Current Issue 2019
Pages: 59-61 Vol-16 No-1
EFFECT OF BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC FACTORS ON CULEX QUINQUE FASCIATUS AND CULEX MOLESTUS IN IRAQCorresponding Author
M. H. Abed-Alimarwa.firstname.lastname@example.org
Authors: M. H. Abed-Ali
A study was conducted, between Juley and April 2013, to investigate the environmental factors (biotic and abiotic) affecting the relative abundance and distribution of mosquito in College of Agriculture/ Baghdad University. The sampling unit comprised different aquatic habitat types including basins, ponds and trocar. Morphological identification revealed two mosquito species, Culex quinquefasciatus and C. molestus. Statistical analysis indicated that C. quinquefasciatus individuals were significantly higher than C. molestus in all habitats. The relative abundance of both species was 80.3 and 16.6 respectively in trocars. Results showed the presence of other aquatic habitats including five insect families belonging to three orders (Odonata, Diptera and Coleoptera), frogs and snails.
Keywords: words: mosquito, biotic and abiotic factors, relative abundance, distribution
Pages: 55-58 Vol-16 No-1
EFFECTS OF AMINOETHOXYVINYGLYCINE AND POSTHARVEST TREATMENT PACKAGE OF PLASTIC WRAPPING, FUNGICIDE PROCHLORAZ, AND LOW TEMPERATURE ON THE FRUIT SHELF-LIFE AND QUALITIES OF ‘CALLINA’ PAPAYACorresponding Author
Soesiladi E. Widodosestiwidodo@gmail.com
Authors: Soesiladi E. Widodo, Muhammad Kamal, Suskandini R. Dirmawati, Zulferiyenni, Rachmansyah A. Wardhana, Luthfah Q. Aini
Callina' papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit is a recently released papaya fruit cultivar that dominates domestic markets in Indonesia. Its fruit has a very short shelf-life due to high respiration and transpiration rates. In our previous research, a postharvest treatment package consisting of one-layer plastic wrapping, fungicide Prochloraz 0.67 mL/L, and low temperature of 16-18 °C was able to prolong its shelf-life and maintain its high fruit qualities. By adding an anti-ethylene of aminoethoxyvinyglycine (AVG) to the postharvest package, longer fruit shelf-life can be expected. The purpose of this research was to study the combined effect of the fruit postharvest treatment package and AVG to the shelf-life and qualities of 'Callina' fruit. The study was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design of a 2 x 2 factorial. The first factor was the fruit postharvest treatment package (without and with the package consisting of a single layer plastic wrapping + Prochloraz fungicide 0.67 mL/L + low temperature 16-18 °C) and the second factor was the anti-ethylene AVG (without and with 5 mg/L AVG). The results showed that (1) the fruit postharvest treatment package had a significant effect on the fruit shelf-life of 'Callina' papaya by prolonging the shelf-life of 14 days longer than without the fruit postharvest treatment package, without affecting its fruit qualities, (2) the AVG had no effect on the shelf-life and fruit qualities, and (3) the combination of fruit postharvest treatment package and AVG gave the best result that prolonged its fruit shelf-life up to 16 days longer than the control.
Keywords: AVG, Carica papaya, postharvest, Prochloraz, wrapping
Pages: 47-54 Vol-16 No-1
PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF COLD-ACTIVE METALLOPROTEASE BY BACILLUS SP. AP1 FROM APHARWAT PEAK, KASHMIRCorresponding Author
Authors: Junaid Furhan, Neha Salaria, Misbah Jabeen and Jasia Qadri
A gram-positive, rod shaped psychrotrophic and alkalotolerant bacterium, producing extracellular proteolytic enzyme was isolated from the peak of Apharwat, Kashmir. The strain was identified as Bacillus sp via 16S rDNA sequencing and was designated as Bacillus sp. AP1. Highest quantity of enzyme was secreted when strain was grown for 30 hours at 20ºC and pH 9.0. Glucose and skim milk were the best source of carbon and substrate respectively. The optimal activity of partially purified protease was recorded at pH 9.0, classifying the enzyme as alkaline protease. Similarly, the protease was found to be low temperature active with maximum enzyme activity at 20ºC. Strong inhibition of activity by EGTA and EDTA defines the enzyme as metalloprotease; among metal ions, Mn2+ enhanced enzyme activity. Finally, the washing test proved that enzyme could possibly be effective as an additive for cold washing purposes.
Keywords: Bacillus sp. AP1, Cold-active protease, Psychrotrophic, Alkalotolerant, Metallo protease.
