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The Pakistan Journal of Biotechnology (PJBt), a broad-based journal, is introduced to publish the most exciting research in all areas of basic and applied biotechnology and related fields. The Journal welcomes the submission of manuscripts that meet the general criteria of significance and scientific excellence. Read More

Current Issue 2019

  • Pages: 187-193 Vol-16 No-3

    PHYLOGENETIC IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA WITH ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF TUNICATE Ascidia ornata FROM DORERI BAY

    Corresponding Author

    Mogea, R.A.

    r.mogea@unipa.ac.id
  • Abstract

    Authors: Mogea, R.A. , Tururaja, T. S. , Leatemia, S.P.O. , Salosa, Y.Y

    We investigated the interaction between tunicate Ascidia ornata and microorganism. This microorganism can be interpreted as a source of food or symbionts for mutualism. Symbiosis of microorganism with tunicate may produce metabolites that have biological activity like antimicrobial. Ascidia ornate were collected from hard coral at Lemon Island Doreri Bay Manokwari. Bacteria isolate of tunicate Ascidia ornatashowed antimicrobial activities against Gram-negative, Gram-positive and the fungus Candida albicans. Eight isolates which can have antimicrobial activity like Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sp, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus, Enterobacter sp, Enterobacter hormaechei and Ochrobactrum sp. The isolate was identified with 16S rDNA sequencing with 99 – 100 % sequence similarities. Bacillus species was identified can against all human pathogenic human isolates including methicillin-resistent Staphyloccocus aureus. The marine symbionts bacteria collected has potential to inhibit human pathogenic microbes and could be used as raw material for medicine.

    Keywords: Antimicrobial activities, Doreri Bay, Symbionts bacteria, tunicate, 16SrDNA

  • Pages: 183-186 Vol-16 No-3

    MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL BLIGHT PATHOGENS ASSOCIATED WITH RICE CROPS OF SINDH

    Corresponding Author

    Javed Asghar Tariq

    jatariq_1411@yahoo.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Javed Asghar Tariq , MuhammadIsmai, Iftikhar Ali Odano, Muhammad Usman Asif, Raza Muhammad Memon* and Muhammad Asif

    Rice bacterial leaf blight is an injurious disease among all disquieting problems of rice in Pakistan. The key and main procedure for its control is identification and characterization of its causal agent. To achieve the goals, a comprehensive surveillance was made to collect infected samples. Associated bacteria were isolated from these diseased specimens by direct plating method. Then cultures were subjected for purification and morphological characterization. Their colonies were small, medium and large. The shapes of colonies were filamentous, circular and irregular on Nutrient Agar (N.A) media. Their elevation was convex, raised and their edges were entire and undulate. The color of colonies was yellow, pale yellow, light orange, off white, creamy and reddish. Most of the colonies were smooth.

    Keywords: Bacteria, Rice, Disease, Characterization, Sindh

  • Pages: 175-182 Vol-16 No-3

    CHARACTERIZATION OF 9-CIS-EPOXYCAROTENOID DIOXYGENASE3 GENE FROM Hevea brasiliensis AND ITS EXPRESSION RESPONSES BY TISSUE TYPE DURING DROUGHT STRESS

    Corresponding Author

    Korakot Nakkanong

    korakot_nick@yahoo.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Chutima Sutjit , Charassri Nualsri, Saowapa Duangpan, Korakot Nakkanong

    In higher plants, the first committed step in controlling abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, 9-CisEpoxycarotenoid Dioxygenase (NCED) is an important rate-limiting enzyme. It plays a major role in plant response to drought stress in stomatal aperture regulation. In this study, the 1,785bp full-length cDNA (designated as HbNCED3), has an open reading frame of 595 encoded amino acids. Amino acid sequence alignment showed that HbNCED3 shares more than 80% similarity with NCED3 from Manihot esculenta and Jatropha curcas. The quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used for detecting the transcription level of HbNCED3 gene after withholding water for 0, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 days. The NCED3 gene was expressed in all tested tissues with different response patterns. The HbNCED3 expression level in root increased sharply during the early stages of drought stress. The continuous accumulation of ABA in leaves was caused mainly by increased transcription of HbNCED3 in the root. This suggested the HbNCED3 may play a role in the molecular drought stress of rubber tree and would serve as a guide for future follow?up research on drought stress mechanism in Hevea.

