About The Journal
The Pakistan Journal of Biotechnology (PJBt), a broad-based journal, is introduced to publish the most exciting research in all areas of basic and applied biotechnology and related fields. The Journal welcomes the submission of manuscripts that meet the general criteria of significance and scientific excellence. Read More
Current Issue 2020
Pages: 49-52 Vol-17 No-1
SHORT COMMUNICATION : COMPARISON OF ANTHROPOMETRIC INDICATORS IN ANEMIC AND NON-ANEMICCorresponding Author
Authors: Jamshed Warsi, Benazir Mahar
Background: The anemia is the one of the biggest burden of diseases worldwide, peculiarly in developing world, it is more commonly found in women as compared to men. The anthropometric indicators like BMI, waist circumference or waist to hip ratio has been associated with cardiovascular risk factors, diabetes, blood pressure and cholesterol profile. The current literature survey reveals that BMI could be the possible anemic indictor, however a comprehensive study pinpointing on anemia and its anthropometric indicators is not available yet, especially in young girls. The present work thus focuses on whether the anthropometric indicators could be the potential indicators of anemia or not.
Methodology: A case control was performed through a random sampling method for the time period of (04) four months. The sample comprised of 86 females. The complete blood count (CBC) was measured in aseptic condition. Anthropometric indices were measured and analyzed statistically.
Results: <> Weight, waist circumference (WC), BMI (Body mass index), WHR (waist to hip ratio) and WHtR (Waist to height ratio) were observed significantly reduced (P=0.06, P=0.006, P= 0.02, P= 0.007, P= 0.0007) in anemic (50.86kg ± 12.9, 71.13cm ±16.49, 20.85Kg/m2 ± 5.16, 0.77 ± 0.05, 0.44±0.07) as compared to non anemic females (53.65kg ± 8.43, 92.18cm ± 11.16, 23.40 Kg/m2 ± 3.49, 0.83 ± 0.16, 0.49 ± 0.06). Conclusion: The anthropometric indices were observed significantly decreased in anemic as compared to non-anemic.
Keywords: BMI, Waist to hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference (WC), anemia
Pages: 41-47 Vol-17 No-1
BIOLOGY AND FEEDING POTENTIAL OF 7-SPOTTED BEETLE, COCCINELLA SEPTEMPUNCTATA (LINNAEUS) ON BERSEEM APHID, THERIOAPHIS TRIFOLII (MONELL) IN LABORATORYCorresponding Author
Shah Nawaz Khuhrosnkhuhro@gmail.com
Authors: Attaullah Rind Baloach1, Shah Nawaz Khuhro, Mohammad Farooque Hassan, Wazir Ali Metlo and Sultan Ahmed Maitlo
The present experiment was carried out on Biology and feeding potential of 7-spotted beetle, Coccinella septempunctata L. on berseem aphid, Therioaphis trifolii (Monell in the Biological Control Laboratory, Central Cotton Research Institute Sakrand during 2015. For this purpose, adult beetles reared in the laboratory at constant temperature and aphid collected from different crops from vicinity of Central Cotton Research Institute Sakrand were given to lady beetle for feeding. The pre-copulation, copulation and post-copulation periods were recorded as (4.4±0.69),(51.5±4.37) and (4.0±1.05) minutes, respectively. The pre-oviposion, oviposition and post-oviposition periods were averaged as 4.7±0.30, 36.6±4.88 and 5.0±1.69 days, respectively. The female deposited an average of 599.1±109.83 eggs during her life time in 30 days. Egg incubation period was noted 4.0±0.94 days with 90.35% hatching and mortality 17.56%. The larval and pupal durations were 12 and 5.2 days, respectively. The mean pupation rate % was 69.497±9.23 and the larval cannibalism rate was 30.497±9.23. The average number of pupae observed were 20.3 ± 4.47, while the male emergence was 37.47 ± 13.12 %) and the female emergence was 43.98 ± 8.24%). The result showed consumption rate of 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar larvae of C. septempunctata (22.0±4.12, 56.8±5.26, 143.8±5.93 and 289.6±9.65 aphids/day) on T. trifolii, respectively. In the same way, consumption rate of adult female (77.41±8.84/day) and male (48.94±6.29 /day) was on T. trifolii.
