were irradiated with 15 to 90 Gy gamma rays using 60Co cell source and cultured on MS medium containing 3.0% sucrose, 6-benzyleamino purine (BAP), and Lglutamine. The Shoot proliferation was observed after 7 weeks of culturing. Best shoot proliferation was recorded on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg /l (BAP) and 250 mg/l L-glutamine. Rooting of the cultured shoots were observed on half strength MS medium supplemented with Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Radio sensitivity was assessed by determining the percentage shoot tips survival and shoot proliferation. The LD50 (50% of the population kill does) was observed on 45 Gy. The doses above 75 Gy were found lethal to explants

IN-VITRO CULTURE STUDIES IN SUGARCANE

By I.A.Khan, A. Khatri, G.S.Nizamani, M.A. Siddiqui, M.H. Khanzada, N.A. Dahar, N. Seema and M.H. Naqvi

Vol-1 No-1

Abstract

Eleven sugarcane clones were compared for callusing and regeneration potential. All these clones showed varied response to the traits under study. However, the highest callus formation and plantlets regeneration were recorded in clone NIA-98 while the lowest in CP67-412 followed by SPSG-26. The maximum chlorophyll mutation frequency was noted in clone AEC82-1026 and minimum in AEC81-0819.

In vitro MUTAGEGENESIS IN OIL SEED BRASSICA

By Iftikhar Ali and Mumtaz Ahmad

Vol-1 No-1

Abstract

Two Concentrations of EMS mutagens were used to induce the genetic variations in microspore culture of two genotypes of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Embryos derived from mutated microspores were placed in liquid medium NLN. Within a few days only surviving embryos were transferred to solid medium B5 for further development. The effects of various core of EMS concentrations on the production and survival of embryos and plants in both genotypes has been discussed and it was concluded that the lower concentration had the desirable mutagenic effects for a practical mutation breeding programme of genetic improvement of oilseed brassicas.