Pages: 40-46 Vol-16 No-1
EXTRACTION, PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTRACELLULAR PULLULANASE BY KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE ISOLATED FROM SOILCorresponding Author
Aswan H. Al-Bayyaraswan@coagri.uobaghdad.edu.iq
Authors: Shimal Y. Abdul-Hadi and Aswan H. Al-Bayyar
Many soil samples collected from different locations in Mosul city in Iraq showed existence of bacterial isolates produce pullulanases, seven isolates were obtained and the most prominent one was denoted No5 in terms of the decomposition halo diameter, which reached 8.46 mm, and when the isolates subjected to primary screening by cultured on pullulan-supported medium it was identified as Klebsiella pneumonia after a number of diagnostic and biochemical tests. A number of sequenced steps for enzyme purification included precipitation with 75% saturation of ammonium sulphate which record enzyme activity 93.05 U/ml, followed by dialysis step for 24 hours. The purification step by using Sephadex-G100 gave 19.013% as enzymatic yield with 74.581 folds. It is cleared by using electrophoresis, that the molecular weight of the enzyme was 94 KD. By studying some enzyme characteristics, the results showed that optimum pH for activity was 6 while the optimum pH for stability was 6-7, and the optimum temperature was 60?C, while 95% of enzyme activity was retained at 50-60?C.
Keywords: characterization, Extraction, Klebsiella pneumoniae, pullulanase, purification.
Pages: 35-39 Vol-16 No-1
RISK ASSESSMENT OF DIARRHOEAL DISEASE USING A GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) AT THE DISTRICT LEVEL OF SAMUT SONGKHRAM PROVINCE, THAILANDCorresponding Author
Authors: Tanawat Chaiphongpachara and Prapawan Suacum
This study aims to investigate factors related to diarrheal disease occurrence in Samut Songkhram Province and create a spatial model to assess the level of diarrhoea risk at the district level of Samut Songkhram Province, including Muang Samut Songkhram, Amphawa and Bang Khonthi. Ten factors, including land use, population density, number of food establishments, standardized markets, hygienic toilets, volume of waste, water quality, temperature, relative humidity and rainfall were used to study their relationship with cases of diarrhoea. The results of the analysis determined four factors associated with diarrhoea, including land use, standardized markets, volume of waste and water quality (p ? 0.05). Meanwhile, assessment of diarrhoea risk levels employing GIS established that Muang Samut Songkhram had the highest risk followed by Amphawa and Bang Khonthi, respectively. This information is important for planning and controlling diarrhoeal disease in Samut Songkhram Province, Thailand.
Keywords: Risk assessment, Geographic Information System, diarrhoeal disease.
Pages: 23-29 Vol-16 No-1
A STUDY ON THE POTENTIAL OF MORINGA SEEDS IN ADSORPTION OF ORGANIC CONTENT FROM WATER COLLECTED FROM OILFIELD REFINERYCorresponding Author
Ali Saleh Jaferalkhafajia31@gmail.com
Authors: Ali Saleh Jafer, Ali A. Hassan, Zahraa Tawfiq Naeem
The purpose of this education is to explore uses of moringa seeds (M. oleifera) in the adsorption of organic contents from wastewater of oilfield refinery, Iraq. Adsorption treatment conditions were optimized to assess the relations between working condition, such by means of moringa amount, contact time and pH, to classify the best working circumstances. Organic removal rates were 89.65% under the optimum conditions comprise a contact time of 1.5 h, 1.5 g moringa dose and pH 3. The aptitude of moringa seeds to eliminate organic contents was augmented subsequently addition of different dosage at regular mixing time between 0.5 and 1 h. The equilibrium data of adsorption were investigated by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm replicas. We noted that supreme adsorption capacity of organic intended from Langmuir isotherm stood about 23.97 mg/g. The devised adsorption can be explored as a well-organized green treatment for removal of organic matter from refinery waste water in acidic conditions pH < 7.
Keywords: Environmental, Refinery waste water, organic treatment and adsorption.
Pages: 21-25 Vol-16 No-1
ASSESSMENT OF ARSENIC, LEAD, MERCURY AND COLIFORM COUNT IN SERDANG LAKE, SELANGOR MALAYSIACorresponding Author
Abdullah Y. Al-Mahdidr.email@example.com
Authors: Abdullah Y. Al-Mahdi, Mohamed A. Ahmida, Alabed Ali A. Alabed, Rasheed Abdsalam
Environmental impacts from domestic and industrial wastes on aquatic ecosystems have received increasing attention in recent years. Furthermore, water-associated diseases have become one of the ten topmost diseases due to poor drinking water quality. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the concentration of three heavy metals (arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg)) and coliform count in Sri Serdang Mines Lake. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP- MS) was employed for the analysis of heavy metals. Both of fecal coliform (FC) and total coliform (TC) methods were carried out using the membrane filter technique as described by APHA (1995) standard. Results were recorded as colony forming units (CFU)/100 mL of sample. The As, Pb and Hg concentration values were ranged from 0.0287 to 0.0334; 0.0357 to 0.0508 and 0.00058 to 0.00161 mg/L, respectively. The TC and FC of Escherichia coli in Sri Serdang Mines Lake were in the range of 102 to 105 CFU/100 mL. Pb was the most abundant heavy metal present in all the water samples as compared to As and Hg. There were also significant differences (p<0.05) in both TC and FC concentrations in the water samples from all the five stations. Therefore, efficient heavy metal removal and disinfection are essential to prevent possible human exposure.
Keywords: Assessment, Arsenic, Lead, Mercury, Coliform.