Keywords: Biology, Feeding Potential, 7-spotted Ladybird beetle, and Berseem aphid
Pages: 33-40 Vol-17 No-1
DETECTION OF CASP-5 GENE AS INFLAMMATORY FACTOR IN IRAQI PATIENTS WITH PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA INFECTIONSCorresponding Author
Ali Hussein Alwandralialameri587@gmail.com
Authors: Ali Hussein Alwan
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is define as one of an aerobic Gram-negative bacteria that considered as one of most problematic nosocomial emerged pathogens. This study was performed on 50 isolates and blood patients. Definitive diagnosis of positive P. aeruginosa isolates based on the characteristic examination, the phenotypic of colonies and microscopic morphology which grown in media also biochemical tests for diagnosis of isolates Fifty isolates identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the percentage of isolates according to clinical sources were 19(38%) from burn, 12 (24%) from urine,3(6%) from ear swabs,10(20%) from sputum and 6(12%) from wounds. The diagnosis was conducted and confirmed by using API20E the result of it is 47(94%). The results showed isolates a different ability to resist antibiotics. Amoxicillin- clavulanic acid, Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and Erythromycin were the effectiveness antibiotic against P. aeruginosa 100%.The ability of biofilm formation as a virulence factor, Micro-titer plate method (MTP) was used, results revealed that (46) isolates (92%) of P. aeruginosa have the ability to form biofilm by MTP method. Genotypic detection was done by conventional PCR for 16SrDNA gene by using specific primer (pa-ss) 50(100%) to detect the virulence gene (Flic gene) which is virulence factor gene in p. aeruginosa responsible for activation of caspase-1enzyme, the result showed 45(90%) positive. all the blood sample the results were positive %100 . Sequencing for 20 casp-5 PCR product to detect variations in gene of Iraqi population and the results showed 20 sample from 20 have a genetic variation, heterozygous nucleotide.
Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Flagillin, flic and Casp-5 gene.
Pages: 25-31 Vol-17 No-1
EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT FUNGICIDES, BOTANICAL EXTRACTS AND BIOCONTROL AGENTS AGAINST PENICILLIUM EXPANSUM THE CAUSAL AGENT OF BLUE MOLD OF APPLECorresponding Author
Manzoor Ahmed Rekisau4434@gmail.com
Authors: Manzoor Ahmed Reki, Manzoor Ali abro, Ghulam Hussain Jatoi, Munwar Ali Gadhi, Shar Muhammad and Amir Ali
Efficacy of various fungicides, their botanical extracts and bio-control agents against Penicillium expansum, the agent which cause blue mold of apple. Incidence of disease was recorded in Hyderabad and Tandojam. Various fungicides like Topsin-M, Melody Duo, Antracol, Cabriotop and Alliette at the different doses i.e. 100, 200 and 300 ppm, their botanical extracts like Ginger, Neem, Eucalyptus, Garlic and Onion, it was carried out at different doses i.e. 5, 10 and 15% by food poisoning method, their Pathogenicity test which was also performed to see the severity of disease in apples. The results showed that maximum disease incidence 53.45% was observed from Hyderabad and 46.55% was observed from Tandojam. It was observed that the disc method of inoculation showed a higher percentage (93.44%) as compared to the injection method of inoculation 65.55%. The growth of minimum linear colony of Penicillium expansum were observed for Topsin-M as 39.33, 32.00 and 25.00 mm respectively followed by Antracol 42.66, 35.00 and 30, Melody Duo 40.66, 35.66 and 30.00, Alliete 44.66, 36.00 and 31.00 and Cabriotop 46.33, 40.00 and 33.66. The growth of linear colony Penicillium expansum was observed as 41.00, 35.00and 27.66 mm for Ginger respectively followed by Neem 45.00, 38.00 and 33.66, Eucalyptus 48.00, 41.00 and 35.33, Garlic 52.33, 45.33 and 39.66) and Onion 61.66, 52.00 and 46.00. The linear colony growth of Penicillium expansum was minimum to observed for Guignardia sp. 29.66 mm, followed by Chaetomium sp. 35.33mm, Hypoxylon sp. 35.66mm , Fusarium sp. 40.66mm, Trichoderma sp. 47.66mm.
Keywords: Apple, Blue Mold, Fungicides, Botanical Extracts, Biocontrol, Penicillium Expansum
Pages: 17-23 Vol-17 No-1
THE PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF DAFLON AGAINST THE RENAL-HEPATIC TOXICITYCorresponding Author
Nael Mohammed SarheedNael.email@example.com
Authors: Nael Mohammed Sarheed and Safa Azher Al-khalidy
Methotrexate (MTX) is considered a folic acid antagonist, used frequently in the treatment of various types of diseases and has had a major role in the treatment of inflammation and suppressive material for immunity in Non – tumor diseases like acute arthritis and psoriasis. This study was designed to investigate the effect of methotrexate and pre-treatment with daflon in attenuation of its development for renal-hepatic toxicity. Twenty-four healthy, local, domestic rabbits were randomized divided into 4 groups: group 1 (control), group 2 (20mg\kg MTX group), group 3 (Daflon 100 + MTX) and group 4 (Daflon 200 + MTX). At the end of experiment, blood samples were collected from the heart then the liver and kidney tissues were excised. Plasma level of S.ALT, S.AST, ALP, total protein, bilirubin, urea, creatinine and oxidation parameters (GSH, and MDA) were measured. The Results show that the Compared with the control group, levels of S.ALT, S.AST, ALP, urea, creatinine and MDA were increased (p<0.05), while total protein and GSH were decreased (p<0.05) in MTX group with deterioration of liver and kidney tissues. While group 3 (Daflon 100 + MTX) and group 4 (Daflon 200 + MTX) showed decreased levels of S.ALT, S.AST, ALP, urea, creatinine and MDA while total protein and GSH were increased (p<0.05) in as compared with MTX group with improvement of liver and kidney structures. Conclusions: The results of the present study reveal that daflon has been shown to attenuate MTX induced hepato-renal toxicity.
