About The Journal
The Pakistan Journal of Biotechnology (PJBt), a broad-based journal, is introduced to publish the most exciting research in all areas of basic and applied biotechnology and related fields. The Journal welcomes the submission of manuscripts that meet the general criteria of significance and scientific excellence. Read More
Current Issue 2020
Pages: 155-159 Vol-17 No-3
PHARMACOLOGICAL ROLES OF Crataegus SPECIESCorresponding Author
Ahmed Hamad Salehahmedeagle72@gmail.com
Authors: Saif T. Jasim, Ahmed Hamad Saleh
The importance of flowers in the administration of diseases, as nicely as provision of raw substances for the pharmaceutical industries ought to now not be over emphasized. Crataegus species are section of the necessary plant family Rosaceae. Members of the genus have been famous for their lengthy time period records of use in the remedy and control of metabolic as properly as endocrine ailments that are detrimental to human health. Hawthorn is used (in China) in the therapy of digestive system diseases and coronary heart diseases. In America (north regions), therapy role for heart disorder dates again to 1800. Currently, evidence is collecting from a number studies that Crataegus extracts labor a large vary of pharmacological features of cardiovascular, which include activity of antioxidant, anti- inflammatory effect, anti-cardiac remodeling effect, advantageous inotropic effect, defensive impact against ischemia injury, hypolipidemic and antimicrobial activity.
Keywords: Crataegus; antioxidant activity; antimicrobial activity; cardiovascular pharmacological properties.
Pages: 149-153 Vol-17 No-3
EVALUATION OF THE LACTIC ACID BACTERIA IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF YOGURT CONSUMED IN PAKISTANCorresponding Author
Altaf Ahmed Simairhnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 20160, China. Email: email@example.com.
Authors: Abdul Sami Dahri, Asim Patrick, Nasirudin Shaikh, Jamaluddin Mangi, Asif Ali Bhatti and Altaf Ahmed Simair
Lactic acid bacteria are industrially essential components to produce milk products such as yogrut, cheese, buttermilk, and kefir. Different gram-positive species are used for this purpose, including Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii spp. bulgaricus bacteria were assayed by a viable count method. Different available commercial yogurts were purchased from the local market; among these, six were selected for assay. Samples were named as Nestle Podina Raita (NPR), Nestle Smooth Yogrut (NSY), Nestle Karachi Khase (NKK), Nestle Zeera Podina (NZR), Nestle Fruit Yogrut (NFY), and National Original Yogrut (NOY). From results, it was observed that NOY has the highest mean count i.e. 12.08 ± 0.25 log10 CFU/ml and 11.02 ± 0.13 log10 CFU/ml for S.thermophilus and L.bulgaricus, respectively. Titratable acidity was highest in NOY (0.93 %) with mean viable LAB counts were found to be 11.26 ± 0.24 and 10.61 ± 0.12 for lactobacillus bulgaricus and streptococcus thermophilus, respectively.
Keywords: Lactic acid Bacteria (LAB) Viable counts, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus.
Pages: 143-148 Vol-17 No-3
EVALUATION OF DRINKING WATER QUALITY CONSUMED IN SOME URBAN CONDOMINIUMS IN KELANA JAYA BEFORE AND AFTER USING MICRO- FILTERED WATER DISPENSERS (MWD)Corresponding Author
Abdullah Y. Al-Mahdi1dr.firstname.lastname@example.org.
Authors: Abdullah Y. Al-Mahdi1, Muhanad Abdullah Salim , Alabed Ali A. Alabed, sita Elengoe , Rasheed Abdulsalam
Based on results and analysis, the values of ten parameters namely; Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Turbidity, Nitrate, Nitrite, Chlorine, Fluoride, pH and coliforms bacteria in the study stations were influenced by evaluate water quality during the three months of study periods. Hence, this research aimed to assess and evaluate the 8 drinking water condominium stations at Kelana Jaya area, Selangor, Malaysia. The average value of nitrate, turbidity, chlorine, fluoride was higher of tap water in some condominiums especially ST3, ST4, ST5, ST6 and ST7. The highest value of this physicochemical parameters at stations ST5 (pH 8.6, nitrate 0.16 mg/L, turbidity 1.5 NTU, chlorine 1.2 mg/L, and fluoride 1.65 mg/L) and ST6 (pH 8.5, nitrate 0.15 mg/L, turbidity 1.6 NTU, chlorine 1.95 mg/L and fluoride 1.73 mg/L) which slightly higher than drinking water standard. With same aim of this investigation to determine the level of total viable counts and fecal coliform bacteria of taps waters before using filters which indicate that there were 3 stations have higher value ST3 (before 563 and after 5 CFU/100 mL), ST5 (before 579 and after 7 CFU/100 mL) and ST6 (before 582 and after 15 CFU/100 mL) respectively. The house filter in most physicochemical parameters is more accurate than commercial filter (WFS) but for total viable counts and fecal coliform bacteria found that commercial filter is more effective and accurate than housefilter.