    Keywords: 9-Cis-Epoxycarotenoid Dioxygenase3, Hevea brasiliensis, drought stress, gene expression

  • Pages: 169-174 Vol-16 No-3

    ANTAGONISTIC ACTIVITY OF ACTINOMYCETES ISOLATED FROM KUALA LUMPUR SOIL SAMPLES AGAINST PATHOGENIC BACTERIA.

    Corresponding Author

    Abdullah Y. Al-Mahdi

    drabdullahyahya@lincoln.edu.my
  • Abstract

    Authors: Abdullah Y. Al-Mahdi , Ebthag A. Mussa , Alabed Ali A. Alabed , Rasheed Abdulsalam , Nagi A. Al-haj

    Background: The screening for novel antimicrobial agents continues in a rather overlooked hunting ground for many researchers. Streptomyces is the best-recognized genus of actinomycetes used in the screening approach for novel antibiotic-producing microorganisms. The work is aimed to isolate bioactive actinomycete strains and identify the most potent isolates. Methods: forty-one actinomycete strains were tested for their antimicrobial activity; out of them, 19 isolates showed a positive response. They were isolated from 18 different soil samples from different locations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Modified agar-streak, agar disc diffusion method (ADD) and agar well diffusion method (AWD) methods were used in both primary and secondary screening. Isolation media were applied, without antibiotic integration and pretreatment heat, which stimulated the growth of actinomycete isolates. Antagonistic actinomycetes were identified based on morpho-chemical properties using Probability Identification of Bacteria (PIB) software. Results: Starch casein agar was found to be selective for actinomycetes. The inhibition zone diameters were found to be larger on nutrient agar plates for bacterial targets. Out of 19 actinomycetes with antagonistic activity, 5 actinomycetes were chosen for secondary screening and further identification. Selected criteria’s were based on a strong zone of inhibition against at least four tested bacteria, specifically targeted organisms, E. coli MTCC 740 and S. aureus MTCC 501. Four isolates were tentatively identified as; Streptomyces violaceoniger, Streptomyces antibioticus, Streptomyces atroolivaceus and Streptomyces alboflavus. Conclusions: Four actinomycete isolates of genus Streptomyces proved strong antibiosis activity against two Gram –ve and +ve important bacterial strains.

    Keywords: Antagonistic, Atinomycetes, Streptomyces, PIB, E. coli, S. aureus, ADD, AWD

  • Pages: 163-167 Vol-16 No-3

    HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHLORINATED WATER: A REVIEW ARTICLE

    Corresponding Author

    Israa Harjan Mohsen

    Israa.h.Mohsem@gmail.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Israa Harjan Mohsen , Athraa Harjan Mohsen and Haider Kamil Zaidan

    Although there are many ways to sterilize drinking water such as chemical and physical methods, many countries still use chlorine to sterilize drinking water. Several researches have shown a strong correlation between chlorine used in water sterilization and the emergence of a large number of diseases when it reacts naturally with organic matter found in water such as decaying tree residues and animal material, producing substances known as chlorinated hydrocarbons which has adverse effects on health, so this article review aimed to investigate the influences of chlorine on health in general

    Keywords: Chlorine, by-products, disinfection, water, carcinogenic, health effects

  • Pages: 153-161 Vol-16 No-3

    A PATTERN OF TUBERCULOSIS INFECTION AN OVERVIEW

    Corresponding Author

    Meerwais Khan

    meerwaisahmed@gmail.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Meerwais Khan , Zhoaib Raja , Hussain Ahmed , Abdul Rauf

    Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by pathogenic bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is an acid-fast bacillus (AFB), gram-positive, non-motile, aerobic organism. Each year millions of people became sick due to this disease. Beside this, it caused a huge number of deaths each year and hence is in the top 10 causes of death. In only 2007, 1.3 million people die due to TB. There are several diagnostic tools that can be employed to detect TB infection. This includes rapid molecular diagnostic tests, microscopic examination of sputum and culturing of an infectious agent. These methods have their own limitations and different strategies are employed to develop new tools. Besides this, different new approaches are urgently needed to develop efficient TB vaccine. Tuberculosis can be intervene at different points to develop efficient strategies. In this review, we try to summaries epidemiology of TB, different strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, vaccination for TB, different stages of Tuberculosis, intervening points, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and diagnostic strategies for TB.

