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The Pakistan Journal of Biotechnology (PJBt), a broad-based journal, is introduced to publish the most exciting research in all areas of basic and applied biotechnology and related fields. The Journal welcomes the submission of manuscripts that meet the general criteria of significance and scientific excellence. Read More

Current Issue 2020

  • Pages: 195-203 Vol-17 NO-4

    A REVIEW ON BIOTRANSFORMATION OF A SYNTHETIC PROGESTIN, NORETHISTERONE

    Corresponding Author

    Azizuddin

    azizpobox1@yahoo.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Azizuddin, Muhammad Iqbal

    A biotransformation is a key tool for the structural modification of natural and synthetic complex compounds. It is employed to synthesize those compounds, which are arduous to get from chemical synthesis. During the last few decades’ research has been focused on the modification of biologically potent compounds. Biotransformation is one of the effective ways in this regard. The current article covers the biotransformation of norethisterone (1) by using various bacteria and fungi as well as metabolism in man and animals i.e. rat, rabbit, monkey and dog, which brought mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxylation, oxidation, reduction, epoxidation and deethynylation of 1. The review covers 26 metabolites (2 to 27) of 1, obtained during 1906 to 2018.

    Keywords: : Biotransformation, Norethisterone, Progestin, Bacteria, Fungi, Human, Metabolites

  • Pages: 189-194 Vol-17 No-4

    RESISTANCE EVALUATION IN RHYZOPERTHA DOMINICA (COLEOPTERA; BOSTRICHIDAE) TOWARDS PHOSPHINE AND DELTAMETHRIN UNDER LABORATORY CONDITION

    Corresponding Author

    Muhammad Shahid

    shahid.css3322@gmail.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Muhammad Shahid, , Farooq Ahmed , Unsar Naeem-Ullah , Kanwal Ranian , Muhammad Sagheer and Muhammad Ramzan

    The most destructive pest of stored grain commodities is Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), which causes tremendous loss in favorable conditions. During the hot and humid conditions the pest population builds up sharply and deteriorates the quality of stored grains. Mostly, the fumigants and insecticides are used for sustainable management of pest. The residual toxicity of deltamethrin and phosphine gas was evaluated against Rhyzopertha dominica known as the lesser grain borer. The grains commodities were treated with the 6 concentrations of insecticides (0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05 and 0.06 ppm) and phosphine (0.006, 0.007, 0.008, 0.009, 0.01 and 0.011 ppm) to test percent mortality of insect pest under laboratory conditions. The percent mortality data of insecticides and phosphine were noted after 24, 48 and 72 hours and 7, 14 and 21 days. The overall study results showed that maximum mortality was 76.65% in susceptible strains while 42.80% in resistant strain against deltamethrin. The maximum mortality at 0.011ppm against phosphine 56.35% and 31.15% was observed in resistant and susceptible populations of Rhyzopertha dominica. The overall data indicated that after 72 hours the lesser grain borer 3.65 times fold resistant against deltamethrin while 0.882 time fold resistance against phosphine after seven days interval over the susceptible strains.

    Keywords: Rhyzopertha dominica, deltamethrin, phosphine, resistance

  • Pages: 183-187 Vol-17 No-4

    ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC PARAMETERSIN RAPESEED GENOTYPES

    Corresponding Author

    Abdul Wahid Baloch

    balochabdulwahid@yahoo.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Sajid Hussain Rao1, Zareen Qambrani , Naila Gandahi , Tauqeer Ahmad Yasir , Saima Bano, Qurban Ali Nahiyoon , Liaquat Ali Bhutto , Abdul Wahid Baloch