Keywords: Drinking water; DO; BOD; COD; water quality.
Pages: 139-142 Vol-17 No-3
BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME STRAINS OF XANTHOMONAS AND THEIR RESPONSE AGAINST GENTICIN-AN ANTIBIOTICCorresponding Author
Javed Asghar Tariqajatariq_411@yahoo.com
Authors: Javed Asghar Tariqa , Asif Nawazb , Abdul Mubin Lodhib and Raza Muhammad Memona
In present research investigations, enzyme (catalase) secretion, salt tolerance and Geneticin response against few strains of Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae was checked under laboratory conditions. Consequences regarding enzyme efficacy (catalase) varied among the isolates. The findings regarding temperature tolerance unveiled that all the strains were able to grow at 1%, 3%, 5% NaCl concentration. Moreover, Geneticin against tested bacteria exhibited development of maximum inhibition zone i.e. 3, 4, 5 milimeter in eleven days of incubation period against 6 isolates; ASNNBXI, ASNNB-XII, ASNNB-XVIII, ASNNB-XIV, ASNNB-XV, ASNNB-X. Moreover, strains ASNNB-XIII, ASNNB-XII exhibited minimum inhibition zone i.e. 0 millimeters against12 isolates
Keywords: Xanthomonas, biochemical tests, rice (Oryza sativa), disease, Sindh
Pages: 133-138 Vol-17 No-3
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME MALAYSIAN MUSHROOMS ON ESCHERICHIA COLI AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUSCorresponding Author
Nagi A. Alemail@example.com
Authors: Abdullah Y. Al-Mahdi , Ashraf Ibrahim Ali Ahmed , Alabed Ali A. Alabed , Rasheed Abdulsalam ,Nagi A. Al-haj
Background and Objective: Nowadays, the world is facing significant challenges in modern healthcare services because many antimicrobial agents have lost their effectiveness in treating infectious diseases primarily due to the development of microbial resistance. Mushroom species release various bioactive compounds and yet largely untapped resource of useful natural compounds. This study aimed to assess the primary screening for antimicrobial activity of selected Malaysian mushroom’s against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Methodology: The mycelia biomass extracts of the 8 collected Basidiomycetes mushrooms. Antibacterial activity was measured using Disc diffusion and Well diffusion methods against standard reference strains E. coli MTCC 740 and S. aureus MTCC 501. Results: The potential inhibition of Agaricus cupreobrunneus, which gave a reading of 4.6 cm for disc diffusion and 3.4 cm for well diffusion of inhibition against E. coli MTCC 740 and against S. aureus MTCC 501 that, gave a reading of 4 cm for disc diffusion and 3.1 cm for well diffusion approaches. The second highest bioactivity mushroom against E. coli MTCC 740 the highest inhibition was shown by extract of brown Agaricus bisporus which gave 3.5 cm and give 3.2 cm S. aureus MTCC 501 by disc diffusion. For well diffusion the zone of inhibition by same mushroom for E. coli MTCC 740 which gave reading 3.0 cm and gave 2.7 cm against S. aureus MTCC 501. Conclusions: The species studied showed potential inhibition of A.cupreobrunneus more than other mushrooms by disc diffusion method especially against E. coli more than S. aureus. Further studies are required to ascertain their toxicity against mammalian cells and potential side effects.