Keywords: Methotrexate, hepatotoxicity, renal toxicity, daflon, oxidative stress.
Pages: 9-15 Vol-17 No-1
EVALUATION OF THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS EXTRACT AGAINST SOME HUMAN PATHOGENIC BACTERIACorresponding Author
Authors: Anees Ahmad and Sayed Abdullah
The need of effective and economical antibiotics and antimicrobials has led to search for novel sources such as medicinal plants, fungi, archaea etc. In the present study, Daphne mucronata and Mallotus philippensis methanolic extracts were screened as antibacterial agents compared to some antibiotics against eight local isolates of human pathogenic bacteria. The susceptibility test was performed through well diffusion and disc diffusion method. Results reported that D. mucronata showed significant antibacterial activity against all the selected strains. The highest zones of inhibition of D. mucronata seed extract were recorded against, Providencia stuartii (20mm), Brucella abortus (19.3mm), Proteus vulgaris (19.3mm), Klebsiella pneumonia (19mm), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19mm), Enterobacter sakazaki (18.3mm), Escherichia coli (16.6mm) and Staphylococcus aureus (16.6mm). D. mucronata seed extract was reported as the most active against B. abortus (19.3mm), E. sakazaki (18.3mm), E. coli (16.6mm) and K. pneumoniae (19mm) when compared to Cefepime (8.1mm) and Ciprofloxacin (14.2mm). However, D. mucronata methanolic seed extract showed about similar antibacterial activity against P. vulgaris (19.3mm), P. stuartii (20mm), P. aeruginosa (19mm) and S. aureus (18.7mm), compared to the following antibiotics Cefepime (19.3mm) Ciprofloxacin (21mm), Moxifloxacin (21mm) and Ceftriaxone (20mm). On the other hand, M. philippensis showed insignificant antibacterial activity against the selected bacterial strains, but not significant compared to selected antibiotics. As conclusion, D. mucronata extract was considered as high potential antibacterial and recommend to be used as novel and economical source of effective antibacterial agent to combat against hu man patho genic ba cteria.
Keywords: Antibiotics activity; Daphne mucronata; Mallotus philippensis; Human Pathogenic bacteria; Antibiotics; medicinal Plants
Pages: 1-8 Vol-17 No-1
ASSESSMENT OF PREGNANT WOMEN’S KNOWLEDGE ABOUT ANTENATAL CARE DURING PREGNANCY AT PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTERS IN KIRKUK CITYCorresponding Author
Iman Salman Hassaniman1i@yahoo.com
Authors: Iman Salman Hassan, Hanaa A. Omer
The present study was designed to evaluate pregnant women's practices about antenatal care during pregnancy in primary health care centers in Kirkuk City after implementation of program. A quasi-experimental design was used in the present study with the application of a pre-test/ post-test approach for the study group assessment, The results show the distribution of studied socio-demographical characteristics variables (SDCv), where high number of subjects in study group with age 25-29 years (36%), level of education reach to Institute and college graduate (30%), Occupation was Housewife (66%), Monthly Income was (58%), Residential Area was urban (78%), with Smoking Status was non-smoking (72%). The age at marriage 20-24 years, 42 % of study group period of marriage, while 38% of control group. both group the highest percentage (68%, 88%) respectively were menstruation, number of pregnancy for both groups 52% and 54% and same percentage (88%, 92) for both group were from number of abortion and regarding the para number of baby (58%, 56%) , were both group 48% and 56% respectively period between pregnant, while type of delivery for both groups same percentage (56%). Heredity disease study and control group (86%, 98%), while health problem same percentage of both group 78% and 78%. The results about Knowledge and Practices regarding ANC in pre- test of time show that there were no significant differences at P>0.05 accounted between study and control group regarding all items related to practices of ANC.
Keywords: Antenatal care; Educational Program; Pregnant women