    The current study was carried out to estimatecorrelation, heritability, and genetic distance in ten (Punjab sarson, Hyola-401, Rainbow, Waster, Abasion-95, Hyola-42, Hbo-555, Mun-1, Kangola and Kn-277) rapeseed genotypes at Botanical Garden, SAU, Tandojam during the crop season 2018-19. The data were collected of seven different traits plant height (cm), branches plant-1 , silique plant-1 , seeds silique-1 , silique length (cm), seed yield plant-1 and seed index) for further genetic analysis. Mean squares displayed that all studied characters were differed significantly, showing that exploited rapeseed genotypes retain valuable genetic resources hence may be used in future breeding programs. Of the total traits, four traits such as silique plant-1 (r = 0.33* ), seeds silique-1 (r = 0.34* ), silique length (r = 0.35* ) and seed index (r = 0.31* ) showed positive and significant associations with seed yield plant-1 , demonstrating that utilization of these traits will enhance seed yield in rapeseed genotypes; however, these characters may be set as selection criteria for evolving high yield rapeseed genotypes. The maximum(179.23) genetic distance was found between Hyola-42 and Mun-1, followed by Hyola-42 and Hbo-555 (166.10), Mun-1 and Kn-277 (162.38), Abasin-95 and Mun-1 (156.79), Hyola-401 and Mun-1 (148.79), Hbo-555 and Kn-277 (148.52), Westar and Mun-1 (146.36) and Abasin-95 and Hbo-555 (143.61). These pairs of genotypes may be given priority in the hybridization program because they carry different genetic recombination and will lead to a great amount of heterosis in hybrids. High heritability was estimated for plant height (h2= 95.54%), branches plant-1 (h2=80.92%), silique plant-1 (h2=84.26%), seeds silique-1 (h2 =90.20%), silique length (h2= 82.60%), seed yield plant-1 (h2=79.12%) and seed index (h2 =66.66%), signifying that these traits were under genetic control.

    Keywords: correlation, genetic diversity, heritability, rapeseed, seed yield

  • Pages: 173-182 VOl-17 No-4

    LOCAL MEDICINAL PLANTS OF PAKISTAN IN THE FIGHT AGAINST GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

    Corresponding Author

    Murad Ali Khan

    drmalikhan@yahoo.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Rifat Zahid1,Jafar Khan , Mohammad Khuram , Murad Ali Khan

    The arise of drug-resistant pathogens is persistent in the control of pathogens. Several effective drugs have their roots in natural products, which have a traditional use in different diseases. To authenticate the efficacy of these traditional medicines, we selected the gastrointestinal tract infection as a target disease. Two plants Withania coagulans and Ehretia obtusifolia, were selected on the bases of their usage in folk medicine for the gastrointestinal tract complications. The bacteria selected were Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholera and Aeromonas spp. The crude extracts and fractions at three concentrations (15, 30, and 50 mg/ml) were tested for effectiveness against E. coli, S. dysenteriae, V. cholrea, S. typhi, P. aeruginosa and Aeromonas spp. The results show that the Ehretia obtusifolia has good activity against all test bacteria except S. dysenteriae while W. coagulans had activity against all the test bacteria.

    Keywords: Withania coagulans; Ehretia obtusifolia; Gastro-intestinal tract; Gram negative bacteria

  • Pages: 161-172 Vol-17 No-4

    COMPARATIVE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND ACTIVITY OF DEFENSE RELATED ENZYMES AND GENE EXPRESSION IN RUBBER CLONES AGAINST RIGIDOPORUS MICROPORUS INFECTION

    Corresponding Author

    Korakot Nakkanong

    korakot_nick@yahoo.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Afdholiatus Syafaah , Natthakorn Woraathakorn , Patimapon Plodpai , Charassri Nualsri, Korakot Nakkanong

    Rigidoporus microporus is the causal agent of rubber white root disease (WRD). Control of this is commonly carried out by chemical treatment. The use of tolerant rootstocks may present an effective method to lessen its impact. The screening of rubber rootstocks for tolerance of WRD was investigated by both defense-related enzymes and gene expression, and assessment of disease symptoms.Two recommended clones in Thailand (RRIT251 and RRIT408) and RRIM623 (Malaysian clone) were screened and compared with susceptible clones (RRIM600 and BPM24) and tolerant clone (PB5/51) by inoculating young rubber seedling with R. microporus. The expression of PRs and PAL were analyzed at 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days post inoculation (dpi) along with the defense-related enzyme activities. Based on observed transcriptional level of PRs and PAL genes, CHI, PAL, and POD enzyme activities, and also evidence from WRD symptom assessment in the field, we concluded that PB 5/51 had the best tolerance with the lowest disease incidence, high PAL and POD enzyme activities, with the next best being RRIM 623 and RRIT 251, respectively. Meanwhile, BPM 24, RRIM 600, and RRIT 408 clones are moderately susceptible to WRD. The study introduces new possibilities for the control of WRD using alternative rubber rootstock clones.