Keywords: Antibacterial, Mushroom, Agaricus cupreobrunneus, Agraicus bisporus, E. coli, S. aureus
Pages: 129-132 Vol-17 No-3
POPULATION DYNAMICS OF MANGO FRUIT FLIES IN TEHSIL JATOI, PUNJAB, PAKISTANCorresponding Author
Authors: Muhammad Javaid , Unsar Naeem-Ullah , Muhammad Ramzan , Muhammad Shahid , Naeem Iqbal ,Mirza Abdul Qayyum and Sadam Hussain Bhutto
Mango is known as king of fruits and important source of foreign exchange. The production of mango is reduces due to various insect pests. Among insect pests, fruit fly is major threat that can cause huge yield losses in the globe. An experimental study was conducted in tehsil Jatoi to check the population dynamics of fruit flies using of different traps (Pheromone, bottle and jar). Pest data was recorded since two consecutive years i.e. 2016-2017. During the study, it was observed that highest male fruit fly captured in pheromones traps followed by bottle and jar traps. June and July were the peak months of pest population or infestation, population level of pest was recorded zero in January and December month of study period (2016-2017). The maximum population of male fruit flies per trap was captured in pheromones traps (187.03) followed by bottle traps (186.44 male/trap) during 2017. The maximum male fruit flies per trap were captured in pheromone (160.83) followed by bottle trap (121.03) and jar trap (45.99) during 2016.
Keywords: Mango, Fruit fly, Population dynamic, Tehsil Jatoi, Punjab, Pakistan
Pages: 121-127 Vol-17 No-3
DNA AND PROTEIN FINGERPRINTING OF BACTERIOCIN PRODUCING ENTEROCOCCI OF CLINICAL ORIGINCorresponding Author
Authors: Sanya Shabbir , Mushtaq Hussain , Arif Zubair , Sehar Afshan Naz , Maryam Shafique , Nusrat Jabeen
Introduction: Enterococcus is one of the most common etiological agents of nosocomial infections with multiple clinical strains that produce bacteriocins. This study aims to explore the genomic and proteomic diversity of the bacteriocinogenic and non-bacteriocinogenic clinical Enterococci. Methods: Stab overlay and cross streak methods were used to identify bacteriocin producing Enterococci. Bacteriocin producers and selected non-producers were taxonomically identified by 16S rDNA sequencing. Genomic variations of the isolates were explored by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR), whereas sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was employed to discern the proteomic diversity of the isolates. Results: Out of 109 clinical isolates screened, 9 and 4 were respectively found to be bacteriocin producers and nonproducers. Of 13 selected isolates, 8 were identified as Enterococcus faecalis and 3 were identified as Enterococcus faecium. Two isolates, SMN14 and SMN17, were failed to amplify by universal primers of 16S rDNA gene. RAPD analyses showed that out of 6 arbitrary primers, 3 were able to successfully resolve the genetic variations present amongst the isolates of Enterococcus faecalis or Enterococcus faecium. Consistently, SDS-PAGE of total bacterial lysate not only demonstrated the total protein expressional differences amongst the selected isolates but also distinguish bacteriocin producers from non-producers. Conclusions: Our findings show that simple assays like SDS-PAGE and RAPD may not only augment taxonomic resolution of Enterococci but also points to their metabolic potential like bacteriocin production. Therefore, such approaches could further be exploited for epidemiological investigations of Enterococci and potentially other bacterial pathogens. Nevertheless, large scale studies are warranted in this regard.
Keywords: Bacteriocin; Enterococci; Fingerprinting; RAPD; SDS-PAGE.
Pages: 107-113 Vol-17 No-2
AN OVERVIEW ON SUITABILITY OF ECO-FRIENDLY IPM APPROACH FOR MANAGEMENT OF BT-RESISTANCE IN PINK BOLLWORM ON COTTONCorresponding Author
Muhammad Shahid Iqbalshahidkooria@gmail.com
Authors: Rao Ahsan Ayaz1,2, Muhammad Rafiq Shahid1 , Saghir Ahmad1 , Muhammad Javaid2 and Muhammad Shahid Iqbal1*
Pink Bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) member of the family Gelechiidae is known to be among the most destructive insect pest of cotton, causing huge damage to the cotton seed as well as heavy loss in fiber quality of the crop. Its larvae are active feeder of the reproductive parts of cotton and conceal in the damaged bolls. Large scale cultivation of transgenic cotton that produces Cry1Ac resulted in development of resistance in pink bollworm against Cry1Ac. A single control tactic even chemical control remains ineffective for their management and all possible tactics are integrated for their effective control. For its monitoring Sex pheromone traps, PB Ropes and light traps are installed. Growing of non Bt refugia also play an effective role for the management of pink bollworm. Keeping in view, the importance of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an ecofriendly and effective technique as compared with the use of conventional insecticidal technique. /uploads/2020/Vol-17/No-2/PJBT-VOL-17-NO-2-OF-YEAR-2020 (8).pdf
Keywords: Pectinophora gossypiella: Bt resistance: Management Strategies