    Keywords:

  • Pages: 145-151 Vol-16 No-2

    THE EFFECT OF Lepidium Sativum SEEDS EXTRACT ON SOME OXIDATIVE STRESS, ANTIOXIDANTS AND HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES IN RAT TREATED WITH CCL4

    Corresponding Author

    Loay H. Ali

    hatemloay81@gmail.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Loay H. Ali* and Wurood J. Rajab

    The aim of the current study is to the investigate the effect of hepatoprotective and antioxidant of seeds extracts of the Lepidium Sativum extract against liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride. In our study, white rats were used. CCl4 (0.1) ml \100 gram body weight use to inject the rats intrapersonal mixed in olive oil same amount, twice a week for twelve weeks and treated orally with (LSS) (200 mg/kg) daily for twelve weeks and compared with a group of rats injected intrapersonal with CCl4 (0.1ml\100g b.w.) mixed in olive oil same amount, twice a week for twelve weeks as a control group. CCl4 administration is caused significant changed in serum enzymes (ALP GOT and GPT), oxidant substances (MDA, CAT, GSH and SOD) indicative of hepatic injury. The results revealed that the (LSS) extract significantly decreased AST, ALT and ALP levels. The antioxidant parameters GSH, GPx, SOD and catalase levels were increased considerably compared to their levels in groups not treated with (LSS). Histopathological findings revealed that liver of CCl4-treated rats showed Degeneration, thickness wall of the central vein; the inflammatory cells are infiltrating into portal areas and central vein. There are ameliorated significantly in the rat's groups, that treated by LSS result in a decrease in degenerated hepatocytes and there are reduce in necrosis in the group that treated by LSS (200) mg/kg followed by CCl4 administration, and demonstrated less nuclear degeneration as compared to CCl4 group. Treatment of LSS (200) mg/kg and then followed by CCl4 injection results in a decrease in nuclear degeneration. It could conclude, LSS extract has a protective effect against CCl4 toxicity. Our results are very promising LSS extract could be used to protect liver tissues against CCl4.

    Keywords: Lepidium Sativum, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, carbon tetrachloride

  • Pages: 139-143 Vol. 16 No-2

    CHARACTERIZATION OF SALVINIA MOLESTA AND CHLORELLA PYRENOIDOSA FOR BIOFUEL APPLICATIONS USING FTIR AND TGA

    Corresponding Author

    M. Mubarak

    mubarak7931@gmail.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: M. Mubarak, A. Shaija, T.V Suchithra

    Microalgae and aquatic weeds are considered as promising feedstock for biofuel production due to its higher biomass productivity and lipid content. The characterization of the feedstock is important for biofuel production. In this work, an attempt was made for the characterization of Salvinia molesta and Chlorella pyrenoidosa using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis for biofuel production. The dried and grounded S. molesta and C. pyrenoidosa was used for both analyses. The FTIR spectra was recorded from wavenumber 4004000cm-1. The TGA was performed from 28-750oC with a heating rate of 10oC/min using powdered S. molesta and C.pyrenoiodosa. The FTIR spectra showed that lipid, carbohydrate, cellulose and fatty acids bands are predominant which indicates that S. molesta and C. pyrenoidosa can be used a potential feedstock for biofuel production. The thermogravimteric analysis showed the presence of three distinct stages such as drying, devolatilization and steady decomposition of heavy components such as lignin.

    Keywords: Biomass productivity, FTIR, TGA, Lipid, Carbohydrate. Salvinia molesta, Chlorella pyrenoidosa.