Pages: 13-20 Vol-16 No-1
INFLUENCE OF SKIM MILK AND SUCROSE ON THE VIABILITY OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA AND QUALITY OF PROBIOTIC COCOGHURT PRODUCED USING STARTERS
Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei R-68 AND Streptococcus therCorresponding Author
Authors: Usman Pato, Yusmarini Yusuf, Ivan Pratama Panggabean, Nurul Putri Handayani, Nadia Adawiyah and Arif Nanda Kusuma
is made from the main raw material of coconut milk. In this study, the effect of skim milk and sucrose on the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was examined together with the impact on the quality of cocoghurt produced. Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei R-68 and Streptococcus thermophilus were used as starter cultures. The study was carried out experimentally using a Completely Randomized Design with the variations of both skim milk and sucrose concentrations. The data found were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and then continued with DNMRT at 5% level. Parameters observed were total LAB, pH, total lactic acid, total solid, protein, moisture and ash contents as well as total fat and fatty acid profile. The results showed that the addition of skim milk (2.5%) and sucrose (5.0%) produced cocoghurt which met the quality standard. Cocoghurt produced using skim milk 5.0% and sucrose 7.5% had the characteristic of being slightly white, tasting sour and sweet, with an aroma of coconut milk; the texture was rather thick and preferred by the panelists. Probiotic cocoghurt showed that fatty acid profiles were dominated by medium-chain saturated fatty acid 72.90% followed by long-chain saturated fatty acid 13.11% and unsaturated fatty acid 7.28%.
Keywords: Cocoghurt, skim milk, Lactobacillus casei, coconut milk, viability
Pages: 5-12 Vol-16 No-1
STUDY THE EFFECT OF GRAPHENE ON POLYMER (PAPA) COMPONENTCorresponding Author
Authors: Ayad Shatti, 1Kanaan K.Ahmed , Osamah Adnan, Ihab Aljanabi
In this study graphene was prepared from the reaction of the graphene oxide by hummer methods. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by infrared spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM), and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). Two types of polymers were prepared (PAPA) , Were diagnosed by FT_IR. The polymeric chips were maxed with vinyl alcohol polymer (PVA)(it's physical and chemical properties was known). The physical and electronic properties of these polymers were studied after deflection with nanoparticles. Electrophysiological measurements showed that the PAPA with graphene nanoparticles has shown a higher conductivity than the (PAPA) polymers. and the real dielectric moment constant of (PAPA +Graphene). Whereas the electrostatic moment constant showed a significant in PAPA. The study showed that these latter particles have a higher electric capacity of store energy than the polymer and are suitable for many applications ranging from the manufacture capacity to batteries.
Keywords: Graphene, nanoparticles, polymer PAPA, conductivity, Dielectric constant, Nanocomposites.
Pages: 1-4 Vol-16 No-1
ROLE OF TNF- (Aplpha) AND IL-10 IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS DISEASE AND THE ASSOCIATION WITH SOME HLA -11 DR AND DQ ALLELESCorresponding Author
Samir Sabaa Raheemssrj1964@yahoo.com
Samir Sabaa Raheem, Mussa M. Alkhatib, Asraa jawad jabber
Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic disease that causes progressive joint damage and disability. Inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and IL-6, which are mainly produced by macrophages, play a central role in the development of synovitis. For example, TNF play major role in the expression of adhesion molecules and inflammatory chemokines which, in combination, facilitate increase inflammatory leukocytes and severe inflammatory responses.
In addition to environmental factors, genetic constitution of hosts seems to play a crucial role in acquiring the disease and its development. The current study was carried out for the detection of any association of HLA-class 11 (DR, DQ) with RA disease by genotyping in Iraqi patients, as well as to provide information about genotypes that may confer susceptibility or resistance to the development of the disease. >
Aim of the study: to assess the role, strength and profile of immune response in patients with rheumatoid arthritis by estimation of TNF- ?, IL-10 and levels in compare to healthy control group. And to identify any role for certain alleles in exposure to the disease.
Material and Method: Five ml of venous blood samples withdrawn from 30 patients suffering from confirmed Rheumatoid arthritis disease, 19 patients were females and 11 males in addition to 30 healthy control samples were enrolled in this study all samples were subjected for (ELISA test) (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay) to estimate the TNF- ?, and IL-10 Levels by using the three ml of blood to extract the serum. Another two ml was used for DNA extraction, and then HLA-Class Il genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific oligonucleotide probes (PCR-SSO).
Results: A highly statistically significant variation both in TNF – ? levels, and IL-10 between RA patients group and healthy control group was observed, the P value was <0.001 No statically significant differences between males and females in frequency of the RA with 0.119 P value.
HLA-class II genotyping of RA patients in compare with healthy control reflect significant differences in some alleles. Among DR alleles there were some alleles showed higher frequency in control group; DR*0403 allele showed increase frequency in control groups with 35% compared with 6.67% in patients group, and the P value was 0.020, which is considered as statistically significant Another DR*701 allele showed increase frequency in patients groups with 9 cases 30% and the P value was 0.007. Concerning DQ allele’s genotyping no significant allele’s frequency was noticed. Although *0202 allele occurred in 40% of patients group and 15% in control groups it was not significant statistically as the P value was more than 0.05
Keywords: RA, TNF- ?, IL-10, Genotyping, alleles