    Keywords: Hevea brasiliensis, PR genes, PAL gene, chitinase, peroxidase, Rigidoporus microporus

  • Pages: 155-159 Vol-17 No-3

    PHARMACOLOGICAL ROLES OF Crataegus SPECIES

    Corresponding Author

    Ahmed Hamad Saleh

    ahmedeagle72@gmail.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Saif T. Jasim, Ahmed Hamad Saleh

    The importance of flowers in the administration of diseases, as nicely as provision of raw substances for the pharmaceutical industries ought to now not be over emphasized. Crataegus species are section of the necessary plant family Rosaceae. Members of the genus have been famous for their lengthy time period records of use in the remedy and control of metabolic as properly as endocrine ailments that are detrimental to human health. Hawthorn is used (in China) in the therapy of digestive system diseases and coronary heart diseases. In America (north regions), therapy role for heart disorder dates again to 1800. Currently, evidence is collecting from a number studies that Crataegus extracts labor a large vary of pharmacological features of cardiovascular, which include activity of antioxidant, anti- inflammatory effect, anti-cardiac remodeling effect, advantageous inotropic effect, defensive impact against ischemia injury, hypolipidemic and antimicrobial activity.

    Keywords: Crataegus; antioxidant activity; antimicrobial activity; cardiovascular pharmacological properties.

  • Pages: 149-153 Vol-17 No-3

    EVALUATION OF THE LACTIC ACID BACTERIA IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF YOGURT CONSUMED IN PAKISTAN

    Corresponding Author

    Altaf Ahmed Simair

    hnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 20160, China. Email: altafsimair@dhu.edu.cn.
  • Abstract

    Authors: Abdul Sami Dahri, Asim Patrick, Nasirudin Shaikh, Jamaluddin Mangi, Asif Ali Bhatti and Altaf Ahmed Simair

    Lactic acid bacteria are industrially essential components to produce milk products such as yogrut, cheese, buttermilk, and kefir. Different gram-positive species are used for this purpose, including Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii spp. bulgaricus bacteria were assayed by a viable count method. Different available commercial yogurts were purchased from the local market; among these, six were selected for assay. Samples were named as Nestle Podina Raita (NPR), Nestle Smooth Yogrut (NSY), Nestle Karachi Khase (NKK), Nestle Zeera Podina (NZR), Nestle Fruit Yogrut (NFY), and National Original Yogrut (NOY). From results, it was observed that NOY has the highest mean count i.e. 12.08 ± 0.25 log10 CFU/ml and 11.02 ± 0.13 log10 CFU/ml for S.thermophilus and L.bulgaricus, respectively. Titratable acidity was highest in NOY (0.93 %) with mean viable LAB counts were found to be 11.26 ± 0.24 and 10.61 ± 0.12 for lactobacillus bulgaricus and streptococcus thermophilus, respectively.

    Keywords: Lactic acid Bacteria (LAB) Viable counts, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus.

  • Pages: 143-148 Vol-17 No-3

    EVALUATION OF DRINKING WATER QUALITY CONSUMED IN SOME URBAN CONDOMINIUMS IN KELANA JAYA BEFORE AND AFTER USING MICRO- FILTERED WATER DISPENSERS (MWD)

    Corresponding Author

    Abdullah Y. Al-Mahdi1

    dr.microbiology2017@gmail.com.
  • Abstract

    Authors: Abdullah Y. Al-Mahdi1, Muhanad Abdullah Salim , Alabed Ali A. Alabed, sita Elengoe , Rasheed Abdulsalam

    Based on results and analysis, the values of ten parameters namely; Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Turbidity, Nitrate, Nitrite, Chlorine, Fluoride, pH and coliforms bacteria in the study stations were influenced by evaluate water quality during the three months of study periods. Hence, this research aimed to assess and evaluate the 8 drinking water condominium stations at Kelana Jaya area, Selangor, Malaysia. The average value of nitrate, turbidity, chlorine, fluoride was higher of tap water in some condominiums especially ST3, ST4, ST5, ST6 and ST7. The highest value of this physicochemical parameters at stations ST5 (pH 8.6, nitrate 0.16 mg/L, turbidity 1.5 NTU, chlorine 1.2 mg/L, and fluoride 1.65 mg/L) and ST6 (pH 8.5, nitrate 0.15 mg/L, turbidity 1.6 NTU, chlorine 1.95 mg/L and fluoride 1.73 mg/L) which slightly higher than drinking water standard. With same aim of this investigation to determine the level of total viable counts and fecal coliform bacteria of taps waters before using filters which indicate that there were 3 stations have higher value ST3 (before 563 and after 5 CFU/100 mL), ST5 (before 579 and after 7 CFU/100 mL) and ST6 (before 582 and after 15 CFU/100 mL) respectively. The house filter in most physicochemical parameters is more accurate than commercial filter (WFS) but for total viable counts and fecal coliform bacteria found that commercial filter is more effective and accurate than housefilter.

    Keywords: Drinking water; DO; BOD; COD; water quality.